Kim Willems

Kim Willems
Vrije Universiteit Brussel | VUB · Business (BUSI)

About

81
Publications
30,296
Reads
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1,252
Citations
Additional affiliations
October 2012 - December 2016
Vrije Universiteit Brussel
Position
  • Assistant Professor of Marketing
October 2012 - present
Hasselt University
Position
  • Voluntary Scientific Co-Worker

Publications

Publications (81)
Article
Two main types of value have been established in the retail literature: merchandise value based on the quality and price of a store's offerings and differentiation value based on the extent of atmospheric cues in the environment. However, it is not clear what happens when a store offers both types of value to a high degree. We investigate how offer...
Article
Purpose Service robots have increasingly been utilized in retail settings, yet empirical research on how frontline employees (FLEs) might deal with this new reality remains scarce. This mixed-methods study aims to examine how FLEs expect physical service robots to impact job characteristics and affect their job engagement and well-being. Design/me...
Conference Paper
Background: So far, research investigating the effect of Social network Sites (SNS) usage and addiction on life satisfaction has been inconclusive while the evidence on problematic use shows a negative effect. In the current study, we examine the effect of Facebook usage and duration on life satisfaction by introducing Facebook addiction (negative...
Article
Full-text available
This study explores the effect of customers motive attributions that is, the motives customers ascribe to a retailer for introducing interactive kiosks into the store, on their expectations of the technology and usage intentions. We study two types of motive attribution: (1) to self-serve the retailer's own economic goals or (2) to better serve cus...
Article
Full-text available
Despite the power of VR in immersing viewers in an experience, it generally only targets viewers via visual and auditory cues. Human beings use more senses to gather information, so expectedly, the full potential of this medium is currently not yet tapped. This study contributes in answering two research questions: (1) How can conventional VR ads b...
Article
In a mature retail market, branding can offer retailers opportunities for setting themselves apart. This study examines the construct ‘brand personality appeal’ (BPA; Freling et al., 2011) in retailing. Two consumer surveys are administered, on fashion retailing (n = 104) and grocery retailing (n = 101), focusing on (1) store personality, (2) BPA,...
Article
Photographs are commonly used in store atmospherics research, although their ecological validity lacks conclusive support. To this end, we examine the effect of different representation media of a retail environment (i.e. one photograph, three photographs, or a real store visit) on customer experience, satisfaction, and behavioural and attitudinal...
Chapter
It is believed that due to quarantine regulations during the covid-19 crisis, more people are attracted to social media. Especially TikTok seems to be linked to this crisis, given its rise to fame during the same period. However, to date, very little is known about TikTok regarding the number of users or usage characteristics. While considered a So...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigates the effectiveness of a humanoid service robot (HSR) versus a tablet service kiosk (TSK) along the stages of the point-of-sale (POS) conversion funnel. The observational data gathered by means of a field experiment show that the HSR elicited 26 times more interactions (i.e., passersby touching the screen) than the TSK and tha...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to empirically investigate the role of the placement (i.e., location) of humanoid service robots (HSRs) for entertainment applications in retailing by inspecting a multitude of performance metrics along the point-of-sale (POS) conversion funnel. Design/Methodology The study was conducted using unobtrusive obs...
Chapter
The current COVID-19 pandemic and containment regulations bring unseen challenges to service organizations. The physical and social servicescape are heavily impacted by government regulations on social distancing and people’s fear of contamination. Retailing has traditionally predominantly been a ‘game of people’, yet faced with the consequences of...
Article
Full-text available
This study examines under which circumstances customers are more likely to process in-store digital display ads. An exploratory field study is conducted (n = 296), with a between-subjects, 2 (value-expressive versus utilitarian messages) by 2 (entrance versus register location) by 2 (low versus high goal relevance) quasi-experimental design, in a r...
Chapter
Most research on Social Network Sites (SNS) has focused on Facebook. Some scholars have argued to abandon the focus on a single platform in favor of studying SNS in general (GSNS). Others call for more comparative research of different SNS. With this study, we contribute to both approaches by taking a multi-cross platform approach comparing specifi...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter provides a literature overview on service robots in retailing and their impact on customers. Our search stems from a Scopus database search, resulting in 18 relevant studies (2009-2019). Current research trends are discussed and future research opportunities are provided. https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?arnumber=9209559&ca...
Article
While several past studies have measured the impact of standards on indicators such as output and productivity for a variety of countries, a quantitative analysis that focuses on Belgium has not been performed yet. Based on a dataset containing sector level data spanning 25 years (1994-2018), the authors find that, next to capital investment and th...
Article
Full-text available
The announcement of beacon technology in 2013 created a wave of excitement among pioneering retailers and marketing leaders, allowing them to send location-based messages to customers in-store. However, until present, the technology has not yet established a strong foothold in retailing. The present paper adopts a multi-method approach with the obj...
Article
This study investigates the effect of the servicescape's ambient, design, and social factors on customer irritation and satisfaction, focusing particularly on the moderating effects of shopping motives and involvement. Across four retail sectors with variations in involvement (i.e., high vs. low) and shopping motives (i.e., utilitarian or hedonic),...
Article
Full-text available
The rise of augmented reality (AR) technology presents e-retailers with new opportunities. According to previous research, it is a technology that can positively affect engagement, brand recall and purchase confidence. Mobile-enabled augmented reality differs from regular mobile phone use as the technology virtually overlays images or information t...
Article
Full-text available
As new advertising formats emerge, research regarding their effectiveness is called for. Since the emergence of virtual reality (VR) technology, several brands have started implementing VR advertising in their communication strategies. The research objective of this study is to examine whether mobile VR advertising can positively impact manageriall...
Article
The authors are grateful to the Journal of Global Fashion Marketing for awarding this “JGFM Achievement Certificate for High Scholarly Impact” to their 2011 “Fashion Store Personality” article. The present paper first provides a retrospective review that examines how subsequent research extended the 2011 findings. In particular, the retrospect focu...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose As online travel marketing is evermore gaining importance, in particular regarding the pre-purchase presentation of travel destinations, it is imperative to examine how various media can engage consumers. The purpose of this paper is to identify how three prominent virtual representation media in tourism marketing differ regarding their pot...
Book
robots; kleinhandel; consument; humanoïde service robots; Pepper
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Humanoid robots hold potential to offer customer experience for bricks-and-mortar stores. Participants took part in a quiz on the topic chocolate in an experimental field study at »The Belgian Chocolate House» in Brussels airport in which a tablet kiosk and a Pepper robot were compared. The experiments showed that offering the quiz on a humanoid ro...
Article
Full-text available
Mobile Virtual Reality provides a gateway for marketers to innovatively reach consumers. This study examines the impact of Virtual Reality in the context of transformational brand experience appeals, focussing specifically on the determining role of vividness. A three-dimensional conceptual framework is presented, offering a systematic review of th...
Chapter
Importance-performance map analysis (IPMA) combines PLS-SEM estimates, indicating the importance of an exogenous construct’s influence on another endogenous construct of interest, with an additional dimension comprising the exogenous construct’s performance in a two-dimensional map. From a practical point of view, IPMA contributes to more rigorous...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose We present an exploratory study on the effectiveness of in-store marketing communication appeals via digital signage applying the Construal Level Theory (CLT) in a field experiment. According to this theory, we hypothesize that shoppers will on the one hand respond more favorably to messages focusing on the desirability of the offering, wh...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose A major factor hampering the continuing and explosive rise of e-commerce, particularly for experience goods, is the lack of tactile information that could help to reduce uncertainty in consumer purchase decision making online. The purpose of this paper is to identify the specific touch-related properties worthwhile to enable in online retai...
Article
Full-text available
Crowding is largely associated with negative consumer outcomes such as shopping irritation and lower levels of shopping pleasure, less positive attitudes and less satisfaction toward the crowded store or mall. While previous research demonstrated the alleviating effect of slow music and greenery on this negative impact of high perceived crowding, t...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The purpose of the current study is to examine whether VR advertising can positively impact managerially relevant brand outcome variables, such as brand personality perceptions, consumer attitudes toward the brand and purchase intentions.
Book
Importance-performance map analysis (IPMA) combines PLS-SEM estimates, indicating the importance of an exogenous construct’s influence on another endogenous construct of interest, with an additional dimension comprising the exogenous construct’s performance in a two-dimensional map. From a practical point of view, IPMA contributes to more rigorous...
Article
Background: Neck pain (NP) and low back pain (LBP) are highly prevalent. Exercise therapy helps, but effect sizes and therapy compliance remain low. Client-centred therapy and technology use may play a role to improve therapy outcomes. To offer technology supported rehabilitation matching patient’s goals, training preferences for rehabilitation and...
Article
Full-text available
This study focuses on innovative ways to digitally instrument the servicescape in bricks-and-mortar retailing. In the present digital era, technological developments allow for augmenting the shopping experience and capturing moments-of-truth along the shopper's path-to-purchase. This article provides an encompassing inventory of retail technologies...
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to profile grocery retailers in terms of seven value types based on Holbrook’s value typology; to link these value types to three key outcomes (i.e. satisfaction, repurchase intention, and word-of-mouth); and to evaluate the impact of the retail format on performance and importance of the seven value types....
Article
Universities, and higher education institutions in general, are ever more influenced by output-driven performance indicators and models that originally stem from the profit-organisational context. As a result, universities are increasingly considering management tools that support them in the (decision) process for attaining their strategic goals....
Article
Aim: The aim of this investigation is to inventorize training preferences and motives for motor rehabilitation of patients with neck pain. This knowledge is paramount in order to develop client-centered training for technology supported rehabilitation. Technology supported rehabilitation offers opportunities for increasing exercise variability duri...
Article
Most of previous studies focus on the effect of customers’ shopping experience on their positive emotional responses. However, some less pleasurable shopping experiences may also generate negative affective responses such as irritation. This research investigates the effect of shopping environment on customers’ level of irritation and customers’ sa...
Article
Most previous studies on store atmospherics have focused on their impact on positive emotional customer responses. However, less pleasurable shopping experiences may also generate negative affective responses. This research investigates the effect of shopping environment on customers’ irritation level and satisfaction across three retail sectors va...
Article
Differentiation is necessary to survive in today’s homogeneous retail landscape. One way to differentiate is by making use of store atmospherics. However, other marketing tools such as offering a bargain might conflict with this store differentiation strategy. In study 1, an experimental consumer lab survey (n = 50) confirms that store environment...
Article
Full-text available
Well-stocked shelves are no longer sufficient for a store to survive in today’s highly competitive retail context. Nowadays, marketers should therefore also focus on targeting the consumer being in a shopping mindset. One of the main problems is that bricks-and-mortar retail stores struggle to gather information on their customers’ path-to-purchase...
Article
Customer value is the cornerstone of marketing theory and practice. Especially in traditional retailing, which can be considered mature and highly competitive, customers are more value conscious than ever before. Holbrook’s (1999) conceptualization of customer value is applied in this study as it comprehensively entails the following value types (t...
Article
The findings of a consumer survey (n = 206) confirm the impact of store personality and self-congruity on customer value. The hypothesized interaction effect between store personality and self-congruity is not supported, implying that store personality is valued by customers, regardless of whether the store’s personality matches the customer’s self...
Article
The incorporation of greenery in retail areas has scarcely been explored in environmental psychology studies. In a 2 × 2 experimental design, the effect of in-store vegetation on consumer emotions and responses toward the store was studied, considering the moderating role of the information rate of the retail setting. While introducing foliage in t...
Article
Fine fashion and fast fashion are ever converging. Just as consumers buy luxury fashion brands to express or enhance their self-image, so also can they patronize fashion stores with a self-congruent personality positioning. This article addresses the following research question: Do people use store personality traits to infer store patron personali...
Article
As the retailing industry has reached the maturity stage, being characterized by an overcapacity of rather homogeneous stores, the necessity of differentiation through positioning becomes increasingly obvious. Traditionally, the differentiation strategy is classified as one of Porter’s main generic types of competitive strategy. In order to obtain...
Chapter
Belgium’s retailing landscape is unique in Europe in numerous ways. This country report pre-sents retailing in Belgium specifically from a managerial perspective. First, the situation in the food- and non-food retail sector is discussed, highlighting some key players, their competitive strategies and results on the Belgian market. Second, Porter’s...
Article
Shopping is often a particularly stressful activity. The positive influence of vegetation on human psychological functioning has already been empirically demonstrated in work-, home-, and hospital environments, but not yet in a retail store context. This study aims to examine (1) whether the presence of in-store vegetation can alleviate stress in c...
Article
Purpose – The ultimate aim of this study is to assess the extent to which sources of store personality inferences are generalizable across different retail sectors. Design/methodology/approach – A qualitative exploratory study was undertaken with a convenience sample of Belgian adult respondents in order to systematically assess the connotations in...
Article
Customer value has been considered a strategic imperative in the retail environment, since the customer is more value conscious than ever before (Sweeney and Soutar 2001). In this study, the authors investigate store personality as a potential source of value. Furthermore, they examine the mediating role of customer value in the relationship betwee...
Article
Up to date, research on customer experiences in retail stores is relatively scarce. When dealing with customer experiences in a retail context, literature typically narrows down to examining the effect of atmospheric cues on customer behavior. To this end, photographs and video are common environmental simulation techniques, whereby authors often r...
Article
In today’s experience economy, wherein consumers often perceive products and services as homogeneous, retailers and designers try to differentiate oneself from competitors by directing the retail and interior design of retail stores towards triggering memorable customer experiences, whereby multiple tangible and intangible stimuli can interact (Car...
Article
This study examines whether consumer perceptions of store personality (SP) differ according to the store's format (hard-discount versus soft-discount and value retailing). A consumer survey (n = 306) is conducted in which respondents are asked to rate these retail formats on five SP dimensions and in terms of self-congruity (SC). The findings of bo...
Chapter
Full-text available
Inhabiting urban environments has become part and parcel of modern man’s life, and nowadays a substantial part of the urban fabric is dedicated to commercial and business-related activities. Although these environments can provide us many advantages and joys, numerous environmental psychology studies also show that exposure to specific natural habi...
Article
Full-text available
Like consumers buy luxury fashion brands to express or enhance their self-image, so can they be expected to patronize fashion stores with a personality positioning that matches their self-concept. This paper first presents a store personality scale development, tailor-made for fashion retailing, in order to account for the phenomenon of “concept-sc...
Article
Over the last three decades solid empirical evidence for the positive influence of greenery on human psychological and cognitive functioning has been steadily accruing. Based on this evidence, researchers and practitioners increasingly realize the importance of urban greening as a strategic activity to promote human wellbeing. Although commercial a...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to identify the main determinants of fashion store personality, as perceived by the shopper. It aims to discover factors that are responsible for specific store personality trait perceptions in order to understand how these humanlike personality traits are induced in a retailing context. Design/methodology/app...
Article
Full-text available
Although many environmental psychology studies have investigated retail settings and green environments separately, the incorporation of greenery in retail areas is barely explored. By means of a 2 by 2 experimental design, we empirically studied the effect of in-store vegetation on consumer emotions and responses towards the store, considering the...
Article
Although some important conceptual and empirical studies have been published with regard to retailer differentiation (e.g. Rudolph and Becker, 2003), a comprehensive framework regarding the design and implementation of a successful differentiation strategy, integrating antecedents, consequences and possible moderating and/or mediating factors is st...
Article
Human beings increasingly come to inhabit urban settings, where there are often less opportunities to experience nature. Based on (environmental) psychological research, scholars and policymakers therefore plead for inserting more green in urban contexts. Research has not only demonstrated that vegetation is aesthetically preferred, it also appears...
Article
While ‘store image’ typically involves the functional properties of a store (merchandize, price/quality, service, …), ‘store personality’ essentially refers to the more psychographic or humanlike personality characteristics of a retail outlet (such as enthusiasm, sophistication, etc…). Since human nor brand personality are directly transferable to...

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Project (1)
Project
Investigating the impact of Pepper robot in a retail environment from a consumer's perspective