Kira Hudson Banks

Kira Hudson Banks
Saint Louis University | SLU · Department of Psychology

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38
Publications
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Publications

Publications (38)
Article
Full-text available
Racism continues to be a significant problem in much of the world. Understanding how racism happens in the brain may help us find ways to overcome it. Our brains often categorize people as similar to, or different from, ourselves. A part of the brain called the amygdala becomes active when we see someone who we think is different, and this can lead...
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This research explored the impact a 3-day pre-college diversity intervention had on incoming White college students’ (N = 63) colour-blind racial attitudes (COBRAS), or their unawareness of racial privilege, blatant racial issues, and institutional discrimination. Repeated measures analysis of variance tests indicated that students reported a great...
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The Daily Life Experiences – Frequency scale (DLE-F) measures the frequency of 18 racial discrimination experiences. Bifactor exploratory and confirmatory analyses indicated that the DLE-F is a unidimensional scale that yields valid and reliable scores. The DLE-F also showed evidence of measurement invariance by gender, convergent evidence, and cri...
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To better understand the moderating effect of coping mechanisms (distraction and rumination) and internal assets (hope) on the relationship between perceived discrimination and depressive symptoms, a sample of 363 African American students (65.3% female; mean age = 20.25 years; SD = 2.39) from two large Midwestern Universities were surveyed using s...
Article
Experiences of racism, a form of oppression, have lasting negative psychological and physical effects on Black Americans. Identifying underlying mechanisms is necessary to minimize these deleterious outcomes and potentially mitigate health disparities. Internalized racial oppression, the ways in which a member of a target group is in relationship w...
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Two studies were conducted to develop and then validate a scale to measure the construct of Colorism. While colorism is a long discussed phenomena within the Black community in the United States, there have been virtually no attempts to measure the degree to which individuals embrace it. The In-Group Colorism Scale (ICS) was developed to assess the...
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Full-text available
As the Montessori Method continues its expansion in public education, a social justice lens is needed to analyze its contributions and limitations, given the increase in racial and socioeconomic diversity in the United States. Furthermore, much of the work in Social Justice Education (SJE) focuses on classroom techniques and curriculum, overlooking...
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Everyday racial discrimination (ERD) is linked to pronounced depressive symptomatology among African American men. Yet, many African American men do not experience depressive symptoms following ERD exposure often because they use positive coping strategies that offset its effects. Granting forgiveness is 1 coping strategy associated with less depre...
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The Ferguson Commission was an independent body of 16 commissioners in operation from November 2014 to December 2015 and appointed by Missouri governor Jay Nixon to examine the root causes underlying the death of Michael Brown Jr. Its report, "Forward Through Ferguson: A Path Toward Racial Equity," raises many issues on racial equity that public he...
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Racism-related stress poses a significant risk to the mental health functioning of many African American youth during the transition to adulthood. In light of the suggestion that personal and social factors might influence the association between racism-related stress and mental health functioning, this study examined the moderating roles of gender...
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Comments on the article, "Color-blind racial ideology: Theory, training, and measurement implications in psychology," by Neville et al. (see record 2013-31242-001). Neville et al. impressively wove theories from multiple disciplines to outline trajectories for future work related to colorblind racial ideology (CBRI). The current author offers one m...
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This study examined the role of liberal and inclusive feminist attitudes in the development of a positive racial identity in a sample of White female undergraduates in the Midwestern United States. Participants (N = 90) provided self-report data on their racial awareness, liberal and inclusive feminist attitudes, racial identity and demographic inf...
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Employing a latent profile analytic approach, this investigation identified racial socialization patterns among African American fathers. In addition, this study explored whether profiles varied by father and child sociodemographic characteristics. Participants were 166 African American fathers (M � 32.20, SD � 8.26) of adolescents (M � 12.60, SD �...
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African American women state legislators’ political agendas are assumed to reflect the distinct interests and substantive needs of African Americans, women, and African American women as unique constituencies. We hypothesize that African American women elected to state legislatures are more likely than African American men, White women, and White m...
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Ethnic-racial socialization has been positively linked with psychological adjustment; however, the mechanisms underlying this association remain unclear. In this study, the authors examined the mediating role of racial identity in the association between racial socialization and depressive symptoms. Participants were 211 African American young adul...
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Reviews the book, The Philosophy of Race by Albert Atkin (see record 2012-18832-000 ). What is race? Is it real? If so, what should we do with it or about it? And in what ways do race and racism impact our everyday lives? If you have contemplated these big questions, the reviewer believes you would appreciate Atkin’s careful reflection in this book...
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This article suggests that the way in to sociology may not always be through the front door. The authors demonstrate how students in a three-day campus diversity program develop a sociological imagination despite not having a formal affiliation with the sociology department. In particular, students demonstrate a move from color blindness into racia...
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Full-text available
This article suggests that the way in to sociology may not always be through the front door. The authors demonstrate how students in a three-day campus diversity program develop a sociological imagination despite not having a formal affiliation with the sociology department. In particular, students demonstrate a move from color blindness into racia...
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Full-text available
: The current study examines the relationship between racial discrimination and depressive symptoms. In particular, it investigated whether college hassles moderated or mediated the relationship. Participants included 194 African American students from a large, Midwestern, state university. Participants provided self-report of their experience of d...
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Diversity is used in countless vision statements of institutions of higher learning. Yet, it is critical to examine how students understand the concept and conceptualize their personal involvement. Given that the current population of college students is predominantly White, it is important to examine this population. The current sample consisted o...
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This study investigated how hope influences the relationship between discrimination and depressive symptoms. Results from participants' (N = 318) responses suggest that increased levels of hope were directly related to decreased levels of depressive symptoms. However, increased levels of hope were also related to a stronger relationship between dis...
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Full-text available
This study examined the association between racial identity profiles, discrimination, and mental health outcomes. African American college students (N = 194) completed measures of racial discrimination, racial identity, college hassles, and depressive symptoms. Four meaningful profiles emerged through a cluster analysis of seven dimensions of racia...
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Full-text available
To clarify and extend Snyder's (1994, 2002) hope theory to a more diverse population, this study examined variations in agentic and pathways thinking, and their relations with social problem solving, affect, and with life satisfaction across a college student sample of 46 European Americans, 30 African Americans, 33 Latinos, and 46 Asian Americans....
Article
This session will focus on the collaboration between a librarian and professor of psychology for a seminar, “Psychology of Racism.” Goals of the class included introducing images as a parallel means of communication to textual information and expanding the visual vocabulary of the students in order to enhance their discussions of race, racism and r...
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Current theoretical models suggest that the most potent and impacting discrimination experienced by African Americans in the post Jim Crow era are subtle and unconscious forms of discrimination that are experienced on a daily basis. This study investigates the relationship between perceived everyday discrimination and anxiety and depressive symptom...
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Forgiveness research has focused almost exclusively on interpersonal transgressions committed in close relationships. Consequently, less is known about factors informing forgiveness of non-intimate actors. The current study addresses these gaps by investigating correlates of forgiveness over racial discrimination among African American men (N=171)....
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Full-text available
This study assessed racial variations in how adaptive and maladaptive perfectionism relate to psychological functioning in a sample of 150 Black and 150 White female college students. Comparative results indicated that Black women, as compared with White women, reported less adaptive perfectionism, less life satisfaction, greater stress, and greate...
Article
From the Editorials & Commentary section of CollegeNews.org (http://www.collegenews.org).
Article
The current version of the armed forces policy on homosexuality is steeped in erroneous assumptions. One presumption is that it is appropriate, and serves a protective function, for people to cease to acknowledge an aspect of their identity.
Article
From the Editorials & Commentary section of CollegeNews.org (http://www.collegenews.org).
Article
From my work on race, it seems parents are most afraid that talking about race with children will instill racial bias rather than eradicate it. It is important to keep in mind that children develop an awareness of race in their preschool years. Therefore, we are not inserting ideas into their heads when we are intentional about teaching race. In fa...
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Required to do a dance that represents a culture, Russian ice skaters Oksana Domnina and Maxim Shabalin chose Australian Aborigines. Problem? They got it wrong and failed to respond to feedback.
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I know the Oscars happened a week ago, but I’m still nagged by some of the larger implications of the event.
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In the wake of the health-care debate, I've been struck by the blanket criticism to federal programs, much of which lacks historical context.
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Arizona continues to be in the news for legislation that is possibly racially charged. The most recent source of controversy is House Bill 2281, which would ban ethnic studies classes. More generally, it would write colorblindness into the law.The bill states that schools cannot include courses that (1) are designed primarily for pupils of a partic...
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Full-text available
This review synthesizes the current knowledge regarding African American women and depression. After highlighting major findings related to the epidemiology, etiology, symptomatology and treatment, we will discuss the gaps in our understanding of these factors specific to African American women. We will argue that filling in these gaps will require...

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