Ki Beom Kim

Ki Beom Kim
Saint Louis University | SLU · Center for Advanced Dental Education "CADE"

DDS, MSD, PhD

About

78
Publications
32,557
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1,502
Citations
Additional affiliations
July 2005 - present
Saint Louis University
Position
  • Full Time Faculty

Publications

Publications (78)
Article
Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the dimensional accuracy between thermoformed and direct-printed aligners. Methods: Three types of aligners were manufactured from the same reference standard tessellation language (STL) file: thermoformed aligners were manufactured using Zendura FLXTM (n = 12) and Essix ACETM (n =...
Article
Study Objectives We aimed to determine the effects of adenotonsillectomy (AT) and rapid maxillary expansion (RME) on the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) and compare volumetric changes in the upper airway (UA) arising from AT and RME. Methods Thirty-nine children who presented with maxillary constriction and grade III/IV tonsillar hypertrophy were rando...
Article
Objectives To compare relapse and failure rates of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) and standard fixed retainers. Materials and Methods This single-center, single-blinded, prospective randomized clinical trial included 46 patients who completed active orthodontic treatment and complied with retention visits. The patient...
Article
Objectives To assess speech performance of adult patients undergoing orthodontic treatment with Invisalign. Materials and Methods Twenty-four adult patients with Invisalign (Invisalign group: 6 men, 18 women; average age; 34.88 years) and 20 adult patients with fixed labial appliances (fixed group: 5 men, 15 women; average age; 38.85 years) were e...
Article
Introduction: Overall and anterior Bolton ratios have been well covered in the orthodontic literature; however, little has been reported on posterior Bolton ratios. Considering the frequency of premolar extractions in the specialty, it would be relevant to know how the posterior occlusion is affected by premolar extractions. This study aimed to in...
Article
Objectives: To compare treatment effects of the standard and shorty Class II Carriere Motion appliances (CMAs) on adolescent patients. Materials and methods: Fifty adolescents with Class II malocclusion formed group 1, who were treated with shorty CMA (n = 25, 12.66 ± 1.05 years), and age- and sex-matched group 2, who were treated with standard...
Chapter
Orthognathic surgery changes the anteroposterior or vertical position of the maxilla or the mandible for aesthetic improvement with better functionality. This skeletal modification inevitably induces alterations in the soft tissue that may lead to changes in the upper airway space. Therefore, clinicians should consider these inevitable changes in t...
Chapter
The pathophysiological mechanisms underpinning OSA are complex and it is no surprise the relationships between craniofacial growth, the airway, and sleep remain controversial in orthodontics. This chapter explores evidence from cases, imaging studies, observational and investigational cohort studies, randomized controlled trials, and systematic rev...
Chapter
As upper airway is located below the skull base and behind the face, the growth and developmental changes of craniofacial structures will affect the development of the upper airway and respiratory function. Although craniofacial morphometric diversity is controlled primarily by genetics, it is highly influenced by environmental factors such as head...
Chapter
Consideration of basic fluid dynamics principles can provide useful trend-wise insight into the relationships between anatomy, volumetric flow rate, and required breathing force, but considerations including the effects of viscosity are necessary to understand magnitude details. Computational fluid dynamics is a reliable and easy-to-use tool that c...
Book
This book provides comprehensive information on the etiology, pathophysiology, medical implications, diagnosis, and surgical and nonsurgical treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Divided into five parts, the book begins with principles and fundamentals of OSA and its diagnostic considerations. Subsequent parts then address non-surgical manag...
Article
Introduction: This research aimed to determine whether Class II malocclusion can be treated with clear aligners after completing treatment with the initial set of aligners. Methods: A sample of 80 adult patients were divided into Group 1 with Class I molar malocclusions (n = 40 [11 men and 29 women]; 38.70 ± 15.90 years) and Group 2 with Class I...
Article
Introduction Enameloplasty of maxillary canines is often needed for aesthetic substitution in patients with congenitally missing lateral incisors. The exact enamel thicknesses for the various canine surfaces are unknown because previous studies failed to employ accurate measurement tools to report and compare detailed enamel thicknesses for each su...
Article
Introduction The purpose of this research was to assess and compare esthetic perceptions of clear aligner therapy with attachments and esthetic brackets by measuring differences in eye fixations using eye-tracking technology. Methods The sample involved 250 adult subjects. The subjects gave verbal consent, then viewed photographs showing 4 variati...
Article
Objectives To determine three-dimensional treatment changes produced by the Class II Carriere Motion appliance (CMA) in Class II adolescent patients with Class I and Class II skeletal relationships. Materials and Methods The sample included 59 adolescents (16 boys and 43 girls) with unilateral or bilateral Class II molar and bilateral Class II can...
Article
Full-text available
Background: This study aimed to analyze three-dimensional nasolabial soft tissue changes following double jaw surgery with Le Fort I maxillary advancement and relate them to underlying surgical movements. Methods: Pre- and post-surgical cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images of 37 maxillomandibular surgery patients with ≥2mm of advancement at...
Data
We thank the reader for the interest on our article, “Long-term stability of maxillary and mandibular arch dimensions when using rapid palatal expansion and edgewise mechanotherapy in growing patients,” published in the 2019 March issue of the Korean Journal of Orthodontics. We appreciate this valuable opportunity to discuss our study for a better...
Article
Purpose: The aim of the present study was to investigate the volumetric and 2-dimensional (2D) changes in the pharyngeal airway space (PAS) after bimaxillary orthognathic surgery (maxillary advancement and mandibular set back) in patients with skeletal Class III deformities. Patients and methods: In the present retrospective study, patients with...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: The present study aims at using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) to analyze the maxillomandibular characteristics present in adults with mandibular asymmetries and different sagittal jaw relationships. Methods: 360 patients were selected and divided into three groups (Class I, Class II, and Class III), with 120 individuals per group...
Article
Full-text available
Objective The purpose of this study was to assess the long-term stability of rapid palatal expansion (RPE) followed by full fixed edgewise appliances. Methods This study included 67 patients treated using Haas-type RPE and non-extraction edgewise appliance therapy at a single orthodontic practice. Serial dental casts were obtained at three differe...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Our objective was to analyze the characteristics that affect skeletal Class I adults with mandibular asymmetries using cone-beam computerized tomography. Methods: The sample included cone-beam computerized tomography images of 120 subjects. Asymmetry was determined by the deviation of gnathion from the midsagittal plane and classif...
Article
Introduction: The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy of specific tooth movements with Invisalign (Align Technology, Santa Clara, Calif). Methods: The study sample included 20 Class I adult patients treated with Invisalign; they completed their first series of aligners and had to have a "refinement" series. Initial and predicted...
Article
Introduction: The purpose of this study was to analyze pharyngeal airflow using both computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and fluid structure interactions (FSI) in obstructive sleep apnea patients before and after maxillomandibular advancement (MMA) surgery. The airflow characteristics before and after surgery were compared with both CFD and FSI. In...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of mandibular asymmetries in orthodontic and orthognathic surgery patients and to investigate demographic and skeletal factors associated with this disharmony. Materials and methods: Cone-beam computed tomography images of 1178 individuals aged 19 through 60 years with complete dentitions were analyzed. Out...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate, by means of cephalometric appraisal, the vertical effects of non-extraction treatment of adult anterior open bite with clear aligners (Invisalign system, Align Technology, Santa Clara, CA, USA). Methods: Lateral cephalograms of 30 adult patients with anterior open bite treated using Invisalign...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: To examine the efficacy of the magnetic retainer as compared with canine-to-canine retainers bonded to each tooth. Materials and Methods: Using digital models of 39 patients who had the magnetic retainer (MagneTainer) placed at debond and 41 patients who had canine-to-canine retainers placed at debond, Little’s Irregularity Index (LII),...
Article
Full-text available
Background: This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of mandibular asymmetry and investigate some associated factors. Methods: Tomographic images of 952 individuals aged from 18 to 75 years old were analyzed. The investigated outcome was mandibular asymmetry. The explanatory variables included gender, age, absence of posterior teeth, and sagi...
Article
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It is a great pleasure to bring to the readers of Dental Press Journal of Orthodontics some of the clinical and scientific knowledge from this great German orthodontist: Prof. Dr. Benedict Wilmes. Dr. Wilmes was raised in Soest, a small village with 50,000 inhabitants in the middle of Germany. He attended Dental School in Muenster, a nice universit...
Article
Introduction: This retrospective study included a sample of 300 randomly selected patients from the archived records of Saint Louis University's graduate orthodontic clinic, St. Louis, Mo, from 1990 to 2012. The objective of this study was to quantify the changes obtained in phase 1 of orthodontic treatment and determine how much improvement, if a...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: To analyze the components related to the different degrees of mandibular asymmetry in adults with skeletal Class III using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images. Patients and Methods: CBCT images from 138 patients were analyzed. Asymmetry was determined by the deviation of the gnathion point in relation to the midsagittal plane and c...
Article
Introduction: The purposes of this study were to measure the 3-dimensional parameters of the posed smile and to see whether there are any correlations with vertical cephalometric skeletal measurements. Methods: Pretreatment records from a sample of 110 white girls between the ages of 12 and 18 years were gathered. The measurements of SN-GoGn, an...
Article
Introduction: The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether a relationship exists between body mass and dental and skeletal development in children and adolescents. A sample of 197 orthodontic patients (82 boys, 115 girls) was selected. Ethnicity was recorded, and body mass index (BMI) was calculated according to the standard equation...
Article
Introduction: Palatal expansion has been a popular and proven technique for transverse discrepancies used in orthodontics for decades. The short-term effectiveness of the technique is understood, yet questions remain regarding the long-term stability, with much debate surrounding the optimum treatment timing to initiate expansion for the most bene...
Article
Objective: To analyze and compare pharyngeal airflow characteristics pre- and post-mandibular setback surgery in patients with Class III skeletal dysplasia using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Materials and methods: Records of 29 patients who had received orthodontic treatment along with mandibular s...
Article
Introduction: Esthetic improvement is a primary reason that people seek orthodontic treatment. The maxillary canine is considered by many to have great importance for both function and esthetics. Limited information is available about the position of the maxillary canine in relation to skeletal landmarks and whether the position can influence esth...
Article
Background: Root damage due to miniscrews can be a potentially serious complication. This case report describes a 21-year-old woman with bimaxillary protrusion and a congenitally missing mandibular left lateral tooth. Miniscrews were placed mesial to the maxillary second premolars. Methods: After placement of the miniscrews, it was discovered on a...
Article
Introduction: Our objectives were to evaluate marginal alveolar bone height in the anterior mandible after orthodontic treatment and to assess any correlations between morphologic and treatment changes. Methods: We used 57 pretreatment and posttreatment cone-beam computed tomography images (17 male and 40 female subjects; 22 Class I, 35 Class II...
Article
Background: The purpose of this study was to analyze pharyngeal airflow using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients before and after maxillomandibular advancement (MMA). Methods: Digitized pharyngeal airway models of 19 obstructive sleep apnea patients were generated from cone beam computed tomography scans pr...
Article
Since the beginning of our specialty, our understanding of the link between function and facial growth and development has progressively improved. Today, we know that children with sleep-related breathing problems will often develop distinctive facial characteristics. In adults, sleep apnea can result in serious morbidity and mortality. Orthodontis...
Article
Full-text available
Maxillary protraction is the conventional treatment for growing Class III patients with maxillary deficiency, but it has undesirable dental effects. The purpose of this report is to introduce an alternative modality of maxillary protraction in patients with dentoskeletal Class III malocclusion using a modified C-palatal plate connected with elastic...
Article
The purposes of this study were to investigate the relationship between occlusal vertical dimension (VD) changes and postsurgical skeletal changes in the surgery-first approach and to derive regression models for the final mandibular setback at B-point. This retrospective study included 40 patients (16 men, 24 women; ages, 22.6 ± 4.0 years) who had...
Article
Objectives: The aim of this study was to analyse the displacement and stress distribution in the maxillofacial complex during maxillary protraction with buccal and palatal plates using three-dimensional finite element analysis. Materials and methods: Three anchorage appliance models-palatal plate (Type A), miniplate at the infrazygomatic crest (...
Article
Introduction The purpose of this study was to evaluate the treatment effects of maxillary posterior tooth distalization performed by a modified palatal anchorage plate appliance with cephalograms derived from cone-beam computed tomography. Methods The sample consisted of 40 lateral cephalograms obtained from the cone-beam computed tomography image...
Chapter
Miniscrew implants (MSIs) have redefined how orthodontics is practiced. Not only do they provide absolute anchorage, but they also greatly enhance the possibilities of dentofacial orthopedics. It has been reported that approximately 13.5–16.4 % of the miniscrews placed fail. Such rates are excessive and deter many orthodontists, preventing them fro...
Chapter
Rapid palatal expansion (RPE) can cause significant periodontal consequences. Alternatives to traditional tooth-anchored RPE have been developed in an effort to offset these side effects. Bone-anchored RPE with support from miniscrew implants takes advantages over tooth-anchored RPE, as the expanders are directly attached to the posterior teeth. Th...
Article
Background The purpose of this article was to discuss the problems of two types of screw contact: 1) contact at screw insertion (during operation); and 2) contact during tooth movement (during orthodontic treatment). Are there significant clinical consequences after root contact with miniscrews? Methods Four clinical cases were presented. During s...
Article
Full-text available
The availability of 3D dental model scanning technology, combined with the ability to register CBCT data with digital models, has enabled the fabrication of orthognathic surgical CAD/CAM designed splints, customized brackets, and indirect bonding systems. In this study, custom lingual orthodontic appliances were virtually designed by merging 3D mod...
Article
The aim of this study was to analyze stress distribution and displacement of the craniofacial structures resulting from bone-borne rapid maxillary expanders with and without surgical assistance using finite element analysis. Five designs of rapid maxillary expanders were made: a tooth-borne hyrax expander (type A); a bone-borne expander (type B); a...
Article
Full-text available
With the advent of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), it is now possible to quantitatively evaluate the effects of rapid maxillary expansion (RME) on the entire maxillary complex in growing patients. The purpose of this study is to use three-dimensional images to evaluate the displacement that occurs at the circummaxillary sutures (frontonasal,...
Article
The purpose of this study was to determine whether Angle Class II subdivision malocclusions have skeletal or dental asymmetries between the Class II and Class I sides. A sample of 54 untreated Angle Class II subdivision patients with pretreatment photos and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans was used. The photos were used to identify the Cl...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: This preliminary study was performed to evaluate a proposed maxillary expansion treatment method for adults with fused intermaxillary sutures. Materials and methods: This study was performed in three Thiel-fixed skulls from older female cadavers with a microimplant-supported expansion screw. This modified expansion screw was mounted on...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to analyze stress distribution and displacement of the maxilla and teeth according to different designs of bone-borne palatal expanders using micro-implants. A three-dimensional (3D) finite-element (FE) model of the craniofacial bones and maxillary teeth was obtained. Four designs of rapid maxillary expanders: one with mic...
Article
Full-text available
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate immediate soft tissue changes following rapid maxillary expansion (RME) in growing patients, using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). METHODS: Twenty-three consecutive patients (10 male, 13 female) treated by RME were selected. Patients were scanned using CBCT prior to placement of the rapid maxillary expander (T0), then i...
Article
The purpose of this study was to assess differences in dentoalvolar cortical bone thickness between hyperdivergent and hypodivergent young adults. Pretreatment cone-beam computed tomography images of 57 patients, including 30 hypodivergent subjects (22 women, 8 men) and 27 hyperdivergent subjects (20 women, 7 men), were analyzed. The data were impo...
Article
The purpose of this study was to use cone-beam computed tomography to compare mandibular dimensions in subjects with asymmetric skeletal Class III malocclusion and those with normal occlusion. Cone-beam computed tomography scans of 38 subjects with normal occlusion and 28 patients with facial asymmetry were evaluated and digitized with Invivo softw...
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To experimentally study the effects of altering implant length, outer diameter, cortical bone thickness, and cortical bone density on the primary stability of orthodontic miniscrew implants (MSIs). Maximum insertion torque (IT) and pullout strength (POS) of 216 MSIs were measured in synthetic bone with different cortical densities (0.64 g/cc or 0.5...
Article
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the attitudes, awareness, and barriers toward evidence-based practice. A survey consisting of 35 questions pertaining to the use of scientific evidence in orthodontics was sent to 4771 members of the American Association of Orthodontists in the United States. Each respondent's age, attainment of a master's...
Article
Full-text available
To validate the use of three-dimensional (3-D) surface rendering (SR) images to quantify the height of alveolar dehiscences. Twenty-four dehiscences were created on 9 incisors, 9 canines, and 6 premolars on 4 cadaver skulls. i-CAT cone beam computed tomography scans (CBCTs) were taken of each skull at .2 mm voxel size. Each dehiscence was quantifie...
Article
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To quantify in vivo changes in miniscrew implant (MSI) stability over time using resonance frequency analysis, and to determine if pilot holes and placement sites affect changes in MSI stability. Twenty-two self-tapping MSIs (1.6 mm wide and 9 mm long) were placed in the maxillae of 2 adult beagle dogs (20 months old). The Osstell Mentor was used t...
Article
The purpose of this study was to quantify anteroposterior and transverse facial soft-tissue changes with respect to underlying skeletal movements after maxillomandibular advancements by using cone-beam computed tomography. Thirty white patients were treated by maxillomandibular advancements after LeFort I osteotomies and bilateral sagittal split os...
Article
How does pilot hole size and bone density affect the primary stability of miniscrew implants (MSIs)? Using 120 MSIs divided equally into six groups, this 2 × 3 factorial design evaluated the effects of synthetic bone density (0.64 g/cc vs 0.8 g/cc cortices) and pilot hole size (no pilot hole, 1.0 mm pilot hole, and 1.4 mm pilot hole) on maximum ins...
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Full-text available
To test the hypotheses that pitch and fluting have no effect on the primary stability of miniscrew implants (MSIs). Maximum placement torque and pullout strength of experimental MSIs were compared with those of control MSIs with the use of synthetic and cadaver bone. MSIs with 1.00 mm pitch were compared with those with 1.25 mm and 0.75 mm pitch; M...