Kian Fan Chung

Kian Fan Chung
Imperial College London | Imperial · National Heart and Lung Institute

54.55
 · 
MD, DSc

About

1,295
Publications
79,898
Reads
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54,724
Citations
Research Experience
January 2015 - present
ICL
Position
  • Professor
January 2000 - present
Imperial College London
Position
  • Professor (Full)
January 2000 - present
Royal Brompton and Harefield NHS Foundation Trust
Position
  • Consultant
Education
January 1999 - February 1999
University of London
Field of study
  • Medicine
January 1982 - February 1982
University of London
Field of study
  • Medicine
September 1970 - May 1975
Middlesex Hospital Medical School
Field of study
  • Medicine

Publications

Publications (1,295)
Article
Full-text available
Background: Cough and airway eosinophilic inflammation has not been highlighted in hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES). Case presentation: We report 2 further cases and reviewed the clinical features and treatment of HES present with cough from the literature. Both cases were middle age male, presenting with chronic cough, airway eosinophilic infla...
Article
Full-text available
Background Electronic noses (eNose) are emerging point-of-care tools that may help in the subphenotyping of chronic respiratory diseases, such as asthma. Objective We aimed to investigate whether eNoses can classify atopy in paediatric and adult asthma patients. Methods Asthmatic/wheezing participants from 4 independent cohorts were included; Bre...
Article
Background Small airway dysfunction is a common but neglected respiratory abnormality. Little is known about its prevalence, risk factors, and prognostic factors in China or anywhere else in the world. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of small airway dysfunction using spirometry before and after bronchodilation, both overall and in specific popu...
Article
Therapeutic advances using targeted biologicals and small molecule drugs have achieved significant success in the treatment of chronic allergic, autoimmune and inflammatory diseases particularly for some patients with severe, treatment‐resistant forms. This has been aided by improved identification of disease phenotypes. Despite these achievements,...
Preprint
Increased prevalence of inflammatory airway diseases including asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) together with a significant number of patients being inadequately controlled by current frontline treatments means that there is a need to define novel therapeutic targets for these conditions1. Here we investigate a member of the...
Article
Introduction: Chronic refractory cough (CRC) is more than a persistent cough, but can cause serious impairment to quality of life. Through remarkable advances in our understanding of the neurobiology of cough, there is realization that CRC can be controlled by novel drugs that target cough reflex pathways. Areas covered: The authors present an over...
Article
As global awareness of air pollution rises, so does the imperative to provide evidence-based recommendations for strategies to mitigate its impact. While public policy has a central role in reducing air pollution, exposure can also be reduced by personal choices. Qualified evidence supports limiting physical exertion outdoors on high air pollution...
Article
Background Asthma is a heterogeneous disease characterized by distinct phenotypes with associated microbial dysbiosis. Objectives To identify severe asthma phenotypes based on sputum microbiome profiles and assess their stability after 12-18 months. Furthermore, to evaluate clusters’ robustness after inclusion of an independent mild-to-moderate as...
Article
Rationale: Vitamin D deficiency is common in patients with asthma and COPD. Low 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) levels may represent a cause or a consequence of these conditions. Objective: To determine whether vitamin D metabolism is altered in asthma or COPD. Methods: We conducted a longitudinal study in 186 adults to determine whether the 25(...
Article
Full-text available
Background Self-management programs have beneficial effects on asthma control, but their implementation in clinical practice is poor. Mobile health (mHealth) could play an important role in enhancing self-management. Objective To assess the clinical effectiveness and technology acceptance of myAirCoach supported self-management on top of usual car...
Article
Background Allergic sensitization is associated with severe asthma, but assessment of sensitization is not recommended by most guidelines. Objective We hypothesized that patterns of IgE responses to multiple allergenic proteins differ between sensitized participants with mild/moderate and severe asthma. Methods IgE to 112 allergenic molecules (co...
Article
Full-text available
Respiratory virus infection is one of the major sources of exacerbation of chronic airway inflammatory diseases. These exacerbations are associated with high morbidity and even mortality worldwide. The current understanding on viral-induced exacerbations is that viral infection increases airway inflammation which aggravates disease symptoms. Recent...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) is an important component of air pollution and can induce lung inflammation and oxidative stress. We hypothesised that PM 2.5 could play a role in the induction of pulmonary fibrosis. We examined whether multiple intranasal instillation of PM 2.5 can induce pulmonary fibrosis in the mouse, and also inve...
Article
Asthma is a severe and chronic disabling disease affecting more than 300 million people world-wide. While in the past few drugs for treatment of asthma were available, new treatment options are currently emerging which appear to be highly effective in certain subgroups of patients. Accordingly there is a need for biomarkers which allow selection of...
Preprint
Rationale: Severe asthma and COPD share common pathophysiologic traits such as relative corticosteroid insensitivity. We recently published three transcriptome-associated clusters (TACs) using hierarchical analysis of the sputum transcriptome in asthmatics from the U-BIOPRED cohort with one Type 2-high signature (TAC1) and 2 Type 2-low signatures....
Article
Full-text available
Asthma resistance to glucocorticoid treatment is a major health problem with unclear etiology. Glucocorticoids inhibit adrenal androgen production. However, androgens have potential benefits in asthma. HSD3B1 encodes for 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-1 (3β-HSD1), which catalyzes peripheral conversion from adrenal dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) to...
Article
Introduction: Knowledge of the pathophysiology of cough has continued to advance over recent decades. Anatomic-diagnostic protocols were the first breakthrough leading to the improvement of outcomes in patients with chronic cough but have not been always successful. The unmet clinical need has prompted revised thinking regarding the pathophysiology...
Article
Full-text available
Studies on the effects of air pollution and more generally environmental exposures on health require measurements of pollutants, which are affected by measurement error. This is a cause of bias in the estimation of parameters relevant to the study and can lead to inaccurate conclusions when evaluating associations among pollutants, disease risk and...
Article
Full-text available
Lung innate immunity is the first line of defence against inhaled allergens, pathogens and environmental pollutants. Cellular metabolism plays a key role in innate immunity. Catabolic pathways, including glycolysis and fatty acid oxidation (FAO), are interconnected with biosynthetic and redox pathways. Innate immune cell activation and differentiat...
Chapter
Both ASTHMA and CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE (COPD) are characterized by airflow obstruction and chronic inflammation of the lower airways, but there are important differences in inflammatory mechanisms and response to therapy between these diseases [1, 2]. This chapter discusses the pharmacology of the drugs used in the treatment of these...
Chapter
CORTISOL secretion by the cortex of e adrenal glands (Fig. 32.1) increases in response to any stress in the body, whether physical (such as illness, trauma, surgery or temperature extremes) or psychological. However, this hormone is more than a simple marker of stress levels—it is necessary for the correct functioning of almost every part of the bo...
Conference Paper
Background Mitochondria are vital organelles in mammalian cells. In addition to their canonical role in bioenergetics, mitochondria also participate in cellular communication and signalling. Recent evidence suggests that exchange of mitochondria between cells has an important role in cellular homeostasis and responses to stress. Mitochondrial trans...
Article
Full-text available
A major burden of severe asthma is the future risk of adverse health outcomes. Patients with severe asthma are prone to serious exacerbation and deterioration of lung function and may experience side effects of medications such as oral corticosteroids (OCSs). However, such future risk is not easily measurable in daily clinical practice. In particul...
Article
Purpose: An older female predominance has been reported among chronic cough patients in Western countries, which is considered to be associated with a higher cough sensitivity in females. However, the characteristics of Chinese chronic cough patients remain unclear. This study aimed to explore the age and sex distribution as well as their relation...
Article
Little is known about the characteristics and treatments of patients with severe asthma across Europe but both are likely to vary. This is the first study in the ERS Severe Heterogeneous Asthma Research collaboration, Patient-centred (SHARP) and it is designed to explore these variations. Therefore, we aimed to compare characteristics of patients i...
Article
Full-text available
This document provides clinical recommendations for the management of severe asthma. Comprehensive evidence syntheses, including meta-analyses, were performed to summarise all available evidence relevant to the Task Force's questions. The evidence was appraised using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) app...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Whether the clinical or pathophysiologic significance of the "treatable trait" high blood eosinophil count in COPD is the same as for asthma remains controversial. We sought to determine the relationship between the blood eosinophil count, clinical characteristics and gene expression from bronchial brushings in COPD and asthma. Method...
Article
Full-text available
Ozone exposure causes irritation, airway hyperreactivity (AHR), inflammation of the airways, and destruction of alveoli (emphysema), the gas exchange area of the lung in human and mice. This review focuses on the acute disruption of the respiratory epithelial barrier in mice. A single high dose ozone exposure (1 ppm for 1 h) causes first a break of...
Article
Despite the use of effective medications to control asthma, severe exacerbations in asthma are still a major health risk and require urgent action on the part of the patient and physician to prevent a serious outcome such as hospitalisation or death. Moreover, severe exacerbations are associated with substantial huge healthcare costs, and psycholog...
Article
Exposure to air pollution can have both short-term and long-term effects on health. However, the relationships between specific pollutants and their effects can be obscured by characteristics of both the pollution and the exposed population. One way of elucidating the relationships is to link exposures and internal changes at the level of the indiv...
Article
Background: Identification of asthma phenotypes facilitates our understanding of asthma pathobiologies. Phenotypes observed in homogenous Asian cohorts have distinct differences from those described in Caucasian cohorts, suggesting that ethnicity may influence phenotypic expression. Phenotypic clusters in a multi-ethnic Southeast Asian cohort have...
Article
There are no methods sensitive enough to detect enzymes within cells, without the use of analyte labelling. Here we show that it is possible to detect protein ion signals of three different H2S-synthesizing enzymes inside microglia after pre-treatment with silver nanowires (AgNW) using time of flight-secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS). Prot...
Article
Full-text available
Epidemiological and challenge studies in healthy subjects and in individuals with asthma highlight the health impact of environmental ozone even at levels considered safe. Acute ozone exposure in man results in sputum neutrophilia in 30% of subjects particularly young children, females, and those with ongoing cardiopulmonary disease. This may be as...
Article
Background: An elevated blood eosinophil count when asthma is stable predicts exacerbations and therapeutic response to corticosteroids or biologics targeting eosinophils. Few studies have examined the prognostic value of blood eosinophils measured at exacerbation. Aim: To elucidate the relationship between a spot blood eosinophil count-measured...
Article
Oxidative stress is a key mechanism underlying ozone-induced lung injury. Mitochondria can release mitochondrial reactive oxidative species (mtROS), which may lead to the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome. The goal of this study was to examine the roles of mtROS and NLRP3 inflammasome in acute ozone-induced airway inflammation and bronchial hyperres...
Article
Full-text available
Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) has been associated with lung inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). Transient receptor potential (TRP) vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) both may play important roles in lung inflammation and AHR. We investigated whether PM 2.5 -induced lung inflammation and AHR could be prevented b...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The differential sensitivity of cough to antitussive therapies implies the existence of heterogeneity in cough hypersensitivity, but how such heterogeneity is expressed across individual patients is poorly understood. We investigated the phenotypes of cough hypersensitivity by examining transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1)- a...
Article
Background: Asthma is a common chronic airway disease worldwide. Despite its large population size, China has had no comprehensive study of the national prevalence, risk factors, and management of asthma. We therefore aimed to estimate the national prevalence of asthma in a representative sample of the Chinese population. Methods: A representati...
Article
Full-text available
Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis are driven by both common and distinct underlying mechanisms of pathobiology. Both diseases, exhibit heterogeneity underscored by the variable clinical responses to therapeutic interventions. We aimed to identify disease-driving pathways and classify individuals into subpopulations that differ in their pathobi...
Data
Gene signature enrichment comparisons in the IBD dataset. Detailed listing of the signature comparison in CD, UC and NHV, for baseline and post-treatment samples, indicating statistical significance and direction of enrichment scores. (XLSX)
Data
Statistical comparisons of ES scores for the activated T, B cells and monocyte signatures. Statistical significance and difference between average ES scores for the various groups in the IBD dataset GSE16789. (XLSX)
Data
Statistics for Fig 7. A list of p-values for the various group comparisons indicated on Fig 7. (XLSX)
Data
Differential signatures in Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis across various patient group comparisons. Venn diagrams of signatures showing significantly reduced enrichment, using a general linear model analysis on GSVA ES, comparing at baseline (BL) either all (A) or clinical responder (R) (B) or clinical non-responder (NR) (C) participant sam...
Data
Gene signature collection. A table listing the collection of gene signature, along with their identifier, names, direction of gene expression, tissue and/or cell type and species from which they were derived and study identifier. (XLSX)
Data
Gene signatures composition. A list of the individual genes contained in each signature. (XLSX)
Article
Full-text available
Negative pressure ventilation (NPV), when used as an adjuvant to pulmonary rehabilitation, improves lung function, increases exercise capacity, and reduces exacerbations. The aim of this study was to determine whether maintenance NPV improves long-term clinical outcomes and reduces mortality in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (C...