• Home
  • Kirsimarja Raitasalo
Kirsimarja Raitasalo

Kirsimarja Raitasalo
Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare, Finland · Public Health and Welfare

PhD

About

86
Publications
21,804
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
1,233
Citations
Introduction
Kirsimarja Raitasalo currently works at the Department of Public Health and Welfare, Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare, Finland. Kirsimarja does research on adolescents' substance use as well on the effects of parents' substance abuse on their children using survey and register data.
Additional affiliations
June 1999 - August 2020
Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare
Position
  • Senior Researcher

Publications

Publications (86)
Technical Report
Full-text available
This report provides information on the association between socio-demographic properties of the residential area and parental substance abuse and out-of-home care of children. Administrative register data on all children born in Finland in 2002 and their bilogical parents is used and children are followed until their 18th birthday.
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: Adolescents' excessive social media use has characteristics similar to other addictive behaviours. This study aims to explore whether the same risk factors are associated with excessive social media use as with excessive gaming and gambling among Finnish adolescents. Methods: Multinomial logistic regression analyses were carried out usi...
Article
Full-text available
New tobacco and nicotine products have emerged on the market in recent years. Most research has concerned only one product at a time, usually e-cigarettes, while little is known about the multiple use of tobacco and nicotine products among adolescents. We examined single, dual, and triple use of cigarettes, e-cigarettes, and snus among Nordic adole...
Chapter
Tässä luvussa käytämme tutkimusaineistona suomalaisten 9.-luokkalaisten antamia vastauksia vuonna 2019 kerättyyn päihteidenkäyttöä koskevaan eurooppalaiseen koululaiskyselyyn (ESPAD). Tarkastelemme vanhempien suhtautumista nuoren päihteidenkäyttöön ja rahapelaamiseen. Päihteillä tarkoitamme tässä yhteydessä alkoholia, tupakkaa, nuuskaa ja kannabist...
Article
Full-text available
Background and aims The convergence of gaming and gambling may pose a risk for adolescents. Thus, it is important to find out how these behaviours are associated with other addictive behaviours in order to develop efficient preventive measures for youth. The aim of this study was to examine 1) whether problematic gaming and money used for gaming ac...
Article
Full-text available
This paper explores trends in beverage preference in adolescents, identifies related regional differences, and examines cluster differences in key drinking measures. Data were obtained from the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs (ESPAD), covering 24 European countries between 1999 and 2019. Trends in the distribution of alcoh...
Article
Objective The present paper extends the scope of testing Skog’s theory on the ‘collectivity of drinking culture’ to adolescent alcohol use in 26 European countries. The aim was to 1) examine whether changes in adolescent alcohol use are consistent across different consumption levels, and 2) explore whether trends in heavy and light drinkers diverge...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives To examine (1) how a rapid data collection using a convenience sample fares in estimating change in alcohol consumption when compared to more conventional data sources, and (2) how alcohol consumption changed in Finland and Norway during the first months of the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods Three different types of data sources were used f...
Book
Full-text available
The European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs (ESPAD) has been collecting comparable data on risk behaviours and substance use among adolescent students for almost 25 years, in order to monitor trends in and between countries. The study is conducted in each participating country as a school survey for students reaching the age of 16...
Article
Full-text available
Underage drinking has decreased in Finland for the past two decades, but there are indications that this trend has plateaued in recent years, following the 2018 alcohol law reform which brought alcopops into grocery stores. Te study investigates how underage drinking habits and the consumption of diferent alcoholic beverages changed between 2015 an...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Tässä julkaisussa esitetään kokonaisarvio siitä, miten koronaepidemia ja sen rajoitustoimet vaikuttivat suomalaisten alkoholinkulutukseen vuonna 2020. Tämä julkaisu on suunniteltu täydennykseksi vuosittaiseen Suomen Viralliseen Tilastoon kuuluvaan tilastoraporttiin ”Alkoholijuomien kulutus 2020” (Jääskeläinen ja Virtanen 2021). Terveyden ja hyvinvo...
Article
Parental alcohol problems increase the children’s risk of early school leaving in Denmark and Finland. Children with parental alcohol problems are also more likely to have other problems in their family, such as financial difficulties, psychiatric disorders and divorce, which are related to school drop-out. Thus, these children have a higher risk f...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Adverse childhood experiences have negative outcomes for children, yet previous research suggests the independent effect of parental alcohol problems is inconsistent. Objectives: Our aim was (1) to compare educational attainment among Danish and Finnish youth with parental alcohol problems and (2) to study the associations between pare...
Book
Full-text available
The main purpose of the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs (ESPAD) is to collect comparable data on substance use and other forms of risk behaviour among 15- to 16-year-old students in order to monitor trends within, as well as between, countries. Between 1995 and 2019, seven waves of data collection were conducted across 49...
Article
Background Cannabis is the most popular illicit drug among adolescents in developed countries, including Finland. The aim of this study was to estimate 1) how cannabis experimentation among Finnish adolescents changed between 2003 and 2019, and 2) whether the associations between cannabis experiments and factors related to it, especially the use of...
Article
Full-text available
Aims To (1) examine several factors associated with trends in heavy episodic drinking (HED) in Finland, Norway and Sweden, (2) investigate similarities in these associations across the countries and (3) analyse the contribution of these factors to the trend in HED and the differences across the countries. Design and Setting Observational study usi...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Based on a study conducted among pupils in grade 9 of basic education, maintaining a sober lifestyle continues to be common among young people: 31 per cent use hardly any alcohol and even fewer smoke. There has also been a drop in snuff use, which soared among boys in recent years – although girls use snuff more frequently than before. Young people...
Article
Full-text available
Many studies have shown that children of alcohol abusing parents have a higher risk for mental and behavioural disorders compared to other children. Using a retrospective population-based cohort study, based on health care and social welfare registers that include children born in Finland in 1997 and their biological parents, we evaluated whether t...
Article
Full-text available
Nuorten huumeiden käyttö ja sen lisääntyminen on yleinen huolenaihe. Huolta herättävät myös lieventyneet käsitykset huumeiden käytön hyväksyttävyydestä ja käytön riskeistä. Nuorten huumeiden ja muiden päihteiden käytöstä puhuttaessa puhetapa on kuitenkin usein varsin epämääräinen ja viittaukset huumeiden käytön lisääntymisestä yleistetään helposti...
Article
The leading cause of death of adolescents in developed countries is injury. Alcohol is a major contributor to adolescent injury. Most of the injury deaths in youth are caused by traffic crashes. Driving under the influence (DUI) and riding with a driver who is under the influence (RUI) of alcohol increase the risk of road crash. The focus of this s...
Article
Full-text available
The main aim of this article is to reveal the experiences of specialists working in Lithuanian addiction treatment centres on supporting relatives of alcohol addicts and providing help. This study consisted of thematic analysis of interviews with 11 specialists from five addiction treatment centres (ATC) in Lithuania. The development of services in...
Article
Introduction and Aims As alcohol use has decreased among Finnish adolescents, we aim to assess: (i) time trends in alcohol use, heavy episodic drinking (HED) and potential explanatory variables among adolescents; (ii) the relationship between trends of explanatory variables and trends in alcohol use and HED; and (iii) which of the explanatory varia...
Article
Aims: To estimate temporal trends in adolescents' current cigarette, alcohol and cannabis use in Europe by gender and region, test for regional differences and evaluate regional convergence. Design and setting: Five waves of the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs (ESPAD) from 28 countries between 1999 and 2015. Countries w...
Article
Full-text available
Tutkimuksessa verrataan 15–16-vuotiaiden ulkomaalais- ja suomalaistaustaisten yläkoululaisten alkoholin käyttöä, kannabiskokeiluja, tupakkatuotteiden käyttöä ja rahapeliautomaateilla pelaamista. Lisäksi selvitetään nuorten päihteiden käyttöön ja rahapelaamiseen yhteydessä olevia tekijöitä. Aineisto on kerätty keväällä 2015 suomalaisista kouluista (...
Article
Full-text available
Suoma­lais­nuorten tupak­ka­ko­keilut ja säännöl­linen tupa­kointi ovat vähen­tyneet, mut­ta poi­kien nuus­kan käyt­tö on lisään­tynyt. Rait­tiiden nuor­ten osuus on kas­vanut ja hu­malaan juo­vien osuus pienen­tynyt. Mui­den huu­meiden kuin kanna­biksen käyt­tö on harvi­naista. Kanna­bis­ko­keilut ei­vät ole lisään­tyneet, vaik­ka nuor­ten asentee...
Article
Full-text available
Tupakointi on vähentynyt suomalaisnuorilla jo useita vuosia, mutta nuuskan ja sähkösavukkeiden käyttö näyttää yleistyneen. Suomen uuden tupakkalain tavoitteena on tupakkatuotteiden ja muiden nikotiinia sisältävien tuotteiden käytön loppuminen vuoteen 2030 mennessä. Nuorten tupakoinnin ja nikotiininkäytön ehkäisy on olennainen osa tavoitteen saavutt...
Article
Full-text available
Aims: This study looks at the connection between parents’ substance abuse and their 0–6 years old children’s somatic and psychological health. Methods: A retrospective population-based cohort study based on Finnish health care and social welfare registers. The participants were all children born in Finland in 1997 (N = 58,667) and 2002 (N = 55,146)...
Article
Full-text available
Aims: Unlike adults, abstaining has increased and regular use of alcohol has decreased among 12-16-year-olds over the past two decades. The paper studies whether these developments will be continued as the adolescent cohorts come of age. Methods: The Adolescent Health and Lifestyle Survey is a nationally representative monitoring system of the h...
Article
Full-text available
Aims: In this study we look at (1) changes in parenting practices related to adolescents’ alcohol use in Finland from 2006 to 2012 and (2) whether parents’ own drinking behaviour is related to the parenting practices. Methods: Two surveys of parents with children were conducted in 2006 (n = 2864) and 2012 (n = 2965). The data were analysed using χ2...
Article
Introduction and aims: Adverse childhood experiences and their accumulation over childhood have negative outcomes to children, yet earlier findings on the independent effect of parental substance abuse seem inconsistent. Our aims were to examine: (i) whether parental substance abuse is associated with children's mental disorders in mid-childhood (...
Article
Full-text available
Aim: To assess whether retail outlets comply with the minimum legal age of 18 for the purchase of alcohol and tobacco and for gambling on slot machines in Finland. Methods: A test-purchase research in 117 retail outlets selling alcohol, tobacco and supplying slot machines in two towns. Five-hundred fifty-seven purchase attempts were made for alcoho...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives To estimate the prevalence of parental alcohol abuse (PAA) or parental drug abuse (PDA), to compare families with PAA/PDA to non-PAA/PDA families, and to identify different types of families with PAA/PDA in terms of mental disorders in parents, family separation, financial difficulties and educational level. Methods Register-based data f...
Article
Full-text available
Aims The aim of this study was to investigate whether the mother's substance abuse, psychiatric problems and socioeconomic situation are related to 1) disorders of psychological development, 2) behavioural and emotional disorders, and 3) mood disorders and neurotic, stress-related and somatoform disorders in children aged 0–12 years. Data & Method...
Article
Full-text available
The way that youth gambling is regulated in Finland has shifted in recent decades. Since July 2011, all money games have been prohibited to minors. The control of age limits varies in different types of shops: young-looking individuals must present an ID when purchasing alcoholic beverages and cigarettes, but the control of slot machine playing is...
Article
Full-text available
Aims: We aimed to study a latent social structure behind the variables associated with teenagers’ cannabis use at the individual level and, in a social context, formed by school class. Methods: The data used come from the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs (ESPAD), conducted in Finland in 2011 (N = 3744, response rate 89.6%)....
Article
Full-text available
AimsTo compare benzodiazepine (BZD) purchases in different groups of mothers of small children.DesignProspective population-based cohort study based on the Finnish social and health care registers.SettingFinnish women of child-bearing age.ParticipantsAll women who gave birth in 2002 in Finland (n = 54 519).MeasurementsLatent class analysis was used...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The connections between alcohol use, mental health problems and mental well-being have been under-researched. We examined the links between different aspects of alcohol use and positive and negative aspects of mental health, and the effect of protective social factors on these links. Methods: A cross-sectional general population surv...
Article
Introduction and AimsTo study (i) whether the children of substance-abusing mothers are hospitalised because of injury or illness more often than other children; (ii) how often these children are placed out of home; and (iii) how the type of substance used by the mother affects her children. Design and Methods This was a retrospective population-ba...
Article
Full-text available
AIMS - The study looks at the prevalence and register-based indicators of substance abuse-related harms among mothers of small children. We examined the living conditions, various health and social harms and the differences between the users of different kinds of substances (alcohol only vs. drugs only vs. alcohol and other drugs). DATA & METHODS -...
Article
Full-text available
Varusmiesten alkoholinkäyttö on kiinnostava tutkimuskohde: se kuvaa ensinnäkin aikuisuuteen siirtyvien nuorten miesten alkoholinkäyttöä varsin edustavalla otoksella; toiseksi varuskuntaympäristö tarjoaa mahdollisuuden seurata alkoholinkulutuksen muutoksia erityislaatuisessa elämäntilanteessa ja ympäristössä. Tässä tutkimuksessa raportoidaan vuosina...
Book
Full-text available
ESPAD-tutkimusten tulokset 59 | 2012 Kuinka yleistä nuorten humalajuominen on Suomessa? Entä mistä alaikäiset hankkivat alkoholijuomansa? Millaisia muutoksia on tapahtunut nuorten huumeiden käytössä? Ovatko nuorten päihdeasenteet muuttuneet? Vastauksia muun muassa näihin kysymyksiin on koottu tähän Espad-projektin (European School Survey Project on...
Article
Background Drunk-driving compromises traffic safety as it impairs driving skills even at very low blood alcohol concentrations among young drivers. According to previous research, the drunk-driving arrest incidence rate of 18–19-year-olds was twice that of the general population (15–84-year-olds) and also their proportion of alcohol-related crashes...
Article
Introduction and aims: This article studies the various ways of regulating drinking used by Finns and how these vary between men and women, and in different groups of age, educational attainment and alcohol consumption. Design and methods: The data consist of a cross-section of survey data collected in Finland in 2005. The response rate was 53%....
Article
Full-text available
Differences in beliefs about Cannabis were compared between Canada, Sweden and Finland using nationally representative population surveys containing similar items. Compared to Finnish and Swedish respondents, Canadians were both more likely to have tried Cannabis and to view Cannabis as a less serious problem for society. These findings emphasize t...
Article
Full-text available
Women’s drinking increased six-fold from 1968 to 2008. In the 2000s there has also been an increase in the number of young women reporting at least occasional use of some illegal drug. Alcohol and drug abuse remain considerably lower in women than men, but maternal substance abuse is an increasingly common problem. There are more and more families...
Article
Full-text available
Artikkelissa analysoimme nuorten päihteiden käytössä tapahtuneita muutoksia. Selvitämme, kuinka käsitykset eri päihteisiin liittyvistä riskeistä sekä aineiden saatavuudesta ovat yhteydessä kyseisen päihteen käyttöön. Aineistona käytämme ESPAD-tutkimuksen (European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs) suomalaisia tietoja. Tutkimus on to...
Article
Full-text available
This study compares the enforcement of legal age limits on purchases of alcohol, tobacco and on the use of slot machines in retail outlets, and in the case of alcohol additionally in state alcohol monopoly outlets. The data were collected by hidden participant observation. Young-looking research assistants aged 18 years made a total of 566 (=N) att...
Article
Full-text available
Empirical studies have continued to display that Finns get heavily intoxicated more often than other Nordic people. This study asks whether Finnish views on alcohol problems and alcohol addiction differ from those of some other northern populations. This issue is studied by comparing survey results from Finland, Canada, Sweden and St. Petersburg, R...
Article
Full-text available
The ambivalent characteristic of the Finnish drinking culture is particularly evident in the context of family life. While drinking to intoxication in the home environment is widely tolerated, attitudes towards drinking in the presence of children appear negative, and there is broad political concern about harms to children. This study aims to both...
Article
Full-text available
This study reports on the relative gravity people attribute to various addictive behaviors with respect to other societal concerns in four northern populations with different history, social policy and treatment alternatives for addicted individuals. Random population surveys were conducted in Canada, Sweden, Finland and St. Petersburg, Russia. In...
Article
Full-text available
Aim: This article looks at alcohol policy opinions from the point of view of the possibilities and frames for creating local alcohol control policy. Local action against harms related to drinking is a compromise between different points of view, and the question of public support is important for community-based prevention. Data and analyses: The r...
Article
Full-text available
This article examines the relationship between experiences of external influence from spouses and partners to influence one's drinking and one's own concern over drinking; whether spouse's control attempts and concern over one's own drinking are in congruence; how the level of drinking and the frequency of drinking to intoxication and the estimate...
Article
Full-text available
Aim. This research compares retrieval strategies and cultural differences in answering survey questions using protocol analysis on four alcohol use items: frequency of drinking, quantity of drinking, frequency of drunkenness, and the context of drinking in the last 12 months. Data. The data came from a project to improve the comparability of health...
Article
Full-text available
The data analysed come from the GENACIS project (Gender, Alcohol and Culture: an International Study) and involve population surveys for 18 countries (total N = 34,916) from five WHO Regions: African (Nigeria and Uganda); Americas (Argentina, Costa Rica, Uruguay and United States); European (Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Hungary, Icela...
Article
Full-text available
The paper examines how family members in 18 countries attempt to influence each other to drink less. Data come from the GENACIS (Gender, Alcohol and Culture: an International Study) dataset. Countries included were Argentina, Costa Rica, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Hungary, Iceland, India, Japan, Nigeria, Norway, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sw...
Article
Full-text available
To assess whether government monopoly outlets comply better with minimum legal age for purchase of alcohol compared to other off-premise outlets for alcohol sales. Under-age-appearing 18-year-olds attempted to purchase alcohol in off-premise outlets applying identical procedures in Finland (n = 290) and Norway (n = 170). Outcomes were measured as w...
Article
Full-text available
The paper discusses the kinds of reasoning that have been presented as possible mechanisms and reasons for gender differences in alcohol consumption. An overview of the existing literature from different countries is presented. The existing studies provide a picture of great cultural variance in patterns of alcohol use among men and women. The gend...
Article
Aims In 2004, quotas on travelers' imports of alcoholic beverages from other EU member states for personal use were abolished, Estonia became a member of the EU and taxes on alcohol were decreased by 33 per cent on average. These changes resulted in a 10 per cent increase in alcohol consumption. This study set out to explore which population groups...