Klaus Deininger

Klaus Deininger
World Bank

About

258
Publications
127,669
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
18,385
Citations
Introduction

Publications

Publications (258)
Article
Movement of labor from agriculture to nonagriculture and the associated increase in farm size through structural transformation are at the core of economic development. We conduct a comprehensive review of the literature exploring the causes and consequences of the transformation. We discuss ( a) the size and determinants for the persisting wage ga...
Article
The importance of well-functioning land markets for structural transformation via labor movements to the non-agricultural sector, farm size growth, and the ability to use land as collateral for credit has long motivated Government efforts at reducing the transaction costs of registering and transferring land but evidence on the effect of such measu...
Article
Full-text available
Crop rotation is an important determining factor of crop productivity. Sustainable agriculture requires correct rules of crop rotation. Failure to comply with these rules can lead to deterioration of soil biochemical characteristics and land degradation. In Ukraine as well as in many other countries, sunflower monocropping is common practice and th...
Article
Full-text available
Although most of the world’s agricultural land is cultivated under customary tenure regimes that tend to change over time in response to exogenous factors, the impact of customary rights on productivity and investment remains under-researched. Using unique data from an experiment in Malawi, we show that (i) parcel-level bequest and sale rights affe...
Article
Full-text available
Movement of labor from agriculture to non-agriculture and the associated rise of farm size through structural transformation are at the core of economic development. We conduct a comprehensive review of the literature exploring the causes and consequences of the transformation. We discuss (i) the size and determinants for the persisting wage gap be...
Article
This paper combines data on the timing and intensity of soil and water conservation interventions in select Ethiopian watersheds from 2009 to 2016 with a pixel-level panel of vegetative cover and soil moisture derived from satellite imagery to assess the biophysical impacts of such measures using a difference-in-differences specification. The resul...
Article
Despite recent advances, women trail men in political participation, especially in developing countries where the long-term economic benefits from empowering women politically have not been well-researched. We use data from 163 villages of 12 main Indian states to explore whether requiring that village leadership positions be held by women (politic...
Article
Although benefits from land registration are well documented conceptually, the empirical literature largely focused on first-time registration rather than the recording of subsequent transactions needed to ensure accuracy of the registry and expand such benefits via interoperability and full use of digital technology by private and public sector. W...
Article
Panel data from Rwanda allow us to explore costs and benefits from land fragmentation in a non-mechanized setting using two methodological improvements, namely (i) a terrain-adjusted measure of travel time/cost required to visit all parcels to measure fragmentation; and (ii) instrumental variable (IV) approaches that use measures for inherited/allo...
Article
Although a large literature highlights the impact of personality traits on key labour market outcomes, evidence of their impact on agricultural production decisions remains limited. Data from 1,200 Ghanaian rice farmers suggest that noncognitive skills (polychronicity, work centrality, and optimism) significantly affect simple adoption decisions, r...
Article
Although taxes on land and property have many desirable attributes, the challenge of ensuring completeness of tax rolls and currency of valuations preclude their effective use to support urbanization and service provision in many developing countries. The example of Kigali shows how building footprints and heights generated from high-resolution sat...
Article
In 2008, as part of a national experiment, Chengdu prefecture implemented ambitious property rights reforms including complete registration of all land together with measures to ease transferability and eliminate migration restrictions. Results from a difference‐in‐difference analysis of the National Statistics Bureau's regular household survey sug...
Article
Using data from the Living Standards Measurement Study in Malawi, we examine the spillover effects of tobacco farms on children's labor supply, education, and health. To address potential endogeneity, the share of tobacco farms in a community is instrumented by the change in tobacco buyers following termination of the intermediate buyer system. We...
Article
Full-text available
As part of a national experiment, in 2008, Chengdu prefecture launched a series of property rights reforms, among them complete registration of all land and measures to ease transferability and eliminate labour market restrictions. A comparison of villages inside and outside the prefecture's border using a difference‐in‐difference approach suggests...
Article
Although many studies point towards significant positive impacts of Hindu Succession Act (HSA) reforms on females’ empowerment and access to human and physical capital, the fact that this reform also led to increased female mortality raises questions about long-term sustainability of reform effects. We use evidence from three states, one of which a...
Article
Full-text available
We use a large national farm panel from India from 1982 to 2008 to show that the inverse relationship between farm size and output per unit of land weakened significantly over time. A key reason was the substitution of capital for labor in response to nonagricultural labor demand. In addition, family labor was more efficient than hired labor in 198...
Article
We use data from the complete computerization of agricultural leases in Malawi, a georeferenced farm survey, and satellite imagery to document challenges and opportunities of land-based investment in novel ways. Covering some 1.35 million hectares or about 25% of the country's arable area, agricultural estates are an important part of Malawi's rura...
Article
Rwanda has recently implemented a nation-wide program of first-time land regularization (LTR) that many believe set new standards for the region. We use administrative data combined with household survey- and program-rollout information to explore sustainability of the infrastructure created in this process, including the impact of public efforts t...
Article
Almost a decade after the rise in land demand triggered by the 2007/08 commodity price boom, most potential target countries still lack access to relevant information on a routine basis. This has reduced their ability to effectively regulate, monitor, and attract responsible investors rather than speculators in their effort to increase agricultural...
Book
Full-text available
Many African countries rely on sporadic land transfers from customary to statutory domains to attract investment and improve agricultural performance. Data from 15,000 smallholders and 800 estates in Malawi allow exploring the long-term effects of such a strategy. The results suggest that (i) most estates are less productive than smallholders; (ii)...
Article
Full-text available
While scholars long recognized the importance of land markets as a key driver of rural non-farm development and transformation in rural areas, evidence on the extent of their operation and the nature of participants remains limited. We use household data from 6 countries to show that there is great potential for such markets to increase productivit...
Article
Almost a decade after a spike in land demand following the 2007–08 commodity boom, evidence on impacts of this phenomenon remains limited and mostly case study based. We show that information on location and start data of large farms, combined with existing smallholder farm surveys, allows to complement this with a difference-in-difference approach...
Article
Full-text available
Women comprise 50% of the agricultural labor force in Sub-Saharan Africa, but manage plots that are reportedly on average 20–30% less productive. As a source of income inequality and aggregate productivity loss, the country-specific magnitude and drivers of this gender gap are of great interest. Using national data from the Uganda National Panel Su...
Article
We present results from a field experiment using price incentives to address two obstacles to women's access to formal land ownership. First, the price of formal land titles is often prohibitive, restricting access for both men and women. Second, when formal titles are issued, men are recorded as the sole owners of household land in the vast majori...
Article
To appreciate overall impacts of fragmentation, underlying channels, and potential heterogeneity by holding size, we distinguish average fragment size and mean inter-fragment distance as two aspects of this phenomenon. Estimating a cost function with associated input demand equations on a large nationally representative Indian survey, robust to end...
Article
Whether the negative relationship between farm size and crop productivity that is confirmed in a large global literature holds in Africa is of considerable policy relevance. Plot-level data from Rwanda point toward constant returns to scale and a strong negative relationship between farm size and crop output per hectare that is robust across specif...
Article
Full-text available
Beyond concerns about agricultural productivity growth, issues of land governance have attracted global interest as demand for land acquisition by outsiders has increased rapidly but most of the transfers failed to live up to expectations and instead disrupted local livelihoods. We use the land governance assessment framework to identify key concep...
Article
Agriculture made major contributions to China’s growth and poverty reduction, but the literature has rarely focused on the institutional factors that might underpin such structural transformation and productivity. Drawing on an 8-year panel of 1,200 households in six provinces, we find that land tenure insecurity, measured by past land reallocation...
Article
We report on a randomized field experiment using price incentives to address both economic and gender inequality in land tenure formalization. During the 1990s and 2000s, nearly two dozen African countries proposed de jure land reforms extending access to formal, freehold land tenure to millions of poor households. Many of these reforms stalled. Ti...
Article
Full-text available
We use inheritance patterns over three generations of individuals to assess the impact of changes in the Hindu Succession Act that grant daughters equal coparcenary birth rights in joint family property that were denied to daughters in the past. We show that the amendment significantly increased daughters’ likelihood to inherit land, but that even...
Article
For countries dependent on agriculture, the recent wave of investor interest in farmland could, in principle, help set in motion a virtuous cycle of economic growth and poverty reduction. A large literature documenting failure of such investments documents the risks involved. To appreciate associated opportunities and challenges, we review past exp...
Article
Recent strong commodity prices have led to increased investor interest in farmland. Global analysis indicates that suitable land to bring into cultivation is available but concentrated in a limited number of land-abundant countries in Africa, Latin America, and Southeast Asia. In a much larger number of countries, productivity on currently cultivat...
Article
Full-text available
Although transfer of agricultural land ownership through land reform had positive impacts on productivity, investment, and political empowerment in many cases, institutional arrangements in West Bengal--which made tenancy heritable and imposed a prohibition on subleasing--imply that early land reform benefits may not be sustained and gains from thi...
Article
We assess the impact of an approach in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh that combines micro-credit with efforts to target the poor, address their specific needs, and enhance their economic potential. Our results support the pro-poor nature of the program and point toward benefits in terms of female empowerment and nutritional intake but not asset...
Article
Although there has been considerable interest in wage discrimination in India, available studies have largely dealt with formal rather than informal markets that are of little relevance for the poorest people. Focusing on India's informal labor markets leads to three findings of interest. First, gender wage discrimination is larger in informal than...
Article
This paper explores the impacts of the amendment to the 1956 Hindu Succession Act on Hindu females’ intergenerational transfers of physical and human capital. Information on the timing of three generations’ key life events helps isolate the causal effects. Our primary estimation strategy is a difference-in-difference estimator in which we compare t...
Chapter
Growing food demand from an expanding and more affluent population and greater use of land for non—food purposes such as biofuels translated into to higher commodity prices and competition for land and other natural resources. Together with the pricing of environmental amenities, this led to a surge in investments in farmland, often d national bord...
Chapter
After a long period of neglect, policy makers have recently re-discovered the importance of agriculture for food security, poverty reduction, and broader development. A recurring debate in the development literature is the relative emphasis to place on the roles of small-scale farms versus large-scale farms in fostering agricultural growth and econ...
Chapter
Land reforms have played a central role in the political economy of many countries in the world and have been subject to massive disagreements between different political interest groups and ideologies. The 20th century included many of the largest social land reform experiments in history, as in the erstwhile Soviet Union and in Eastern Europe, Ch...
Chapter
In India, land reform has been high on the political agenda since independence in 1947, and early efforts at abolishing intermediaries are widely credited with having brought about significant social benefits. The most prominent type is tenancy reform. As it does not extinguish landlords’ ownership rights, tenants — who may have benefited from rent...
Chapter
Relatively stagnant or low productivity of land use in many areas, soaring global demand for land as a source of food, fuel, and fiber or as a source of environmental amenities, and demands for structural transformation to transfer labor out of agriculture and provide space for urban development -all these factors imply that land governance has eme...
Article
Despite strong beliefs that property titling and registration will enhance credit access, empirical evidence in support of such effects remains scant. The gradual roll-out of computerization of land registry systems across Andhra Pradesh's 387 sub-registry offices allows us to combine quarterly administrative data on credit disbursed by all commerc...
Article
Full-text available
Ethiopian village-level data from two locations are used to explore determinants and crop productivity-effects of credit rationing in semi-formal markets. High levels of risk lead to widespread credit rationing (voluntary and involuntary) with political and social networks facilitating credit access. But impacts differ across zones: in high-potenti...
Article
Despite the popularity and the unique nature of women's self-help groups in India, evidence on the economic impact of these groups is scant. On the basis of two rounds of surveys of 2,517 households, we use a strategy of double differences and propensity score matching to assess the economic effects of a program that promoted and strengthened self-...
Article
Albania's radical farmland distribution is credited with averting an economic crisis and social unrest during the transition. But many believe it led to a holding structure too fragmented to be efficient, and that public efforts to consolidate plots are needed to lay the foundation for greater rural productivity. This paper uses farm-level data fro...
Article
Full-text available
We review evidence regarding the size and evolution of the "land rush" in the wake of the 2007–8 boom in agricultural commodity prices, and we study the determinants of foreign land acquisition for large-scale agricultural investment. The use of data on bilateral investment relationships to estimate gravity models of transnational land-intensive in...
Article
Increased global demand for land posits the need for well-designed country-level land policies to protect long-held rights, facilitate land access and address any constraints that land policy may pose for broader growth. While the implementation of land reforms can be a lengthy process, the need to swiftly identify key land policy challenges and de...
Article
Full-text available
comments. Funding from the Swiss Special Studies Trust Fund is gratefully acknowledged. The findings and views of this paper are our own and do not necessarily reflect those of the World Bank, its Executive Directors, or the countries they represent. Redistribution, investment, and human capital accumulation: The case of Agrarian Reform in the Phil...
Article
Full-text available
Although increased global demand for land has led to renewed interest in African land tenure, few models to address these issues quickly and at the required scale have been identified or evaluated. The case of Rwanda's nation-wide and relatively low-cost land tenure regularization program is thus of great interest. This paper evaluates the short-te...