Kimberly Rios

Kimberly Rios
Ohio University · Department of Psychology

PhD

About

91
Publications
52,107
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1,919
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Publications

Publications (91)
Article
Full-text available
Nonreligious individuals stereotype Christians as unscientific and see Christianity and science as conflicting. The present studies examined how perceptions of incompatibility between Christianity and science influence nonreligious individuals’ stereotypes of Christians in science in the US context. We measured (Study 1) and manipulated (Study 2) p...
Article
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Research has examined how Jews, Muslims, atheists, and agnostics react to feelings of social identity threat (i.e., the perception that one’s group is devalued or stigmatized). However, no research so far has compared reactions between religious minorities (RMs; Jews and Muslims) and nonreligious individuals (NRs; atheists and agnostics) in general...
Article
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Both multiculturalism (which involves recognizing and appreciating differences) and racial/ethnic colorblindness (which can involve emphasizing similarities or individual characteristics) are intended to promote intergroup harmony. Nevertheless, these ideologies can backfire when salient. Although this work has sometimes been interpreted to suggest...
Article
In two pre-registered studies ( N = 1,202), female college students expressed greater feelings of belonging and trust in a science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) company whose leaders exhibited stereotypically feminine (vs. masculine) characteristics. The positive impact of feminine leaders was found for both female and male leaders and...
Article
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In four studies (N = 1176), we examined whether negativity towards feminists varies based on the specific ideology endorsed: liberal feminism (i.e., the belief that gender equality can be achieved through adequate changes within societies) or radical feminism (i.e., the belief that gender equality can only be achieved by reconstructing the whole so...
Article
Building upon Intergroup Threat Theory and research on group-level empathy, we tested the relationship between White privilege beliefs and White Americans’ attitudes toward Confederate symbols. In three experiments, participants induced to think about White privilege exhibited more opposition to Confederate symbols, perceived less realistic threat...
Article
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The present research introduces the possibility that Whiteness can threaten majority group members’ sense of uniqueness and reduce their support for multiculturalism, an ideology that emphasizes recognition of distinctive cultural identities and is seen as primarily relevant to racial/ethnic minorities. Across three studies, being induced to self-i...
Article
The present studies examined the conditions under which low subjective socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with greater racial/ethnic prejudice among White Americans. Based on theories of intergroup threat and inclusive victim consciousness, we predicted that describing racial/ethnic minorities as disadvantaged (versus as competitive or in neu...
Preprint
The present studies examined the conditions under which low subjective socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with greater racial/ethnic prejudice among White Americans. Based on theories of intergroup threat and inclusive victim consciousness, we predicted that describing racial/ethnic minorities as disadvantaged (versus as competitive or in neu...
Article
Global attitude certainty consists of two subconstructs: attitude clarity—certainty that one is aware of one’s true attitudes—and attitude correctness, certainty that one’s attitudes are morally correct and valid. Attitude correctness is more often associated with group-related psychological and behavioral outcomes than attitude clarity. As such, w...
Article
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Interventions designed to increase women’s participation in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines sometimes emphasize the STEM gender gap. Drawing upon optimal distinctiveness theory, we hypothesized that interventions overtly emphasizing women’s minority status in STEM might lead to less interest in STEM relative to...
Chapter
A strategic shift towards multicultural marketing has manifested in an increase in multicultural integrated advertising (MIA), a type of advertising that aims to simultaneously engage consumers of diverse backgrounds through representations of multiple cultural cues within the material of one campaign (Johnson et al. 2010). In the current context o...
Article
Stereotypes of religion (particularly Christianity) as incompatible with science are widespread, and prior findings show that Christians perform worse than non-Christians on scientific reasoning tasks following reminders of such stereotypes. The present studies ( N = 1,456) examine whether these reminders elicit stereotype threat (i.e., fear of con...
Chapter
The social monitoring system regulates social inclusion by increasing an individual’s awareness of social cues and identifying the interpersonal intentions of others. The system activates when an individual’s need to belong is unfulfilled.
Article
Negative attitudes toward the nonreligious persist in America. This may compel some nonreligious individuals to conceal their identity to manage feelings of social identity threat. In one correlational study and one experiment, we found evidence of social identity threat and concealment behavior among nonreligious Americans. Our first study showed...
Article
The number of nonreligious Americans has increased over the past few decades. However, negative attitudes toward the nonreligious persist in America, especially in areas with high levels of religiosity. This may compel some nonreligious individuals to conceal their identity to manage feelings of social identity threat in areas with high proportions...
Article
Full-text available
A history of perceived conflict between religion and science persists in the U.S. “culture wars” that juxtapose religious and secular worldviews. As modern societies grow increasingly secular, religion is often deemed an impediment to science-based policy-making, whereas science is increasingly associated with atheism. In the present research, we a...
Article
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With controversies surrounding numerous science topics, including vaccinations and climate change, science skepticism in the United States is of growing concern. Some skepticism of science may stem from the perceived association between science and atheism, as well as stereotypes of religious individuals as prosocial. Three studies examine how scie...
Article
Although I study many forms of social identity, my research on religious identity has perhaps sparked the most interesting reactions. I first describe these reactions, as well as how I became interested in religious identity. I then report the results of an experiment that my Ph.D. student and I conducted to better understand social and personality...
Article
The growing racial/ethnic diversity in the United States can be perceived as threatening to White Americans. The present work examines how interethnic ideologies—different ways of framing ethnic diversity—moderate perceptions of threat and political conservatism among White Americans exposed to a passage about the US becoming a “majority-minority”...
Article
Research shows that people in predominantly Christian cultures tend to perceive a basic tension between science and religion, which is not reflected in predominantly Muslim cultures. In this cross-cultural study comparing Christian university students in the United States and Muslim university students in the United Arab Emirates, we examined time...
Article
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Prior research suggests that people perceive scientists as having both humanizing (e.g., trustworthy, rational) and dehumanizing (e.g., robotic, emotionless) qualities. The present research examined if cultural stereotypes of scientists as utilitarian decision-makers predicts evaluations of scientists' humanness. In a series of studies, participant...
Article
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The present study explored cross-cultural differences in future time perspective (FTP) and self-esteem and investigated whether the relationship between FTP and self-esteem differs between China and America. The FTP Scale and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale were administered to 460 Chinese and 340 American undergraduates. Results showed that American u...
Article
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Drawing upon the sociofunctional approach to prejudice, three studies examined distrust as a predictor of attitudes toward transgender individuals relative to sexual minorities (primarily gay men), focusing on two possible mediators: perceived deception and identity-confusion. Participants expressed more negative attitudes and greater distrust towa...
Article
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One hypothesized reason for why a disproportionately low number of men enter caregiving fields is how such men are perceived. In two studies, drawing upon the Stereotype Content Model and the lack‐of‐fit model, we tested whether men would encounter more social (e.g., likeability bias) and economic (e.g., hiring or job opportunity bias) penalties th...
Article
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Although research has examined the role of power in men’s likelihood of perpetrating sexual harassment against women, less is known about specific personality traits that might predict sexual harassment. Building upon theorizing that men are especially prone to engage in sexual harassment to the extent that their social status is threatened (Berdah...
Article
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Recent evidence suggests that, although moral distrust drives antiatheist prejudice, certain types of morality are central: Perceived atheist moral capacity for caring and compassion appears to be central, whereas perceived atheist moral capacity for fairness, in-group loyalty, deferential respect, or purity/decency is not (Simpson & Rios, 2017 Sim...
Article
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According to Intergroup Threat Theory (Stephan, Ybarra, & Rios, 2015), perceived threats from outgroups can be categorised into realistic threats (to the ingroup’s power, resources, or well-being) and symbolic threats (to the ingroup’s values, identity, or way of life). Although many studies have documented correlations between such threats and int...
Article
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Although torture is largely ineffective for gaining information from terrorism suspects, nearly half of Americans support its use. Building upon previous work examining predictors of responses to such tactics and willingness to label them as “torture,” this research tested whether the “torture” label itself can influence attitudes. Across five expe...
Article
The authors of the article “Engaging with diversity: Framing multiculturalism as a learning opportunity reduces prejudice among high White American identifiers” (https://doi.org/10.1002/ejsp.2196) (Rios & Wynn,), published in Wiley Online Library on 25 April 2017 and in the European Journal of Social Psychology, 46: 854–865, have drawn to our atten...
Article
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Ample research demonstrates that people are more prosocial toward ingroup than outgroup members, and that religious believers (e.g., Christians) tend to be more prosocial than non-believers (e.g., atheists), in economic games. However, we identify a condition under which ingroup biases in such games are attenuated, focusing on prosociality among at...
Article
The current research examines factors that facilitate or undermine goal pursuit. Past research indicates that attempts to reduce self-uncertainty can result in increased goal motivation. We explore a critical boundary condition of this effect—the presence of alternative goals. Though self-regulatory processes usually keep interest in alternative go...
Article
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Atheists are widely distrusted, but research has only recently begun to explore why. As atheists and theists differ primarily regarding belief, we investigated U.S. theists’ basic beliefs about (a)theism (i.e., theistic meta-beliefs) and how such beliefs are associated with anti-atheist prejudice. We operationalized theistic meta-beliefs with measu...
Presentation
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An examination of the interaction between science knowledge and morality and sociality of a scientist on trust in the scientific community. Results indicate presenting moral or social information about a scientist negates the positive relationship between science knowledge and trust in the scientific community.
Article
Two studies tested whether perceived knowledgeability, a metacognitive indicator of attitude strength, predicts expression of minority (but not majority) opinions on social/political issues. In Study 1, the tendency for participants in the minority to be slower to report their opinions than participants in the majority was present among those who f...
Poster
Full-text available
As science plays an increasingly relevant role in people’s everyday lives, confidence in the scientific community may impact whether the public accepts new science-related information, but few social psychological studies have examined specific predictors of trust in science. Data from the General Social Survey (2000-2014) were analyzed to examine...
Article
Multiculturalism (i.e., acknowledgment and appreciation of diversity), despite its positive consequences, is often met with resistance among majority group members, particularly those whose race/ethnicity is central to their self-concept. Building upon findings that multiculturalism lowers White Americans' prejudice when presented as an abstract re...
Article
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Actual–desired discrepancies in people’s self-concepts represent structural incongruities in their self-representations that can lead people to experience subjective conflict. Theory and research suggest that structural incongruities predict susceptibility to subtle influences like priming and conditioning. Although typically examined for their mot...
Article
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Anti-atheist prejudice is pervasive worldwide. Past research indicates this is driven by perceptions of atheist immorality, yet such perceptions have not been explored in detail. Using Moral Foundations Theory and samples of U.S. Christians, we investigated whether anti-atheist prejudice is explained by atheists’ perceived adherence to certain foun...
Article
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Moral conflict between Christians and atheists is becoming increasingly heated amidst the U.S. “culture wars”, yet research has been mostly silent regarding how these groups stereotype each other’s moral values and beliefs. We used Moral Foundations Theory to better understand the nature of such stereotypes. In Study 1, U.S. Christian and atheist p...
Article
Although moral and collective concerns have been found to predict expressions of dissent, little research has examined conditions under which dissenters are perceived as acting out of such concerns. Three studies tested whether judgments of dissenters who expose group misconduct can depend on subtle labeling differences. In Study 1, participants ra...
Article
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Religion and morality have been deeply interwoven throughout human history. Although much research has investigated the role of religiosity (e.g., belief in God, prayer, religious attendance) in shaping moral concerns, only recently has research in psychology begun to delve deeper into the meta-ethical beliefs theists hold about the spiritual found...
Article
Evidence has been found for existence and longevity biases—inferences of goodness from prevalence or longevity. We argue these biases actually emerge among change-resisting individuals. Our evidence suggests change-accepting individuals can even demonstrate a reversal of these biases. In two studies, change-resisting individuals’ attitudes were sug...
Article
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Despite Christians being a religious majority in the U.S., relatively few pursue higher education and careers in science. Our studies show that stereotypes about Christians being less competent in science than other groups are recognized by both Christians and non-Christians, and are openly endorsed by non-Christians (Study 1). Our studies further...
Article
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In recent years, there has been a surge in popularity of the fair-trade industry, which seeks to improve trading conditions and to promote the rights of marginalized workers. Although research suggests that fair-trade products are perceived as promoting social and economic responsibility, some individuals—namely, those who seek to maintain existing...
Article
Past research has demonstrated a causal relationship between power and dominant behavior, motivated in part by the desire to maintain the social distinctiveness created by one's position of power. In this article, we test the novel idea that some individuals respond to high-power roles by displaying not dominance but instead submissiveness. We theo...
Article
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We propose that powerful individuals can become victims of self-objectification, whereby power-relevant attributes become more important to their self-definition and lead to behavior consistent with that self-definition. This process is triggered by the receipt of ostensibly kind acts from subordinates, which are interpreted by power-holders as obj...
Article
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Building upon findings that self-uncertainty motivates attempts to restore certainty about the self, particularly in ways that highlight one’s distinctiveness from others (Rios, Wheeler, & Miller, 2012), we show that self-uncertainty, relative to uncertainty in general, increases creative generation among individualists. In Studies 1-3, high (but n...
Article
Little research has examined the properties of people's attitudes that predict how they will respond to conflict with others whose opinions differ. We propose that one aspect of attitude certainty-attitude correctness, or the perception that one's attitude is the "right" attitude to have-will predict more competitive conflict styles. This hypothesi...
Article
Four experiments provided evidence for when and why opinion minorities take more time than opinion majorities to report their opinions. In Study 1, participants who wrote about feeling overly different from-but not overly similar to-others were slower to report their opinions after being led to believe that they held a minority than majority opinio...
Article
Full-text available
In this research, we examined a novel predictor of clarity in one's self-conceptions: discrepancies between actual and desired levels of self-esteem. Because people tend to desire high self-esteem, such discrepancies are generally larger among individuals low in self-esteem. Among college students (Study 1) and in a more diverse sample (Study 2), w...
Article
Can different social category labels for a single group be associated with different levels of prejudice - specifically, sexual prejudice? Some theorizing, and a pilot study in the present research, suggests that the label "homosexuals" carries more deviance-related connotations than does the label "gay men and lesbians." Given that right-wing auth...
Article
We tested the prediction that power increases people's tendencies to act against the goals their close significant others have for them. Participants in Study 1 all reported in a pre-test that their mother wanted them to achieve, but that they themselves were relatively less interested in achieving. A week later, high-power (but not neutral-power)...
Article
Full-text available
Compared to the conventional order of hypocritical actionssaying one thing and then doing anothermerely reversing the order of these actions can mitigate whether an individual is judged to be a hypocrite (Barden, Rucker, & Petty, 2005). The present research examines how factors extraneous to a target's own actionsspecifically, group membershipinflu...
Article
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The present research provides novel insights into people's automatic reactions to outgroup members. Specifically, three experiments examine the unpredictability tendencies that can arise from mere primes of outgroups and the circumstances that produce these tendencies. In Studies 1 and 2, participants reported stronger unpredictability tendencies (...
Article
The present studies tested whether people, particularly those who are most vulnerable to self-threats as indicated by low implicit self-esteem, adopt and express minority opinions to compensate for self-uncertainty. In Studies 1 through 3, low implicit self-esteem participants who were made to feel uncertain about themselves as individuals (versus...
Article
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Previous research has demonstrated the tendency for humans to anthropomorphize computers-that is, to react to computers as social actors, despite knowing that the computers are mere machines. In the present research, we examined the attribution of both primary (non-uniquely human) and secondary (human-like) emotions to ingroup (teammate) and outgro...
Article
Group Norms and Opinion ExpressionReasons for Descriptive Norm Deviants' ComfortImplications and Future DirectionsConclusion References
Article
A great deal of social psychological research has focused on antecedents of conformity to the majority. The present article, however, reviews the various conditions under which people express minority opinions. First, minority opinion expression is especially pronounced among individuals who hold either strong attitudes or attitudes that deviate fr...
Article
Full-text available
Building upon Optimal Distinctiveness Theory (Brewer, 1991), we propose that students will exhibit increased self-regulatory persistence and performance to satisfy their needs for assimilation and differentiation. In Study 1, undergraduates rated the importance of 16 achievement-related tasks (e.g., studying for examinations, class participation)....
Article
Full-text available
Three experiments and a pilot study demonstrated that uncertainty about the self is uncomfortable (Pilot Study) and causes people to change their self-concepts in response to primes (Experiments 1–3), depending on both the nature of the uncertainty and how the self is defined. In Experiment 1, Asian Americans assimilated to a stereotype prime when...
Article
In three studies, we tested whether the need to belong would motivate people to perceive consensus for their opinions on important social issues. In Study 1, a nationally representative telephone survey, participants with a high dispositional need to belong perceived greater consensus for their opinions on immigrant naturalization than did those wi...
Article
Four studies examined the relationship between outgroup minority status, defined as both belonging to a different social category and holding a different opinion than other group members, and opinion expression. Specifically, it was hypothesized – and results confirmed – that outgroup minorities would be more willing to express their opinions on an...
Article
Four studies tested whether uncertainty about the self-concept can motivate people, particularly individualists who define themselves in terms of their personal traits and characteristics, to perceive their material possessions as extensions of themselves (i.e., as self-expressive). In Study 1, European American participants rated their favorite pa...
Article
Full-text available
Recent research has demonstrated the malleability of self-views to subtle situational influence but has not uncovered features of the self-concept representation that make it susceptible to such change. Using research on attitude ambivalence as a foundation, the current article predicted that the self would be most likely to respond to a subtle cha...
Article
Multiculturalism (i.e., the recognition and celebration of cultural differences) has many potential benefits for society, including reduced prejudice among nonminorities and increased psychological well-being among ethnic minorities. Yet nonminorities generally tend to resist multiculturalism more than do minorities and believe that it is irrelevan...
Article
Spiral of silence theory does not assume a simple relationship between opinion climate and opinion expression. In fact, the notion of hardcore individuals (who express their opinions regardless of the climate) embraces the idea that there are some people for whom this relationship does not hold true. However, this idea has not been put to a direct...
Article
Full-text available
Multiculturalism, or the belief that racial and ethnic differences should be acknowledged and appreciated, has been met with both positive reactions (e.g., decreased prejudice) and negative reactions (e.g., perceptions of threat) from dominant group members. The present research proposes that multiculturalism can either positively or negatively inf...
Article
Full-text available
Psychological research has devoted much attention to how people judge and predict others. However, a full understanding of social perception necessitates incorporating the responses of the targets, who may have little interest in being predicted. The authors argue that whether people want to be predicted depends on the interpersonal context—in part...
Article
Drawing on distinctiveness and social identity theories, the present studies tested whether minority opinion holders would have a more clearly defined sense of self than majority opinion holders. In Study 1, participants who were induced to believe that they held a minority opinion on a controversial issue had higher subsequent self-concept clarity...
Article
Three studies tested the effects of symbolic threat to group values and strength of ingroup (political party) identification on social dominance orientation (SDO), a measure of tolerance for social hierarchies. In Studies 1 and 3, conservative participants were made to feel as though their group's values were either threatened or not threatened by...
Article
Three studies tested whether group members whose opinions differ from the average member’s opinion in the direction of the group prototype (“descriptive norm deviants”) are more vocal than those whose opinions differ in the opposite direction (“prescriptive norm deviants”), due to the former’s erroneous belief that their opinions are popular. Study...
Article
Three studies tested whether mortality salience would lead men to be more sexually risky than women. In Study 1, men reported greater intentions to engage in risky sexual behaviors than did women after a mortality prime, but not after a control prime. In Study 2, men desired more future sexual partners and had a lower need for intimacy than did wom...
Article
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Members of high-status groups have been shown to favor social inequality, but little research has investigated the boundary conditions of this phenomenon. In the present article we suggest that perceived intergroup threat moderates the relationship between group status and support for social inequality (i.e., social dominance orientation), especial...
Article
People's opinions can deviate from that of the average group member in two ways. Descriptive deviants diverge from the average group attitude in a direction consistent with the desirable group attitude; prescriptive deviants diverge from the average group attitude in a direction inconsistent with the desirable group attitude. Three studies tested t...
Article
Self-consciousness has been shown to both increase and decrease the magnitude of prime-to-behavior effects. In this paper, we decouple the facets of self-consciousness into internal state awareness and self-reflectiveness and show that self-consciousness can be associated with multiple influences on automatic behavior. Specifically, we conducted an...
Article
Based on social identity and intergroup threat theories, we argue that social dominance orientation (SDO) can increase as a result of realistic threat, or perceived obstacles to the ingroup’s position and general welfare. However, this effect should be strongest among highly-identified group members, who are particularly concerned with protecting t...
Article
Full-text available
Significant others can automatically activate a variety of goals, including goals that significant others have for an individual and the individual's personal goals that are associated with the significant others. Across three studies, this article shows that the effects of significant other primes (i.e., mother, roommate) on behavior depend on ind...