Kirk Norman Gelatt

Kirk Norman Gelatt
University of Florida | UF · Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences

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314
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Publications (314)
Chapter
This chapter considers major species, i.e., canine, feline, equine, and food and fiber animals. It also considers the more common systemic diseases or those in which the ophthalmic manifestations assist in establishing the clinical diagnosis. Excessive white or partial albinism occurs in the canine breeds with the merling gene. Dwarfism-associated...
Chapter
Dermoids, also known as choristomas, are normal tissue in an abnormal location. They occur infrequently in puppies and are usually noticed at weaning or shortly thereafter because of the development of ocular irritation. Microcornea is nearly always associated with microphthalmia and other ocular anomalies. Corneal opacities and persistent pupillar...
Chapter
Developmental defects in the lens can involve the lens itself, persistent vascular systems designed to provide nutrition to the developing lens that fail to regress, or the zonules. The most common defects are smaller than normal lens (microphakia usually combined with microphthalmia) and cataract formation. Colobomas of the canine lens are rare. T...
Chapter
Deficiency of aqueous tears, or keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS), is the most frequent form of chronic conjunctivitis in the dog and the most common disease of the tear production and drainage system. The incorporation of the Schirmer's tear test into the routine ophthalmic examination has markedly increased the early clinical detection of this dis...
Chapter
Diseases of the ocular fundus include those that affect the retina, choroid, and optic nerve head. They are congenital or developmental in origin, or inflammatory, traumatic, neoplasitic, or degenerative. For examination purposes, the canine ocular fundus is divided into tapetal fundus, nontapetal fundus, optic nerve head, and the retinal vasculatu...
Chapter
Traditionally, the glaucomas are divided into primary, secondary, and congenital forms. The human and canine glaucomas generally have elevated intraocular pressure (IOP), optic nerve damage, and loss of retinal ganglion cells. Diagnostic aids essential in the clinical management of the canine glaucomas include tonometry, gonioscopy (to examine the...
Chapter
Neuro-ophthalmic syndromes occur as the result of an insult to the segments of the nervous system that innervate or influence the functions of the eye and adnexa. Neuro-ophthalmology is a complex field, and although there are several syndromes recognized in veterinary medicine, their diagnosis and understanding can be difficult and incomplete. Horn...
Chapter
This chapter focuses on small exotic pets rather the large zoo species. Among exotic pets, the domestic rabbit seems the most popular; however, rodents and reptiles are frequently encountered. While there are many ophthalmic diseases in exotic pets, the chapter considers those ophthalmic diseases that are the most often presented to the veterinaria...
Chapter
Microphthalmia is a rare condition in kittens, but often these globes have multiple anomalies. Breeds affected include the Domestic Shorthair and Persian. Congenital cataracts are often present. Vision is usually present unless the cataract formation is advanced. Proptosis or the traumatic displacement of the eye from the orbit is a serious disease...
Chapter
Microphthalmia, or a congenitally small eye, is one of the more frequent ophthalmic anomalies in food animals. Clinically, microphthalmia occurs in one or both eyes and is characterized by a smaller than normal palpebral fissure, nictitans protrusion, and a small globe. Pupillary abnormalities, congenital cataracts, and retinal dysplasia and detach...
Chapter
The eyelid functions to protect the cornea and globe, regulate light entering the eye, aid in the distribution of the tears across the cornea and to the nasolacrimal drainage system, and contribute part of the precorneal (preocular) tear film. Neonatal ophthalmia is an infection that occurs beneath closed eyelids in young animals with physiologic a...
Chapter
Diseases of the canine conjunctiva and nictitating membrane are common in the dog, and for the most part easily visualized and diagnosed. Neoplasms of the conjunctiva and nictitans are less frequent than those affecting the eyelids, but are less predictable and decidedly more malignant. The nictitans, as an appendix of the medial conjunctiva, funct...
Chapter
Each part of the eye is designed to achieve or contribute to the special sense of sight. The globe is composed of three basic layers or coats. In addition to the three tunics, additional ocular components fill the interior of the globe: the intraocular fluids and the crystalline lens. The crystalline lens is a transparent, avascular, nonpigmented,...
Chapter
This chapter summarizes some of the common clinical signs and observations of veterinary ophthalmology, and presents their pathogenesis and significance. Animals with ophthalmic diseases can show pain through a number of clinical signs. Blepharospasm is mediated by reflex involving branches of the trigeminal nerve within the cornea and conjunctiva,...
Chapter
The canine uveal tract is divided into anterior (iris and ciliary body) and posterior (choroid) portions. The anatomic divisions are also useful clinically, as often the anterior and posterior uvea are affected by separate clinical disorders. Heterochromia iridis indicates multiple colors within one iris or between the irides. Persistent pupillary...
Chapter
The orbit consists of the bones that surround the globe, the orbital fat and fascial planes, the extraocular muscles, and the afferent and efferent nerves that supply the orbital contents or simply pass through the orbit to serve the nose or other fascial structures. Variations in orbital conformation influence the types of disorders that affect do...
Chapter
The vitreous is a transparent gel that fills the posterior globe, bordering the posterior lens, and the retina and optic nerve head. The majority of the vitreous is formed during the development of the eye, and in the adult is normally devoid of any vasculature. Congenital abnormalities of the vitreous are the results of persistence, hyperplasia, o...
Chapter
A thorough ophthalmic examination can provide a rapid and accurate diagnosis for many ophthalmic diseases, because most ocular structures can be visualized either directly or indirectly. The basic equipment necessary to perform a proper ocular examination includes a bright, focal light source, Schirmer tear test strips, ocular stains, topical anest...
Chapter
This chapter focuses on ophthalmic diseases in foals and adult horses. Manual restraint in foals is usually possible while in the adult horse some sedation and eyelid nerve blocks are necessary for a complete ophthalmic examination. Topical medical therapy for foals is quite easy, but intensive topical therapy in the adult horse usually requires so...
Article
Soft tissue often displays marked age-associated stiffening. This study aims to investigate how age affects scleral biomechanical properties in a canine glaucoma model with ADAMTS10 mutation, whose extracellular matrix is concomitantly influenced by the mutation and an increased mechanical load from an early age. Biomechanical data was acquired fro...
Data
Biomechanical parameters from uniaxial testing on anterior scleral strips. DMA: Dynamic mechanical analysis at 1 Hz for 0.04N preload; Goodness of fit: the fit of experimental stress-strain data to the exponential model using Eq (3). (DOCX)
Data
Infusion and inflation testing parameters. k: normalized ocular rigidity as defined in Eq (2); Eye volume: estimated from an ellipsoidal shape with the three diameters matching the axial length, nasal-temporal length, and superior-inferior length in each eye; Rc_15: radial strain in the posterior sclera at 15 mmHg from a baseline of 5 mmHg; Tc_15:...
Data
Biomechanical parameters from uniaxial testing on posterior scleral strips. DMA: Dynamic mechanical analysis at 1 Hz for 0.04N preload; Goodness of fit: the fit of experimental stress-strain data to the exponential model using Eq (3). (DOCX)
Data
IOP and ocular dimension data in each tested animal. Mean IOP: average of all IOP readings throughout the animal’s life (IOP was not read at regular intervals); Weighted IOP: mean IOP in the last two years of the animals’ lives weighted by the interval between measurements (calculated for animals that had more than one IOP readings); AL–axial lengt...
Article
Objective To describe ophthalmic abnormalities secondary to periocular and ocular snakebite in dogs.Animal StudiedRetrospective review of medical records from dogs presenting to the Small Animal Hospital at University of Florida following snakebites to the face (2012–2014). Two groups were identified: periocular bites (PB) and ocular bites (OB).Res...
Article
Purpose: Previously, we mapped the disease locus in the beagle model of autosomal recessive primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) to a 4-Mb interval on chromosome 20, and identified a Gly661Arg variant in ADAMTS10 as the candidate disease-causing variant. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that the Gly661Arg variant of ADAMTS10 caus...
Article
Objective: To evaluate effects of Coherin™ on intraocular pressure (IOP), pupil size (PS), and heart rate (HR) in glaucomatous Beagles in single-dose studies in a pilot study. Materials and methods: Intraocular pressure, PS, and HR were measured in eight glaucomatous Beagles. One randomly chosen eye received single 50 μL doses of differing conce...
Article
To evaluate the changes in intraocular pressure (IOP) and pupil size in 12 Beagles with inherited glaucoma after instillations of 0.033, 0.0033, 0.001, 0.00033, and 0.0001% travoprost (Travatan®-Alcon Laboratories, Inc., Ft Worth, TX, USA) in multiple single-dose studies. Intraocular pressure and pupil diameter (PD) measurements were obtained at 9...
Data
Haplotypes for chromosome 15 regions of interest. The base pair locations and genotypes are shown for haplotypes representing region R1 (A) and R2 (B), with symbols used to represent the haplotypes shown below. (0.43 MB TIF)
Data
SNPs satisfying the zygosity criterion. The chromosome 20 base pair location and genotypes for all affected, all carrier as well as a normal unrelated Beagle introduced into the colony are shown. (0.37 MB TIF)
Article
Full-text available
Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) is a leading cause of blindness worldwide, with elevated intraocular pressure as an important risk factor. Increased resistance to outflow of aqueous humor through the trabecular meshwork causes elevated intraocular pressure, but the specific mechanisms are unknown. In this study, we used genome-wide SNP arrays to...
Book
Purchasers of Veterinary Ophthalmic Surgery have at their disposal a comprehensive, step-by-step guide to all types of ophthalmic surgical techniques across all species. Techniques are covered topographically, and species-by-species, with difficulty gradings for each one. Many of these procedures will be undertaken by the veterinary generalist, not...
Article
Amniotic membrane transplantation (AMT) is an effective clinical therapy for reconstruction of the ocular surface in human and veterinary patients. Amnion is avascular and strong, contains antiangiogenic and antiinflammatory properties and growth factors, and has properties that prevent or decrease fibrosis in healing tissue. Indications for its us...
Article
The normal nasolachrymal systems of the dog (meso-, dolicho-, and brachycephalic) and cat were investigated by dacryocystorhinography and latex preparations. Nasolachrymal abnormalities associated with obstructions, deviations, a congenital defect and invasion of the system were demonstrated by dacryocystorhinography in four dogs and two cats. The...
Article
To evaluate a new procedure for fixation of prolapsed nictitans glands to the cartilage of the nictitans that will not interfere with the mobility of the nictitating membrane. A prospective clinical trial utilizing a nonabsorbable suture to anchor the prolapsed gland to the cartilage of the third eyelid was undertaken. Fifteen eyes of 10 dogs were...
Article
To compare aqueous humor myocilin protein levels in dogs with the primary glaucomas to those with the secondary glaucomas, primary cataracts, and diabetic cataracts. Four groups were selected, based on diagnosis by the attending veterinary ophthalmologists and included: primary glaucoma (primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and primary closed angle g...
Article
A limbal melanoma was surgically excised from the OS of a 4-year-old castrated male Domestic Short-haired cat (DSH). The resultant scleral defect was repaired by placement of A-cell bio-scaffold material. The patient responded well in the postoperative period with no apparent discomfort, nor any observable complications. No signs of recurrence have...
Article
The gene (myocilin: MYOC) has been attributed to be involved in over 6% of inherited types of human glaucoma, the highest correlation for any gene to date. This study determines myocilin protein levels in the aqueous humor (AH) of normal laboratory quality, genetic carrier (offspring of normal laboratory quality and POAG Beagles), and primary open...
Article
To investigate the possibility that Angiopoietin-like 7 (ANGPTL7) protein is involved in the pathogenesis of glaucoma. Primary human trabecular meshwork (TM) cells and corneoscleral explants were stimulated with either dexamethasone (DEX) or transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta), and ANGPTL7 protein secreted into culture medium was determined b...
Article
Topical pilocarpine (1·0, 2·0 and 4·0 per cent) and 2·0 per cent pilocarpine plus 1·0 per cent epinephrine markedly increased conventional aqueous humour outflow, as measured by noninvasive tonography, in both normal beagles and beagles with inherited glaucoma. Pilocarpine in normal eyes increased the coefficient of outflow from 0·33 μl/min/mmHg (p...
Article
To evaluate the visual outcome of three techniques of corneal transplantation surgery in treating severe inflammatory keratopathies in the horse. Retrospective medical records study. Medical records of 206 horses that received corneal transplantation surgery at the University of Florida Veterinary Medical Center from 1993 to 2007 were reviewed. Dat...
Article
Full-text available
Small animal patients with endocrinopathies are at risk of developing many ophthalmic conditions resulting from endocrine hormone imbalances. Diabetic animals frequently develop cataracts but can also have numerous other ocular problems, including uveitis, keratopathy, retinopathy, and the effects of lipid derangements and systemic hypertension. Cu...
Article
The presence of myocilin was investigated in a colony of Beagles, a canine model for inherited primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). The myocilin protein was localized in the normal and glaucomatous canine eyes by immunohistochemistry and immunocytochemistry. Paraffin- and plastic-embedded specimens from the anterior uveas of 10 Beagles with inherite...
Article
It has been recently demonstrated that trabecular meshwork (TM) cells within the canine iridocorneal angle (ICA) contain smooth muscle actin (smA) and possess contractile abilities that probably alter aqueous outflow. As the number of trabecular meshwork cells in glaucomatous canine eyes have been found to be less than those in age-matched nonglauc...
Article
To document differences in the levels of the endothelin-1 peptide, nitric oxide, and glutamate in aqueous humor and vitreous in the dog eye with spontaneous glaucoma compared to the normal dog eye. Samples of aqueous humor and vitreous from enucleated normal eyes (n = 21) of 14 dogs and glaucomatous eyes (n = 8) of eight dogs were collected. Levels...
Article
Maintenance and repair of corneal stromal extracellular matrix (ECM) requires a tightly coordinated balance of ECM synthesis, degradation and remodeling in which proteolytic enzymes (proteinases) perform important functions. There are natural proteinase inhibitors present in preocular tear film (PTF) and cornea simultaneously with proteinases that...
Article
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of postoperative beta-irradiation with strontium-90 as an adjunctive treatment to superficial keratectomy and permanent bulbar conjunctival graft for removal of equine corneolimbal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), in decreasing recurrence rate. The retrospective case study included 38 horses...
Article
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness and effectiveness of permanent amniotic membrane transplantation as an adjunctive treatment to superficial keratectomy alone or combined with strontium-90 irradiation for treatment of equine corneolimbal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) to decrease corneal scarring and recurrence rate. The retro...
Article
To determine whether the combination multiple-dose dorzolamide-timolol administered topically has any greater effects on the reduction of intraocular pressure, pupil size, and heart rate in dogs with glaucoma than do either timolol or dorzolamide alone. Applanation tonometry, pupil size, and heart rate measurements were made at 7 a.m., 1 p.m., and...
Article
Unilateral chorioretinitis caused by ophthalmomyiasis interna posterior in a 5-month-old, female spayed Dachshund is reported. Larva removal by pars plana vitrectomy was performed after an unsuccessful photocoagulation of the organism. The larva was intact after surgical removal and was identified as a first stage instar Cuterebra spp. larva. The e...
Article
To evaluate clinical characteristics and breeds affected with bacterial keratitis and compare patterns of resistance in bacterial isolates over time in dogs. Retrospective cross-sectional study. 97 dogs with bacterial keratitis. Dogs with bacterial keratitis were identified from teaching hospital medical records at the Universities of Tennessee and...
Article
To evaluate effects of lacrimal punctal plugs positioned in either the upper, lower, or combination of upper and lower lacrimal canaliculi on plug retention and tolerance; tear production, as measured by the Schirmer tear test; and the dilution of fluorescein within the tear film in normal dogs. Lacrimal punctal plugs were positioned in the lower,...
Article
A 9-week-old miniature mule foal presented to the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital for acute blindness, ataxia, and depression following an overdose of an over-the-counter ivermectin-based de-worming medication. Ophthalmic examination and electrodiagnostic evaluation eliminated outer retinal abnormalities as the primary cause of the bilateral b...
Article
The current study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of topically applied bimatoprost, an ocular hypotensive lipid, on intraocular pressure (IOP) and pupil size (PS) in healthy cats. Nine European Shorthair cats free from clinically relevant ocular abnormalities were used in the study. Pretreatment baseline measurements of IOP and PS were obtai...
Article
Amniotic membrane has antifibrotic, anti-angiogenic and antiprotease properties. This retrospective study was designed to investigate the use of equine amniotic membrane transplants (AMT) at preserving vision, maintaining the structural integrity of the globe and maximizing cosmesis in equine eyes with corneal ulceration and severe keratomalacia. E...
Article
Extended abstract of a paper presented at Microscopy and Microanalysis 2005 in Honolulu, Hawaii, USA, July 31--August 4, 2005.
Article
To determine the mode of inheritance of cataract formation in the Bichon Frise. Thirty-six closely related Bichon Frise dogs in a pedigree of 61 dogs were examined using slit-lamp biomicroscopy and indirect ophthalmoscopy over a period of 10 years. Of the 61 related dogs, 36 were examined repeatedly. Twelve cataractous dogs were diagnosed (three ma...
Article
The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of cataracts in dogs presented to veterinary medical teaching hospitals in North America between 1964 and 2003. A retrospective study of all dogs presented with cataracts to veterinary medical teaching hospitals in North America between 1964 and 2003 was conducted to determine cataract prev...
Article
Full-text available
A retrobulbar malignant fibrous histiocytoma was diagnosed in a 12-year-old castrated male Keeshond dog. The mass was excised with a lateral orbitotomy and zygomatic arch resection. Vision was preserved in the affected eye, and no recurrence was noted up to 10 months postoperatively. Malignant fibrous histiocytoma originates from primitive mesenchy...
Article
The changes in intraocular pressure (IOP) and pupil size (PS) after instillations of 0.15% unoprostone isopropyl (Rescula, Novartis Ophthalmics, Duluth, GA) were investigated in the spontaneous glaucoma Beagle model. From the first-day baseline IOP of 27.3+/-3.2 mmHg placebo eye and 32.8+/-5.1 mmHg control eye, the mean+/-standard error of the mean...
Article
Objective: Levels of tear film matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) activity are significantly elevated in horses with ulcerative keratitis and contribute to the excessive breakdown of stromal collagen. Changes in the amount of proteolytic activity in horse tear film during corneal healing and stromal remodeling have not yet been reported, but we hypo...
Article
To determine the prevalence of secondary glaucomas in dogs associated with cataract formation, lens luxation or displacement, cataract surgery, uveitis, hyphema and intraocular neoplasia. Information was obtained from the Veterinary Medical Data Base (VMDB) from all veterinary medical teaching hospitals in North America from March 1964 to March 200...
Article
A periocular nodular sarcoid of the right upper and lower eyelids was diagnosed in an 11-year-old Thoroughbred mare. Computed tomography scan revealed the extent of the tumor. The mass was surgically debulked under general anesthesia, and the affected periocular region was injected intralesionally with Bacillus of Calmette and Guerin (BCG). An emul...
Article
To determine the prevalence of the breed-related glaucomas in pure-bred dogs presented to the veterinary medical teaching hospitals in North America that participate in the Veterinary Medical Data Base (VMDB). In this retrospective study, age of first diagnosis, breed, and gender data for all breeds of dogs were collected from the VMDB with the cli...
Article
To evaluate changes in intraocular pressure and pupil size in glaucomatous dogs after instillation of 0.004% travoprost once in the morning, or once in the evening, or twice daily in 5-day multiple dose studies. Applanation tonometry (IOP) and pupil size (PS) measurements were obtained at 8 a.m., 10 a.m., 12 noon, 2 p.m. and 4 p.m. in eight glaucom...