Kim B Ritchie

Kim B Ritchie
University of South Carolina Beaufort | USCB · Natural Sciences

PhD

About

110
Publications
23,417
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
6,097
Citations
Introduction
Kim B Ritchie currently works in the Department of Natural Sciences at the University of South Carolina Beaufort. Kim studies coral health and disease, host-microbe interactions, beneficial microbes and drug discovery. Her current project is 'Corals and Climate Change' and 'Microbiology of Sharks, Skates and Rays.'
Additional affiliations
January 2012 - present
Eckerd College
January 2009 - December 2011
University of Florida
Education
August 1994 - May 2000

Publications

Publications (110)
Article
Full-text available
Caribbean populations of the elkhorn coral Acropora palmata have declined due to environmental stress, bleaching, and disease. Potential sources of coral mortality include invasive microbes that become trapped in the surface mucus and thrive under conditions of increased coral stress. In this study, mucus from healthy A. palmata inhibited growth of...
Article
Full-text available
Populations of the shallow-water Caribbean elkhorn coral, Acropora palmata, are being decimated by white pox disease, with losses of living cover in the Florida Keys typically in excess of 70%. The rate of tissue loss is rapid, averaging 2.5 cm2 x day(-1), and is greatest during periods of seasonally elevated temperature. In Florida, the spread of...
Article
Full-text available
Oceanic bacteria perform many environmental functions, including biogeochemical cycling of many elements, metabolizing of greenhouse gases, functioning in oceanic food webs (microbial loop), and producing valuable natural products and viruses. We demonstrate that the widespread capability of marine bacteria to participate in horizontal gene transfe...
Article
Full-text available
Disease-related mortalities of sea urchin populations have occurred globally over the past 20 years, although the causative agents have rarely been identified1. We have discovered a potent new marine pathogen that caused a sudden die-off of the sea urchin Meoma ventricosa in Curaçao, Netherlands Antilles, in January of 1997 (ref. 2), and which also...
Article
Full-text available
The worldwide decline of coral reefs necessitates the development of strategies aimed at controlling coral disease. As a result, various biological approaches are being considered as tools for coral disease management. For example, phage therapy has been shown to be effective in removing pathogens under laboratory conditions, showing promise for th...
Article
Full-text available
Coral reefs are undergoing precipitous decline due to coral bleaching and disease following warming events, with impacted reefs often shifting from coral to macroalgal dominance. We reciprocally transplanted three common coral species between two pairs of coral-dominated marine-protected areas (MPAs) and adjacent macroalgal-dominated fished areas t...
Article
Full-text available
Metazoans host complex communities of microorganisms that include dinoflagellates, fungi, bacteria, archaea and viruses. Interactions among members of these complex assemblages allow hosts to adjust their physiology and metabolism to cope with environmental variation and occupy different habitats. Here, using reciprocal transplantation across depth...
Preprint
Full-text available
Metazoans host complex communities of microorganisms that include dinoflagellates, fungi, bacteria, archaea, and viruses. Interactions among members of these complex assemblages allow hosts to adjust their physiology and metabolism to cope with environmental variation and occupy different habitats. Here, using reciprocal transplantation across dept...
Article
Full-text available
Williams, E. H., Jr., R. L. Hayes, A. W. Bruckner, E. C. Peters, D. L. Santavy, L. Bunkley-Williams, T. J. Goreau, G. W. Smith, J. Cervino, J. H. Landsberg, M. M. Littler, D. S. Littler, K. B. Ritchie, E. Mueller, C. Quirolo, J. W. Porter, K. G. Porter, K. Patterson, L. L. Richardson. 1998. Alarming new coral reef diseases. Reef Line, Summer 1998:...
Article
Full-text available
Seagrass meadows are hotspots of biodiversity with considerable economic and ecological value. The health of seagrass ecosystems is influenced in part by the makeup and stability of their microbiome, but microbiome composition can be sensitive to environmental change such as nutrient availability, elevated temperatures, and reduced pH. The objectiv...
Article
Full-text available
Coral reefs are undergoing degradation due to overexploitation, pollution, and climate change. Management and restoration efforts require that we gain a better understanding of the complex interactions between corals, their microbiomes, and their environment. For this purpose, Varadero Reef near Cartagena, Colombia, serves as an informative study s...
Article
Full-text available
Bleaching and disease are decimating coral reefs especially when warming promotes bleaching pathogens, such as Vibrio coralliilyticus. We demonstrate that sterilized washes from three common corals suppress V. coralliilyticus but that this defense is compromised when assays are run at higher temperatures. For a coral within the ecologically critica...
Article
Full-text available
Dietzia sp. strain WMMA184 was isolated from the marine coralMontastraea faveolataas part of ongoing drug discovery efforts. Analysis of the 4.16-Mb genome provides information regarding interspecies interactions as it pertains to the regulation of secondary metabolism and natural product biosynthesis potential.
Article
Full-text available
Elasmobranchs represent a distinct group of cartilaginous fishes that harbor a remarkable ability to heal wounds rapidly and without infection. To date very little work has addressed this phenomenon although it is suggested that antibiotic capabilities associated with epidermal surfaces may be a factor. The study of benefits derived from mutualisti...
Article
Full-text available
Black band is a deadly coral disease found worldwide, which may become more virulent as oceanic conditions continue to change. To determine the effects of climate change and ocean acidification on black band disease virulence, Orbicella faveolata corals with black band were exposed to different temperature and pH conditions. Results showed a signif...
Data
Schematic diagram of the experimental design within the present study. The large blue rectangles represent the 27 C raceway treatments and the large red rectangles represent the 30C raceway treatments. The small black rectangles represent the 5 gallon glass aquaria that each contain a single colony of Orbicella faveolata (green circles) infected wi...
Data
Standardized grouping information to identify each operational taxonomic unit to the most accurate taxonomic level. (DOCX)
Data
Photochemical efficiency, measured as Yield (Fv/Fm) of Orbicella faveolata fragments infected with black band disease over the 16 day experiment. Data includes all treatment conditions. Error bars represent standard error of the mean. (DOCX)
Data
Carbonate parameters of treatment water (all data from this experiment with the exception of total alkalinity). pCO2 and aragonite saturation values were determined using CO2SYS. Mean (standard deviation). n = 400 for all parameters except TA (n = 16). (DOCX)
Article
Full-text available
Increasing levels of pCO2 within the oceans will select for resistant organisms such as anemones, which may thrive under ocean acidification conditions. However, increasing pCO2 may alter the bacterial community of marine organisms, significantly affecting the health status of the host. A pH gradient associated with a natural volcanic vent system w...
Chapter
Microbial communities associated with coral surfaces are diverse and complex. They play key roles in nutrient acquisition by coral holobionts and in responses to stressors and diseases. Members of coral-associated microbiota produce antimicrobial compounds, inhibit cell-to-cell signaling, and disrupt virulence in opportunistic pathogens. Characteri...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Coral microbes have been hypothesized to promote coral health and protect the host against pathogens. Recent outbreaks of coral diseases are correlated with higher sea-surface temperatures and ocean acidification but few studies focus on the effect of these stresses on coral beneficial bacteria's physiology. This study examines the impact of ocean...
Article
Full-text available
Members of the gammaproteobacterial genus Halomonas are common in marine environments. Halomonas and other members of the Oceanospirillales have recently been identified as prominent members of the surface microbiota of reef-building corals. Halomonas meridiana strain R1t3 was isolated from the surface mucus layer of the scleractinian coral Acropor...
Article
Full-text available
Successful larval settlement and recruitment by corals is critical for the survival of coral reef ecosystems. Several closely related strains of γ-proteobacteria have been identified as cues for coral larval settlement, but the inductive properties of other bacterial taxa naturally occurring in reef ecosystems have not yet been explored. In this st...
Data
Symbiodinium cell counts within Aiptasia exposed to bacteria. Individual Aiptasia strain CC7 anemones were infected with either an α-proteobacterium 45A11 recovered from Symbiodinium Clade D2 (A) or the coral pathogen V. coralliilyticus (B) at three concentrations (108, 107, 106 cfu ml−1). Anemones were sampled prior to the infection (day 0) and 1,...
Data
DGGE analysis of A. pallida-associated microbiota following challenge with the reconstituted CYBD. Polyps infected with the reconstituted CYBD (consisting of Vibrio-like strains 1B4, 3B7, 1H5, and 2H12, previously isolated from the CYBD-affected M. faveolata) and un-infected polyps were rinsed in sterile artificial seawater, and DNA was extracted u...
Article
Full-text available
Microbial biofilms induce larval settlement for some invertebrates, including corals; however, the chemical cues involved have rarely been identified. Here, we demonstrate the role of microbial biofilms in inducing larval settlement with the Caribbean coral Porites astreoides and report the first instance of a chemical cue isolated from a marine bi...
Article
Full-text available
Incidents of coral disease are on the rise. However, in the absence of a surrogate animal host, understanding of the interactions between coral pathogens and their hosts remains relatively limited, compared to other pathosystems of similar global importance. A tropical sea anemone, Aiptasia pallida, has been investigated as a surrogate model to stu...
Article
Coral reefs are under increasing stress caused by global and local environmental changes, which are thought to increase the susceptibility of corals to opportunistic pathogens. In the absence of an easily culturable model animal, the understanding of the mechanisms of disease progression in corals remains fairly limited. In the present study, we te...
Article
Full-text available
Bacteria living within the surface mucus layer of corals compete for nutrients and space. A number of stresses affect the outcome of this competition. The interactions between native microorganisms and opportunistic pathogens largely determine the coral holobiont's overall health and fitness. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that commensal b...
Article
Full-text available
Over the last decade, significant advances have been made in characterization of the coral microbiota. Shifts in its composition often correlate with the appearance of signs of diseases and/or bleaching, thus suggesting a link between microbes, coral health and stability of reef ecosystems. The understanding of interactions in coral-associated micr...
Article
Full-text available
Over the last decade, significant advances have been made in characterization of the coral microbiota. Shifts in its composition often correlate with the appearance of signs of diseases and/or bleaching, thus suggesting a link between microbes, coral health and stability of reef ecosystems. The understanding of interactions in coral-associated micr...
Article
Full-text available
Acute catastrophic events can cause significant damage to marine environments in a short time period and may have devastating long-term impacts. In April 2010 the BP-operated Deepwater Horizon (DWH) offshore oil rig exploded, releasing an estimated 760 million liters of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico. This study examines the potential effects of...
Article
Full-text available
Over the last decade, significant advances have been made in characterization of the coral microbiota. Shifts in its composition often correlate with the appearance of signs of diseases and/or bleaching, thus suggesting a link between microbes, coral health and stability of reef ecosystems. The understanding of interactions in coral-associated micr...
Article
Full-text available
The outcome of the interactions between native commensal microorganisms and opportunistic pathogens is crucial to the health of the coral holobiont. During the establishment within the coral surface mucus layer, opportunistic pathogens, including a white pox pathogen Serratia marcescens PDL100, compete with native bacteria for available nutrients....
Article
In order to colonize and infect their eukaryotic hosts, opportunistic pathogens rely on global regulatory systems to assess the environment and to control virulence and metabolism in order to overcome host defenses and out-compete native host-associated microbiota. In γ-proteobacteria, GacS/GacA is one such regulatory system. GacA orthologs direct...
Article
Full-text available
Microbial genomic sequence analyses have indicated widespread horizontal gene transfer (HGT). However, an adequate mechanism accounting for the ubiquity of HGT has been lacking. Recently, high frequencies of interspecific gene transfer have been documented, catalyzed by Gene Transfer Agents (GTAs) of marine α-Proteobacteria. It has been proposed th...
Article
Full-text available
Recent research has explored the possibility that increased sea-surface temperatures and decreasing pH (ocean acidification) contribute to the ongoing decline of coral reef ecosystems. Within corals, a diverse microbiome exerts significant influence on biogeochemical and ecological processes, including food webs, organismal life cycles, and chemica...
Article
Full-text available
Recent research has explored the possibility that increased sea-surface temperatures and decreasing pH (ocean acidification) contribute to the ongoing decline of coral reef ecosystems. Within corals, a diverse microbiome exerts significant influence on biogeochemical and ecological processes, including food webs, organismal life cycles, and chemica...
Data
Sequences were screened for chimeras by the submitter using Pintail 2.0.
Data
Sequences were screened for chimeras by the submitter using Pintail 2.0.
Data
Sequences were screened for chimeras by the submitter using Pintail 2.0.
Data
Sequences were screened for chimeras by the submitter using Pintail 2.0.
Data
Sequences were screened for chimeras by the submitter using Pintail 2.0.
Data
Sequences were screened for chimeras by the submitter using Pintail 2.0.
Chapter
Full-text available
Multipartite symbiosis in corals is an exciting area of research that is not well studied. Research to date indicates that bacterial associates of corals may protect the host by producing antibiotics and other beneficial compounds and nutrients, and are likely to play a role in the stability of the coral animal as a whole. These bacterial mutualist...
Article
Full-text available
Interactions within microbial communities associated with marine holobionts contribute importantly to the health of these symbiotic organisms formed by invertebrates, dinoflagellates and bacteria. However, mechanisms that control invertebrate-associated microbiota are not yet fully understood. Hydrophobic compounds that were isolated from surfaces...
Article
Full-text available
Corals are known to contain a diverse microbiota; however, few studies have explicitly addressed the spatial variability of bacterial communities across individual, healthy coral colonies. This study applied culture-based and culture-independent methods to examine the spatial heterogeneity in bacterial communities in the mucus of 3 healthy Montastr...
Data
Sequences were screened for chimeras by the submitter using Pintail.
Data
Sequences were screened for chimeras by the submitter using Pintail.
Data
Sequences were screened for chimeras by the submitter using Pintail.
Data
Sequences were screened for chimeras by the submitter using Pintail.
Data
Sequences were screened for chimeras by the submitter using Pintail.