Kiel Christianson

Kiel Christianson
University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign | UIUC · Department of Educational Psychology

PhD, Michigan State University

About

99
Publications
26,265
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2,521
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Publications

Publications (99)
Article
Full-text available
The role of contextual influences on sentence processing remains underdeveloped and is often assumed to play some vaguely defined role in sentence processing. In 2005, Grodner, Gibson, and Watson (GGW) used self-paced reading to test the extent to which preceding discourse structure and complexity influence the interpretation of restrictive relativ...
Article
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Health care delivery depends on effective provider–patient communication. An important issue is whether and how this communication differs for second language (SL) patients. While understanding health information can be impaired by limited English proficiency, we examined a potential benefit of SL use. SL users may be “affectively distanced”, with...
Chapter
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Participants in psycholinguistic experiments are typically asked to read or listen to dozens of individual, uncontextualized, disconnected sentences, ranging from perfectly normal to extremely odd in one or more respects. In this chapter, we consider the possibility that a nontrivial number of participants are not terribly motivated to process such...
Poster
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Earlier assumptions against morphological processing of upcoming words while reading in linear concatenative morphology languages (e.g. English (Kambe, 2004; Lima, 1987); Finnish (Bertram & Hyona, 2007); and Malay (Winskel et al., 2014)) need to be re-evaluated due to the emerging evidence for such processing (e.g. Russian (Stoops & Christianson, 2...
Article
Full-text available
Attraction effects in comprehension have reliably shown a grammaticality asymmetry in which mismatching plural attractors confer facilitatory interference for ungrammatical verbs but no processing cost for grammatical verbs (Tanner et al., 2014; Wagers et al., 2009). While this has favored cue-based retrieval accounts of attraction phenomena in com...
Poster
Full-text available
We investigate child L1 acquisition of Russian nominal morphology. Three competing models are tested: (1) Dual-Route model (e.g. Pinker et al., 2002), where default forms are acquired first; (2) usage-based model (e.g. Ellis et al., 2016), which emphasizes the frequency of salient endings; and (3) generative-probabilistic model (Hayes et al., 2008)...
Preprint
We present the first investigation of parafoveal syntactic predictability modulation of inflectional morphology. Earlier eye-tracking studies with boundary-change manipulations have established that highly expected (78% Cloze test score) morphologically related preview have been integrated into the message level sentence stream as the related previ...
Poster
Full-text available
Syntactic adaptation occurs when readers are repeatedly exposed to an infrequent ambiguity resolution like in: The horse (that was) raced past the barn fell. These sentences typically elicit ambiguity effects which, in the case of adaptation, decrease over subsequent trials. It is unknown whether syntactic adaptation is driven by familiarity with t...
Article
Full-text available
Morphosyntactic information does not seem to modulate parafoveal processing (Fig1) in linear inflectional morphology languages (English (Kambe, 2004), Finnish (Bertram, 2003), Malay (Winskel et al., 2014)). To adjudicate between serial and parallel accounts (EZ-Reader (Reichle et al., 2009) vs SWIFT (Engbert et al., 2005)), such studies report only...
Poster
Full-text available
Morphosyntactic information does not seem to modulate parafoveal processing in linear inflectional morphology languages (English (Kambe, 2004), Finnish (Bertram, 2003), Malay (Winskel et al., 2014)). To adjudicate between serial and parallel accounts (EZ-Reader (Reichle et al., 2009) vs SWIFT (Engbert et al., 2005)), such studies report only early...
Article
Full-text available
Convergent probabilistic cues do not trigger syntactic adaptation 2 ABSTRACT Previous work has ostensibly shown that readers rapidly adapt to less predictable ambiguity resolutions after repeated exposure to unbalanced statistical input (e.g., a high number of reduced relative-clause garden-path sentences), and that these readers grow to disfavor t...
Poster
Full-text available
Second language (L2) learners whose first language (L1) does not morphologically mark agreement tend to experience difficulties during online processing. This study attempts to show sensitivity to agreement violations may dwindle as a function of cognitive resources and structural complexity, manipulated by distance. Our predictions were based on t...
Article
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This article presents the data analyzed in the paper "Is imagining a voice like listening to it? Evidence from ERPs" [1]. The data include individual ERP data when participants were performing auditory imagery of native and non-native English speech during silent reading vs. normal silent reading, and behavioral results from participants performing...
Article
We investigated the role that semantic constraint and participant control over stimulus presentation have on early stages of visual word recognition. Namely, we tested how the presence of a highly constraining sentential context influences the expectations that readers have during incremental sentence processing. Further, we tested whether allowing...
Poster
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Studies investigating syntactic expectation adaptation to reduced-relative (RR) garden-path sentences (GP) have shown mixed results regarding penalties for a priori more frequent main-verb (MV) structures after repeated exposure to the former, as originally shown by Fine et al. (2013) (cf. Harrington-Stack et al., 2018). The failure to replicate th...
Poster
Full-text available
Goal: In the study we investigate the L1 acquisition of Russian nominal morphology by children. Background: Three competing models are tested: (1) Dual-Route model (e.g., Pinker et al., 2002), where default forms are acquired first; (2) usage-based model (e.g. Ellis et al., 2016), which emphasizes the frequency of salient endings, and (3) generati...
Poster
Full-text available
We examined the role of case-ending frequency, case saliency (explicit and unique marking). A dual-route model of morphological acquisition predicts that second class declension nouns should be most accurate as a default (most frequent) class. Usage-based and generative-probabilistic models predict that the accuracy for the feminine nouns of the fi...
Article
During normal reading, readers’ perceptions of time in a narrative shift according to grammatical and semantic cues. This study investigated the extent to which second-language (L2) readers’ interpretations of situations depicted in narratives are influenced by the grammatical aspect (perfective/progressive) and temporal duration (short/long) of in...
Article
Full-text available
Agreement attraction in comprehension (when an ungrammatical verb is read quickly if preceded by a feature-matching local noun) is well described by a cue-based retrieval framework. This suggests a role for lexical retrieval in attraction. To examine this, we manipulated two probabilistic factors known to affect lexical retrieval: local noun word f...
Poster
Full-text available
Fine, Jaeger, Farmer, & Qian (2013, PLoS One) published a highly influential and widely-cited paper reporting the results of two self-paced reading experiments which ostensibly showed that readers rapidly adjust their syntactic expectations about upcoming text if they are exposed to statistically unbalanced input. Using reduced-relative clause (RC)...
Article
The present study examined whether the inflectional morphology on Russian nouns is processed parafoveally in words longer than five characters while the eyes are fixated on the word. A modified boundary-change paradigm was used to examine parafoveal processing of nominal case markings within a currently fixated word n. The results elicited identica...
Poster
Parafoveal processing of Russian inflectional morphology was tested in native speakers (NS) and English L1/Russian L2-learners (L2-learners) via a boundary-change paradigm (Rayner, 1975). The NS elicited identical preview benefit for first-pass measures (SF/GD/GPT) and preview cost for the morphologically related for GPT. The L2-learners elicited i...
Poster
Full-text available
Parafoveal processing of inflectional morphology of Russian nouns was tested in Russian native speakers and Russian L2/English L1 via a boundary-change paradigm (Rayner, 1975) in a second post-verbal argument position not examined previously. The native speakers elicited identical preview benefit for both first -pass measures (SF, GD, GPT) on the...
Article
Readers who have seen the Harry Potter movies before reading the novels may "hear" actors' voices in their heads when they later read the books. This phenomenon of mentally simulating the voice of speakers depicted in texts has been referred to as auditory perceptual simulation (APS). How much is this mental simulation of voices like listening to a...
Article
When introducing new words in a second language (L2), presenting vocabulary with concurrent gestures might facilitate learners’ recollection of new words. Previous research has suggested that this gestural advantage might hold only for gestures that overlap with the semantics of the words. Dual coding theory predicts that learners should learn inpu...
Article
Full-text available
An ongoing debate in Chinese psycholinguistics is whether subject-relative clauses or object-relative clauses are more difficult to process. The current study asks what happens when structure and plausibility are pitted against each other in Chinese relative clause processing. Chinese relative clause structures and semantic plausibility were manipu...
Article
In two self-paced reading and one ERP experiments, this study tested the good-enough processing account, which states that readers sometimes misinterpret sentences like While the man hunted the deer ran into the woods because they fail to fully revise the syntactic structure [Christianson, K., Hollingworth, A., Halliwell, J. F., & Ferreira, F. (200...
Article
Full-text available
We report the results of a bilingual continuous recognition memory task during which single- and multi-neuron activity was recorded in human subjects with intracranial microwire implants. Subjects (n = 5) were right-handed Spanish-English bilinguals who were undergoing evaluation prior to surgery for severe epilepsy. Subjects were presented with Sp...
Article
Previous studies suggest that taboo words are special in regards to language processing. Findings from the studies have led to the formation of two theories, global resource theory and binding theory, of taboo word processing. The current study investigates how readers process taboo words embedded in sentences during silent reading. In two experime...
Article
This article presents the Provo Corpus, a corpus of eye-tracking data with accompanying predictability norms. The predictability norms for the Provo Corpus differ from those of other corpora. In addition to traditional cloze scores that estimate the predictability of the full orthographic form of each word, the Provo Corpus also includes measures o...
Article
The present study investigated whether inflectional morphology on Russian nouns is processed parafoveally during silent reading. The boundary-change paradigm [Rayner, K. (1975). The perceptual span and peripheral cues in reading. Cognitive Psychology, 7, 65–81] was used to examine parafoveal processing of nominal case markings of Russian nouns. The...
Chapter
Psycholinguistics is the study of the interfaces between language structure and language use: between thought and production, production and comprehension, and comprehension and thought, as well as the many other cognitive systems that shape the use of language as it is flowing into and out of the mind in real time. This chapter begins with a (very...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated whether orthographic consistency and individual learner differences including working memory (WM), first language (L1) background, and second language (L2) proficiency affect Chinese L2 learners’ literacy acquisition. Seventy American college students in beginning or intermediate Chinese classes participated in a character l...
Article
The current study investigates the online processing consequences of encountering compound words with transposed letters (TLs), to determine if cross-morpheme TLs are more disruptive to reading than those within a single morpheme, as would be predicted by accounts of obligatory morpho-orthopgrahic decomposition. Two measures of online processing, e...
Article
In this study, we report the results of two self-paced reading experiments that investigated working memory capacity effects on the processing of globally ambiguous relative clauses by advanced Korean second language (L2) learners of English. Consistent with previous monolingual literature on the processing of temporary ambiguity, we found that wor...
Article
Efficient language processing may involve generating expectations about upcoming input. To investigate the extent to which prediction might facilitate reading, a large-scale survey provided cloze scores for all 2689 words in 55 different text passages. Highly predictable words were quite rare (5% of content words), and most words had a more-expecte...
Article
This study examines consumers' visual attention toward tourism photographs with text naturally embedded in landscapes and their perceived advertising effectiveness. Eye-tracking is employed to record consumers' visual attention and a questionnaire is administered to acquire information about the perceived advertising effectiveness. The impacts of t...
Article
When readers engage in Auditory Perceptual Simulation (APS) during silent reading, they mentally simulate characteristics of voices attributed to a particular speaker or a character depicted in the text. Previous research found that auditory perceptual simulation of a faster native English speaker during silent reading led to shorter reading times...
Article
Two eye-tracking experiments were conducted to compare the online reading and offline comprehension of main verb/reduced relative garden-path sentences and local coherence sentences. Rereading of early material in garden-path reduced relatives should be revisionary, aimed at reanalyzing an earlier misparse; however, rereading of early material in a...
Poster
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This study sought to examine group differences between native English- and native Mandarin-speaking undergraduate students in affect and gist comprehension when presented with clinical test results indicative of various risk levels for developing heart disease, displayed in a patient portal message format.
Poster
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Number attraction effects have been shown to cause misinterpretations of the head noun's number feature (Patson & Husband, 2016). This experiment tests if these effects can be shown in online processing as well by employing a two-sentence discourse in which the second sentence uses pronominal anaphora of varying plurality with the head noun in the...
Article
This paper contains an overview of language processing that can be described as "Good Enough," "underspecified," or "shallow." The central idea is that a nontrivial proportion of misunderstanding, misinterpretation, and miscommunication can be attributed not to random error, but instead to processing preferences of the human language processing sys...
Article
Christiansen & Chater's (C&C's) Now-or-Never bottleneck framework is similar to the Good-Enough Language Processing model (Ferreira et al. 2002), particularly in its emphasis on sparse representations. We discuss areas of overlap and review experimental findings that reinforce some of C&C's arguments, including evidence for underspecification and f...
Article
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Recent research demonstrates that performance on executive-control measures can be enhanced through brain stimulation of lateral prefrontal regions. Separate psycholinguistic work emphasizes the importance of left lateral prefrontal cortex executive-control resources during sentence processing, especially when readers must override early, incorrect...
Article
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Recent research demonstrates that performance on executive-control measures can be enhanced through brain stimulation of lateral prefrontal regions. Separate psycholinguistic work emphasizes the importance of left lateral prefrontal cortex executive-control resources during sentence processing, especially when readers must override early, incorrect...
Chapter
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We review empirical studies and theoretical models on the role of WM in interpreting, emphasizing the importance of research design, specially regarding participant selection and types of WM tasks employed. Possible future research directions are discussed, such as research on WM in consecutive interpreting, coordination in simultaneous interpretin...
Article
Full-text available
Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) was used to investigate neural correlates of early-closure garden-path sentence processing and use of extrasyntactic information to resolve temporary syntactic ambiguities. Sixteen participants performed an auditory picture verification task on sentences presented with natural versus flat intonation. Sti...
Article
Full-text available
Auditory perceptual simulation (APS) during silent reading refers to situations in which the reader actively simulates the voice of a character or other person depicted in a text. In three eye-tracking experiments, APS effects were investigated as people read utterances attributed to a native English speaker, a non-native English speaker, or no spe...
Article
Full-text available
The present studies investigated the influence of the semantic and syntactic predictability of an inflectional morpheme on word recognition and morphological processing. In two eye-tracking experiments, we examined the effect of syntactic and semantic context on the processing of letter transpositions in inflected words. Participants experienced gr...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Subject-verb agreement dependencies are extremely common in language use, providing a good test case of when and how sentence processing can go awry. In the phenomenon of agreement attraction, an intervening noun controller lures a language user to more readily accept an ungrammatical verb (during comprehension), or provide incorrect number informa...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The hippocampus declarative memory system (HDMS) supports the formation of long­term memory, including the acquisition, storage, and retrieval of explicit information (Squire, Stark, & Clark, 2004). These representations can be updated or consolidated over long periods of time to incorporate new sources of information (Eichenbaum & Cohen, 2001; Squ...
Article
Full-text available
The present study addresses the questions of (a) whether Korean learners of English show sensitivity to subject–verb agreement violations in an eye-tracking paradigm, and (b) how reading goals (reading for comprehension vs. translation) and second language (L2) proficiency modulate depth of morphological agreement processing. Thirty-six Korean spea...
Article
The role that morphology plays in lexical access has been the subject of much debate, as has the influence of word frequency on morphological processing. The effect of frequency on morphological processing across the time course of lexical access was investigated using the transposed-letter effect. The results of two experiments (one masked-priming...
Article
The present study examined the robustness of morphosyntactic information (inflectional case marking) vs. semantic information (animacy) in non-canonical SOV-and-V structures in Russian, a morphologically rich language with relatively free word order. Results from a self-paced moving window paradigm followed by a comprehension question indicated tha...
Article
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This article examined the integration of semantic and morphosyntactic information by Korean learners of English as a second language (L2). In Experiment 1, L2 learners listened to English active or passive sentences that were either plausible or implausible and translated them into Korean. A significant number of Korean translations maintained the...
Article
Full-text available
A self-paced reading and translation task was used with learners of English as a second language (L2) to explore what sorts of information L2 learners use during online comprehension compared to native speakers, and how task (reading for comprehension vs. translation) and proficiency affect L2 comprehension. Thirty-six Korean native speakers of Eng...
Article
Structural priming (or syntactic priming) is a speaker's tendency to reuse the same structural pattern as one that was previously encountered (Bock, 1986). This study investigated (a) whether the implicit learning processes involved in long-lag structural priming lead to differential second language (L2) improvement in producing two structural type...
Article
Three experiments with university students (Ns = 40, 36, and 36) who were non-math majors explicitly examined whether repetition in performing ‘students-and-professors’-type algebra word problems, which have been shown in the past to be vexingly difficult even for more advanced students, would spontaneously lead to higher rates of correct answers....
Article
Full-text available
In this article, we validate an experimental paradigm, SPaM, that we first described elsewhere (Luke & Christianson, Memory & Cognition 40:628-641, 2012). SPaM is a synthesis of self-paced reading and masked priming. The primary purpose of SPaM is to permit the study of sentence context effects on early word recognition. In the experiment reported...
Article
Full-text available
In the present study, we investigated whether the semantic content of a dialogue description can affect reading times on an embedded quote, to determine whether the speed at which a character is described as saying a quote influences how quickly it is read. Yao and Scheepers (Cognition, 121:447-453, 2011) previously found that readers were faster t...
Article
Full-text available
Two self-paced reading experiments using a paraphrase decision task paradigm were performed to investigate how sentence complexity contributed to the relative clause (RC) attachment preferences of speakers of different working memory capacities (WMCs). Experiment 1 (English) showed working memory effects on relative clause processing in both offlin...
Article
Full-text available
Semantic predictability facilitates word recognition during language processing. One possible explanation for this facilitation is that highly specific predictions generated online during language processing preactivate some features of upcoming words. To explore whether, how, and when these predictions affect visual word recognition, in the two ex...
Article
Full-text available
The relationship between stem and whole-word frequency was investigated by simultaneously manipulating both frequency measures in a set of inflected verbs. In Experiment 1, these verbs were presented in isolation as part of a lexical decision task, and an effect of stem frequency only was observed. In Experiment 2, the same verbs were presented in...
Article
Full-text available
Three self-paced reading experiments examined the effect of context on interpreting subsequent sentences and in the difficulty of revising initial misinterpretations of subsequent temporarily ambiguous sentences. Target sentences containing noun phrase/sentence (NP/S) coordination ambiguities were preceded by contexts that either did or did not sup...
Chapter
Two experiments are summarized that were designed to provide empirical evidence for the status of Korean and English dative structures in the bilingual mind. The experiments exploit structural priming across languages in Korean-English bilingual production. The Korean -eykey-ul dative structure (e.g., Halmeni-ka sonnye-eykey chayk-ul ilk-e cwu-ess-...
Article
Full-text available
In written Chinese, words are not separated by spaces, which may make parsing text into words difficult. The concept of word, a metalinguistic term meaning awareness that words have lexicalized meanings and certain structural properties, may be important in learning to read Chinese, helping readers distinguish the words in texts. Second-graders, fi...
Article
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We report a replication and extension of Ferreira (2003), in which it was observed that native adult English speakers misinterpret passive sentences that relate implausible but not impossible semantic relationships (e.g., The angler was caught by the fish) significantly more often than they do plausible passives or plausible or implausible active s...
Article
This study – one of the first “field psycholinguistics” studies conducted in an indigenous language of North America – examined how native speakers of Odawa (Ottawa) interpret pro in isolated sentences. The results suggest that Odawa speakers assume that the identities of actors in transitive sentences with two third-person participants will confor...
Article
A structural priming experiment investigated whether grammatical encoding in production consists of one or two stages and whether oral bilingual language production is shared at the functional or positional level [Bock, J. K., Levelt, W. (1994). Language production. Grammatical encoding. In M. A. Gernsbacher (Ed.), Handbook of psycholinguistics (pp...
Article
Full-text available
The results of two text-change experiments are reported. The experiments were designed to investigate the syntactic representation of garden path sentences such as While the man hunted the deer that was brown and graceful ran into the woods, specifically the claim that a significant number of misinterpretations of such sentences are due to incomple...
Article
This chapter presents an outline of applications to language analysis that open up through the combined use of two simple yet powerful programming languages with particularly short descriptions: sed and awk. We shall demonstrate how these two UNIX1 tools can be used to implement small, useful and customized applications ranging from text-formatting...