Kim Klyver

Kim Klyver
University of Southern Denmark | SDU · Department of Entrepreneurship and Relationship Management

About

93
Publications
19,496
Reads
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2,242
Citations
Citations since 2017
41 Research Items
1560 Citations
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20172018201920202021202220230100200300400
20172018201920202021202220230100200300400
20172018201920202021202220230100200300400
Additional affiliations
March 2006 - March 2007
Swinburne University of Technology
Position
  • PostDoc Position
Description
  • Co-PI of Global Entrepreneurship Monitor, Australia

Publications

Publications (93)
Preprint
Full-text available
Rapid individual cognitive phenotyping holds the potential to revolutionize domains as wide-ranging as personalized learning, employment practices, and precision psychiatry. Going beyond limitations imposed by traditional lab-based experiments, new efforts have been underway towards greater ecological validity and participant diversity to capture t...
Article
In this study we investigate the (relative) importance of four psychological factors previously identify as important for entrepreneurship in adversity. Specifically, we investigate the importance of personal initiative, individual resilience, entrepreneurial self-efficacy and crisis self-efficacy for new venture novelty among Ukrainian refugee ent...
Article
Masculine stereotypes of entrepreneurship represent a threat to women. We aim to understand how such stereotype threat affects women’s opportunity evaluation through anxiety. We test our idea using a two-randomized-experiment strategy and achieve external validity using a survey of female entrepreneurs. We find that situational anxiety, as an emoti...
Article
In the agricultural sector, the Law of Jante—a Scandinavian form of cultural intolerance towards standing out, being different and overachieving (akin to the Tall Poppy Syndrome and The nail that sticks out gets hammered down culture found in other countries)—may play an important role by influencing when entrepreneurship is an acceptable strategic...
Article
Full-text available
Major improvements in life expectancies associate with interesting societal transformations. By changing individuals’ preferences for engaging in both productive and non-productive activities across their lifespan, changes in life expectancy paradoxically affect both the financing and the costs of social welfare systems. This raises the importance...
Article
We investigate COVID-19 as a disabling and an enabling mechanism for small and mid-size enterprises (SMEs), particularly how SMEs’ crisis strategies might help them through the crisis. SMEs can follow a retrenchment strategy, a persevering strategy, or an innovation strategy, and they can do so narrowly or broadly. Using a representative sample of...
Article
In two studies, we investigate whether the link between entrepreneurial self-efficacy and entrepreneurial intentions depends on outcome expectations. In Study 1, we exploit the COVID-19-induced lockdown as a natural experiment in a two-wave student sample. We compare the efficacy–intention link in survey responses submitted right before and right a...
Article
Full-text available
We observe the opportunity-production processes of aspiring refugee entrepreneurs in their host countries. Our process data from eighteen refugee entrepreneurs reveal heterogeneity in how entrepreneurs move across the opportunity-production stages of conceptualization, objectifica-tion, and enactment. We identify four patterns, which are characteri...
Chapter
Given the scarcity of resources in new ventures, a key challenge for entrepreneurs is the mobilization of external resources from their social networks to combine with already available internal resources in their attempts to develop and exploit opportunities. Prior research has been insightful in providing explanations on how mobilizing external r...
Chapter
Entrepreneurs benefit from their social network positions. In this chapter, we question how entrepreneurs get those benefits. We distinguish two broad perspectives on the way networks are conceptualized—namely, the entrepreneur’s business network perspective and the social network perspective . The business network perspective, with strong links to...
Chapter
The literature often has assumed, explicitly or implicitly, that entrepreneurs use networks to develop opportunity, access resources, and gain legitimacy in order to perform and achieve success. Entrepreneurs’ networks have become a powerful explanation of success and performance in academia, in the business world, and in the popular press. However...
Chapter
This chapter presents an entrepreneurship-as-networking perspective on new venture legitimacy. New ventures are more likely to survive and perform when various audiences and stakeholders perceive their activities as legitimate. This is especially true when new ventures are pursuing something novel and innovative. Therefore, it is crucial for new ve...
Chapter
This chapter introduces the entrepreneurship-as-networking perspective. The authors argue that a focus on the social-interactive aspects and action orientation of entrepreneurship is needed. They contribute an integrated account in which the entrepreneur’s agency is combined with a greater emphasis on the social environment. The importance of socia...
Chapter
Throughout this book, based on several literatures, the authors have developed the entrepreneurship-as-networking perspective. That is, networking among entrepreneurs—in their attempts to develop opportunity, mobilize resource, and obtain legitimacy—is the key and primary component of entrepreneurial action. Entrepreneurship always involves network...
Book
This book presents entrepreneurship as networking as a perspective. Persistent problems around the dominant “individual-opportunity” approach in the entrepreneurship field motivated the authors to focus on the social-interactive aspects and action orientation of entrepreneurship. The work promises to address the challenge of providing a more integr...
Chapter
This chapter presents an entrepreneurship-as-networking perspective on opportunity perception, evaluation, and action. Entrepreneurial opportunities are seen as relationally constituted; thus, social networks are a fundamental aspect of all opportunity-related processes. The network ties upon which entrepreneurs can draw largely influence their opp...
Article
Some recent studies have focused on how social support explains the variability of entrepreneurs’ venture goal commitment. These studies have exclusively featured solo entrepreneurs, however, examining the support available to individuals from external ties, while neglecting the social support shared among team members in new venture teams (NVTs)....
Article
Full-text available
With regards to the ongoing impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in the domain of entrepreneurship, we offer research-based evidence and associated insights focused on three perspectives (i.e., business planning, frugality, and emotional support) regarding entrepreneurial action under an exogenous shock. Beyond the initial emergency response that countr...
Article
We combine insights from behavioral and skill perspectives on network agency to address how entrepreneurs’ networking with close social ties and weak ties influences business launch, and the extent to which social skills strengthened or weakened these influences. Combining network perspectives previously developed in parallel, we fill in the gap of...
Article
Hybrid entrepreneurship, simultaneous employment and entrepreneurship, is increasingly prevalent. We theorize entrepreneurial entry as one possible outcome of a two-stage new employment search process 1) decision to search for a job, attempt a start-up, or both and 2) outcome of start-up attempts. Stage 2 is critically different for hybrid (employe...
Article
In this study, we are interested in whether and when individuals’ ability to interact with others influences their tendency to provide social support to nascent entrepreneurs. We argue that social skills are not only necessary for entrepreneurs to obtain resources but also important for those people (alters) providing entrepreneurs with support, an...
Article
In this article, we develop three ideal types of cultural expectations informed by a qualitative critical event analysis of Danish entrepreneurs’ expectations of emotional support, informing a broader conceptual framework and future research agenda of cultural expectation alignment of support behaviour. We suggest that family relations associate wi...
Article
Research on the vocational decision to become an entrepreneur highlights how culture justifies such decisions when entrepreneurs align with the dominant cultural norms. Less is known about such justification when entrepreneurship is seen as less culturally appropriate. This qualitative study explores how entrepreneurs in Santiago, Chile and Nairobi...
Article
Full-text available
Based on social cognitive theory, we theorize that collective efficacy plays a mediating role in the relationship between paternalistic leadership and organizational commitment and that this mediating role depends on team cohesion. The empirical results from a study of 238 employees from 52 teams at manufacturing companies show that benevolent lead...
Article
Prior research has suggested that low gender egalitarianism results in a gender gap in entrepreneurship participation, as it provides men and women with different opportunities and constraints. However, this research has primarily relied on an unrealistic assumption, namely that gender-related opportunities and constraints occur evenly throughout d...
Article
In this study, we investigate the relationship between growth and profitability in young SMEs. Prior discussions in this area have primarily concerned how well either the market or resource perspective explains the performance of companies. We argue that those two perspectives do not provide competing explanations, but rather complementary explanat...
Article
An individual’s commitment stimulates action, but we know little about how entrepreneurial commitment initially emerges. Utilising affect-as-information and the appraisal theory, our objective is to investigate the influence of situational emotional information on the venture goal commitment of individuals, defined as commitment to the goal of star...
Article
Full-text available
This paper investigates how the timing of social support, both emotional and instrumental support, affects entrepreneurial persistence of nascent entrepreneurs. Drawing on social support theory, we hypothesize that the effectiveness of support depends on when, during the venture development process (number of gestation activities completed), it is...
Article
Loose coupling as an antecedent to symbolic management is rarely if ever studied at the individual level of analysis. Yet, individuals are central agents in starting and developing new businesses. Inspired by cultural and institutional theory, this study examines the cognitive coupling and symbolic management of entrepreneurial intentions of indivi...
Article
Full-text available
Nascent entrepreneurs' gestation activities are crucial for firm emergence. Compelled by a partial understanding of these activities as sufficient conditions, however, scholars drifted into a wild-goose chase to track down increasingly complex activity configurations. No study has ever examined gestation activities as necessary conditions for firm...
Article
Full-text available
In this study, we develop and test a gendered social capital model of altruistic investment behavior that explains why some informal investors expect high returns on their investments while others expect no payback at all. Prior literature predominantly assumes that informal investors engage in investment activities with a return on investment and...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the role of the special interests of key decision makers in entrepreneurship policy formation at the national level. The core question is: what is the role that special interests play in a situation with significantly improved evidence through a growing number of high-quality international bench...
Article
This article examines variations in performance between fast-growth - the so-called gazelle - firms. Specifically, we investigate how the level of growth affects future profitability and how this relationship is moderated by firm strategy. Hypotheses are developed regarding the moderated growth-profitability relationship and are tested using longit...
Article
An individual’s human capital affects both the opportunities available through starting a business as well as the opportunity costs of forgoing employment opportunities. Drawing on the notions of search, evaluation, and uncertainty costs from decision theory, we argue that an individual’s human capital shapes whether nascent entrepreneurship and/or...
Article
The purpose of the present paper is to contribute to the small but growing literature studying the role of individual-level factors in corporate entrepreneurship. We use a pretest-posttest experimental design with 328 employees to capture dynamic effects between affective states and idea generation. Building on the affective shift model (Bledow, Sc...
Article
Being interested in how what individuals have influences what they give, we adapt the bidirectional social support hypothesis and the ‘feel good, do good’ hypothesis – both approaching social support as a bidirectional and reciprocal process – to an entrepreneurship context in order to develop an argument of how individuals pass on the good vibes....
Article
In this study, we combine a network agency explanation with a relational explanation of role expectations to understand the circumstances under which network agency matters for access to emotional support. The traditional structurally-based social network perspective overlooks, to some extent, the capacity of the entrepreneur to act on his or her o...
Article
Classical network theory states that social networks are a form of capital because they provide access to resources. In this article, we propose that network effects differ between collectivistic and individualistic contexts. In a collectivistic context, resource sharing will be “value based.” It is expected that members of a group support each oth...
Article
In this study, we combine a sociological explanation of social embeddedness with a psychological explanation of social skills to explain entrepreneurs’ resource acquisition. First, we argue that as a by-product of entrepreneurs’ different lives, they experience variations in the degree and nature of social embeddedness causing variations in their r...
Article
The concept of loose coupling continues to be vibrant in the development of institutional theory; however how loose coupling applies at the cognitive level of analysis between individuals’ self-efficacy and entrepreneurial intentions has not be explored. Combining cognitive and cultural theories, we show that entrepreneurial self-efficacy’s well-es...
Article
Although prior research primarily has investigated the independent financial, human, and social capital effects on the decision to create a new venture, little research has investigated the combined effects, leaving potentially meaningful interdependencies less well understood. This study addresses that void explicitly by investigating both the ind...
Article
Full-text available
The findings of the 2000 Danish GEM report show anoverview of both Danish entrepreneurial activity and an internationalcomparison, reviewing Denmark's position in relation to the other 20 countriesparticipating in the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) research project in2000. Specific results for Denmark include the following: the nation ranks...
Article
In this paper we investigate the extent to which gender equality disintegrates women's self-employment choice (compared to that for men) and whether this is contingent upon a country's development stage and industries. We rely on symbolic interactionism to argue that employment choices emerge from an interactive conversation between individual and...
Article
Full-text available
Entrepreneurship policy emerges, as other policy fields, across formal and informal institutional boundaries and should, according to rational reasoning, be tailored to specific institutional contexts. However, policies do not always adjust well to the rational needs in each institutional context. Certain policies and the way they are implemented m...
Article
Full-text available
Case studies on three diverse cultural groups are used to investigate how culture norms and practices moderate the way entrepreneurs utilize social networking. Moving away from a universalist mono-dimensional position, prior research calls for studies on how culture moderates entrepreneurial networking. Understandably, the concept of a national cul...
Article
Do entrepreneurial ties increase innovativeness during the start-up process? Based on data collected from 45 countries and 7,067 nascent entrepreneurs, the authors’ results indicate that knowing someone who has started a business within the last two years (entrepreneurial ties) has a significant impact on the intended level of innovativeness during...
Article
Purpose By adding an alter perspective to the traditional ego perspective on gender differences in entrepreneurial networks, the purpose of this study is to investigate whether involvement of family members who are not partners and exchange of emotional support is associated not only with the gender of the entrepreneurs but also the gender of entre...
Article
This study investigates the influence of human capital, social capital, and cognition on nascent entrepreneurs' export intentions. The results indicate that while human capital and social capital influence the level of intended export, cognitive characteristics, such as self-efficacy and risk aversion, do not seem to influence entrepreneurs' intend...
Book
This comprehensive Handbook provides an essential analysis of new venture creation research. The eminent contributors critically discuss and explore the current literature as well as suggest improvements to the field. They reveal a strong sense of both the 'state-of-the-art' (what has and has not been done in new venture creation research) and the...
Article
Using data collected from 714 entrepreneurs in a random sample of 10,000 Danes, this study provides an investigation of the effect of human capital on social capital among entrepreneurs. Previous entrepreneurship research has extensively investigated the separated effect of human capital and social capital on different entrepreneurial outputs. The...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between an individual's personal acquaintance with an entrepreneur and his/her participation in entrepreneurial activity at three distinct new venture stages: discovery (intending to start a business), start‐up (actively in the process of starting a business), and young (running a...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated the influence that 'professional advisors on financial matters' have in comparison with other people with whom entrepreneurs discuss their venture. Based on follow-up surveys completed in relation to the Danish participation in the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) survey, it was found that professional advisors on finan...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter was motivated by a belief, based on a substantial body of research, that prevailing theoretical models of entrepreneurial intensions are underspecified. Currently, such models as represented by the Shapero–Kreuger intentions model (Krueger et al., 2000) are highly focused on cognition in its more limited sense of the thinking process t...
Article
Full-text available
By investigating differences in social networks among entrepreneurs in 20 cultures, this paper contributes to the debate on whether there is universality in the process of entrepreneurial networking. Representative samples of entrepreneurs were identified in the same manner in 20 countries from 2000 to 2004 (N = 304,560). The sampling methodologies...
Article
This paper presents an analytical framework, focused on individuals as the unit of analysis that enables micro-level analytical insights to be drawn from data collected in the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) project. GEM is among the largest entrepreneurship research initiatives in the world. Its main purpose is to investigate how entrepreneu...
Article
Purpose This article aims to investigate the practice adopted by entrepreneurs regarding their use of consultants through the business life cycle. Design/methodology/approach A representative sample of Danish entrepreneurs was surveyed with response rates of 73 percent and 92 percent. The Danish GEM population survey was merged with own follow‐up...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Using data collected in 45 countries over three years (2002-2004), this study investigates the influence of entrepreneurial embeddedness on innovativeness as nascent entrepreneurs (N=7,067) are in the process of starting new businesses. Previous studies have investigated the effect of entrepreneurial embeddedness on the likelihood that individuals...
Article
Full-text available
Using data collected from 35 countries over five years, this study provides an investigation of the combined influence of cultural factors and social network structure on whether or not an individual, anywhere in the world, becomes an entrepreneur. Results show that knowing someone who has started a business recently, across the world, has a signif...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: This study explores gender differences in the composition of entrepreneurs’ networks at four new venture stages: discovery, emergence, young and established. Methodology/approach: ANOVA and linear regression on a sample of 134 female and 266 male entrepreneurs. Findings: Female entrepreneurs have significantly lower proportions of males...
Article
Purpose Using an entrepreneurial network perspective, this article seeks to investigate the involvement of family members during early stages of the entrepreneurial process – the time from intention until the business is established. Design/methodology/approach A multivariate statistical regression analysis was carried out on data generated throug...
Article
This study empirically tests the fundamental assumption that social networks are important to entrepreneurs. This assumption underpins most social network research conducted in the field of entrepreneurship and is seldom questioned. Empirical data were drawn from Australia’s participation in the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor project (GEM) from 20...
Article
Based on a representative sample of entrepreneurs operating at three succeeding phases of the entrepreneurial process, this study investigates if differences in social network structures can be found between export-oriented and domestic-oriented entrepreneurs. Two hypotheses are developed based on previous research into internationalisation, includ...
Article
Purpose – The aim of the article is to explore the dynamics of the management consulting process for small firms as an outcome of interactive processes. Design/methodology/approach – The explorative study is based on a summary sketch of an interactive research project (LOS) in which small firms and their interactions with management consultants wer...
Article
Full-text available
Using a set of variables measured in the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) study, our empirical investigation explored the influence of mass media through national culture on national entrepreneurial participation rates in 37 countries over 4years (2000 to 2003). We found that stories about successful entrepreneurs, conveyed in mass media, were...
Article
In this paper we review selected papers on entrepreneurship dealing with Granovetter's concept of strong and weak ties in order to systematically organize the articles according to the researchers' estimate of what ties are most important. The aim is to find out what the existing research applying the entrepreneurship network approach says about th...
Article
Using survey data collected in Uganda, we investigate how resource acquisition is determined by structural characteristics of entrepreneurs’ networks and relational characteristics of entrepreneurs’ relations, and how these determinants depend on the context in which entrepreneurs are embedded. This study aims to make two original contributions to...
Article
This study investigates entrepreneurs’ involvement of females in their social networks. It adds to previous research on social networks and gender by shifting the focus from the gender of ‘ego’ to the gender of ‘alter’. Most gender research in entrepreneurship is trying to explore if and how women adapt different practice throughout the entrepreneu...
Article
The GEM Australia project is based on annual research - principally the annual GEM Australia national population survey - that presents its results using a matrix approach which breaks total entrepreneurial activity into six components (participation, motivation, innovation, growth, finance and entrepreneurial capacity). Each component is discussed...
Article
This study investigates how instrumental and emotional support from family differentiates between the vocational decision to become self-employed and the vocational decision to become employed in an existing organization. The study makes two original contributions to existing entrepreneurship theory. First, apart from integrating nascent entreprene...
Article
Studies have been carried out on both entrepreneurial networks and entrepreneurial intentions. However, the crossfield between these two areas has been neglected. Earlier studies indicate that an individual's social circle or network of contacts provides information and resources which shape opportunity recognition and thereby influence the intenti...
Article
Forskningsbaseret paper Resume Vaekst og profitabilitet ses ofte som centrale ledelsesmaessige målsaetninger for virksomheder. Høj vaekst kan ses som en indikator for succes og som et middel til at opnå konkurrencemaessige fordele og højere profitabilitet. Men høj vaekst kan også medføre en raekke ledelsesmaessige og organisatoriske udfordringer, d...

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