Khum N. Paudayal

Khum N. Paudayal
Tribhuvan University · Central Department of Geology

Doktor der Naturwissenschaften (Dr.rer.nat.)
Head of the Department

About

56
Publications
28,969
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445
Citations
Introduction
Cimate and Environment Interaction.
Skills and Expertise
Additional affiliations
August 2011 - October 2011
Chinese Academy of Sciences
Position
  • Visiting scientist
March 1994 - present
Tribhuvan University
Position
  • Professor (Full)
Education
March 2007 - February 2009
Senckenberg Research Institute
Field of study
  • Miocene climate from the Siwaliks sediments based on palynomorphs
March 1999 - June 2002
University of Vienna
Field of study
  • Pleistocene climate change in the Nepal Himalaya

Publications

Publications (56)
Article
In the course of a pilot study on the palynology of the late Paleocene (Thanetian) maar deposits of Menat (Puy-de-Dôme, Auvergne, France), selected palynomorphs were analysed with the single grain technique. This technique allows for a consecutive analysis of individual grains by means of light microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The...
Article
Quantitative Miocene climate and vegetation data from the Siwalik succession of western Nepal indicate that the development of the Indian summer monsoon has had an impact, though in part, on vegetation changes. The climate and vegetation of the Lower (middle Miocene) and Middle (late Miocene–Pliocene) Siwalik successions of Darjeeling, eastern Hima...
Article
Cenozoic plant megafossil records from the eastern part of Nepal are meagre. Here, we report two new fossil leaves, namely Pterygota palaeoalata Srivastava and Mehrotra of the family Malvaceae and Thelypteridaceophyllum tertiarum Joshi and Mehrotra of the family Thelypteridaceae from the Middle Siwalik (late Miocene–early Pliocene) sediments of eas...
Article
Full-text available
The growth of the southern piedmont of the Himalayan boundary and its depositional setting has changed since uplift of the Himalaya due to continental Indian-Eurasian collision, which has resulted in variation in magnetic minerals in marine- and terrestrial-facies sediments. In this paper, we utilize rock magnetism data from the late Cretaceous to...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The existing legume fossil leaves account first report from the lacustrine sediments of intermontane Kathmandu Basin, lying on the southern slope of the central Himalaya. Investigation based on morphological characters and comparison to their nearest living relatives (NRLs) shows closer resemblance to the extant genus of Albizia Durazz. And Bauhini...
Article
Full-text available
The Paleocene Fossil-Lagerstätte Menat in France is well known for its wealth of outstandingly well preserved fossil insects and plants. Despite being known for more than a century, the palaeoflora, which is regarded as typical for the late Thanetian by some authors, has largely been neglected since the 1940s. New excavations and surveys yielded ex...
Article
High-altitude Himalayan lakes act as natural storage for environmental evidence related to climate change and environmental factors. A great number of lakes are distributed in the southern slope area of the central Himalayas; however, research concerning the hydrochemical processes of these lakes is still insufficient. Herein, we present a comprehe...
Article
Full-text available
We present three years (2011 to 2013) of in situ airborne pollen monitoring data on the northern slope of the Qomolangma (Everest) region to better understand the connections among airborne pollen, vegetation and climate. The pollen assemblage dominated by local herb and shrub pollen can reflect mountain shrub steppe vegetation. Herb pollen behave...
Article
Our understanding regarding the onset and development of the modern South Asia monsoon (SAM) is still incomplete due to its complex nature and differing views about its relationship with major orographic features such as the Himalaya and Tibetan Plateau. Climate data derived from some terrestrial and marine sediments from the Neogene suggests the o...
Article
Full-text available
ABSTRACT The high mountains in the Nepal Himalaya are mainly made up of sediments (rocks) which were deposited at the bottom of the Tethys Sea before its closure ca. 52 million years ago. This is evidenced by the occurrence of numerous animal fossils that were living in sea water either floating on the surface or resting at bottom sediments. These...
Article
Full-text available
The Thakkhola Graben, a north-south graben, lies in central Nepal Himalayas consisting of Neogene sediments. The presence of pollens in these sediments provides a unique natural laboratory to understand the paleoenvironment during the formation of the graben. This study provides a detailed description of the pollen collected from the Tetang and Tha...
Article
Full-text available
Environmental changes since different timescales can be exhibited from lacustrine sediment sequences, and the reported changes can be interpreted in terms of environmental fluctuations, change in vegetation patterns, intensification or weakening of weather phenomenon. Paleoclimate can be reconstructed by using different proxies from the lake sedime...
Article
Full-text available
p>The Late Pliocene to Lower Pleistocene fluvio-lacustrine sediments of the Lukundol Formation distributed in the southern part of the Kathmandu Basin, consists of various fossils of flora and fauna which are very useful proxies to reconstruct the past climate. Twenty seven samples were collected for palynological study from different beds of the L...
Article
Full-text available
p>Geological mapping was carried out in the Chatara–Barahakshetra area of east Nepal. The Siwalik of the Chatara–Barahakshetra area is divided into the Lower Siwalik and the Middle Siwalik. Each unit is further subdivided into lower and upper members. The Central Churia Thrust is overturned in the study area. Highly deformed Siwalik contain several...
Article
Full-text available
p>Leaves of Terminalia (Combretaceae) and Daphnogene (Lauraceae) are described from the lower member of Lower Siwalik of Chatara- Barahakshetra area, eastern Nepal. The habit, habitat and present day distribution of the comparable extant taxa indicates the existence of tropical to sub-tropical evergreen to semi evergreen forest with humid climate i...
Article
Full-text available
p>Palynological study from the Dharmasthali Formation exposed in the northern part of Kathmandu valley revealed the composition of forest vegetation that were growing in middle Pleistocene (780 kyrs BP) in this area. In a total fifteen samples were collected from the 46 m exposed section for the palynological study. The profile can be divided into...
Article
We reconstruct climate and vegetation applying the Coexistence Approach (CA) methodology on two palaeofloras recovered from the Lower (middle Miocene; ~ 13–11 Ma) and Middle Siwalik (late Miocene; 9.5–6.8 Ma) sediments of Surai Khola section, Nepal. The reconstructed mean annual temperature (MAT) and cold month mean temperature (CMT) show an increa...
Article
Full-text available
The present study integrates detrital zircon U–Pb–Hf isotopic analysis from 13 sandstone samples from an Upper Cretaceous–Miocene sedimentary sequence in Nepal Himalaya to determine their provenance. These sequences constrain a shifting of provenance from south to north. The U–Pb ages from Upper Cretaceous–Palaeocene strata (Amile Formation) mainly...
Article
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Kurzfassung Der vorliegende Bericht liefert einen ersten umfassenden Überblick über die oberoligozäne Makroflora von Nor-ken (Breitscheid-Formation) im Westerwald. Hierfür stand Material aus der ehemaligen Braunkohlegrube Späth aus der Sammlung des Maarmuseums Manderscheid (Eifel) zur Verfügung. Die Bestimmung der Blattreste erfolgt nach der Blattm...
Article
Full-text available
Since the collision between the Indian and Asian plates, several peripheral foreland basin were formed, and started to accumulate the sediments from the hinterland Himalayan orogeny. The sediments deposited at the northern tip of the Greater India have been uplifted, exhumed after the activation of several south propagating thrusts and finally tran...
Article
Full-text available
A leaf of Dipterocarpus (Dipterocarpaceae) is described from the Lower member of Middle Siwalik of eastern Nepal. Its presence indicates that during the deposition of the sediments there was a warm and humid climate with dry season of not more than 3-4 months. The modern distribution of the genus and family reveals that nowadays they have disappear...
Article
Full-text available
Nepal lies in heart of the Himalayan-Tibetan orogeny. The destruction of Tethys with upshot of the oceanic circulation causes major climate events during the Cenozoic that endured pertinent changes in flora and fauna in the Nepal Himalaya. Many paleoclimate records show changes during late Miocene. We reviewed late Cenozoic climate and environmenta...
Article
Late Quaternary plant macrofossils from fluvial, fluvio-deltaic and lacustrine sediments of the Gokarna Formation in the Besigaon, Mulpani, and Dhapasi sections in the Kathmandu valley, Nepal were analyzed. The obtained plant macrofossils allowed us to reconstruct the late Pleistocene palaeoenvironment in central Nepal, which was influenced strongl...
Article
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During recent fieldwork a second occurrence of silicified wood has been discovered from the Early Cretaceous Kagbeni Formation of north central Nepal. The wood exhibits anatomical features which are well in accordance with Araucarioxylon nepalense described from another locality in the Kagbeni Formation near Kagbeni in the Thakkhola Valley in centr...
Article
Full-text available
The Thimi Formation is fluvio-deltaic deposit that constitutes the uppermost part of the sedimentary sequence in the Kathmandu Basin, and is featured by carbonaceous and diatomaceous clay, silty clay, silt, fine to medium grained sand beds, and thin to medium lignite beds. The Phaidhoka Section is located on the way to Nala from Chyamasingh, and is...
Article
Full-text available
p>The last four decades have been fruitful for recording the Cenozoic vertebrate fossils in the Nepal Himalaya. This information is very important to understand the evolution of vertebrate fauna as well as the climate in which they were living during and after the collision of the Indian subcontinent to Eurasian continent. This paper gives a review...
Article
Full-text available
The fossil flora recovered from the Kangvai well, Ratnagiri District, Maharashtra (17°53′41″ N; 73°12′23″ E) has been used to reconstruct the monsoon variations and seasonal rainfall pattern during the Late Pleistocene (44,020 ± 390 years BP) by using the Coexistence Approach. The reconstruction suggests that the Southwest (SW) and Northeast monsoo...
Article
Full-text available
The fluvio-deltaic deposit of the Thimi Formation constitutes the uppermost part of the sedimentary sequence in the Kathmandu Basin, and is consists of carbonaceous clay, diatomaceous clay, silty-clay, silt, fine to medium grained sand, and thin to medium lignite beds. A 25 m thick fresh surface exposure of this formation at Phaidhoka, Bhaktapur yi...
Article
Full-text available
The lacustrine sediments of the Kathmandu Basin are rich in plant mega and micro fossils. The Lukundol Formation which is distributed in the southern part of the Kathmandu Basin yielded nicely preserved plant megafossils from different locations. A 5.5 m thick carbonaceous clay bed at the left bank of the Nakkhu Khola, near Chyasikot village, Lalit...
Article
Full-text available
We apply the coexistence approach (CoA) to reconstruct mean annual precipitation (MAP), mean annual temperature (MAT), mean temperature of the warmest month (MTWA) and mean temperature of the coldest month (MTCO) at 44 pollen sites on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. The modern climate ranges of the taxa are obtained (1) from county-level presence/abse...
Article
The palynological study of the Rapti Formation and Amlekhganj Formation from the Siwalik Group in the Dudhaura Khola section revealed plethora of information to interpret the past vegetation and climate existed during Late Miocene in the southern margin of the Nepal Himalaya. Altogether 30 samples were collected from Rapti Formation and Amlekhganj...
Article
Full-text available
Palynological investigations of Deccan volcanic- associated intertrappean deposits of the Late Cretaceous - Early Paleocene of central and western India were carried out. The study shows the presence of abundant triprojectate pollen grains, particularly Aquilapollenites Rouse 1957, Jiangsupollis Song 1980 in Song et al. 1980 and Farabeipollis Nandi...
Article
Full-text available
This paper uses pollen analysis to investigate and document the changing climate and vegetation during the Holocene based on a 400 cm core in depth obtained at a wetland site at Haligu (3,277 m a. s. l.) on the Jade Dragon Snow Mountain in Yunnan, China. By applying the Coexistence Approach to pollen data from this core, a quantitative reconstructi...
Article
Full-text available
A molasse sequence comprising 1.5-km-thick sediments of the Lower and Middle Siwaliks Group in the sub-Himalayan North Belt along the Tinau Khola River in west-central Nepal was studied for the low-field magnetic susceptibility and anisotropy using single core specimens of siltstone/sandstone from 127 stratigraphic levels. The magnetic fabric compr...
Article
Full-text available
Over nineteen species of pollen flora belonging to thirteen families were recovered from four pollen load samples from honey bee Apis cerana collected in Jajarkot district, mid-western region, Nepal. The pollen morphology was investigated using light microscopy along with scanning electron microscopy for correct identification of pollen to its lowe...
Article
Full-text available
Pollen analysis of 8 multifl oral honey samples collected from 4 locations of Godavari, Lalitpur district, Nepal was performed using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). In this investigation, a wide range of foraging plant sources for Apis cerana honey bees was identifi ed which demonstrates the adequate potential for expanding and sustaining beeke...
Article
Full-text available
Palynological investigation of ten samples obtained from a drill core belonging to the Late Pleistocene deposits of the Patan Formation in the Kathmandu Valley revealed 40 plant species belonging to 22 families. The gymnosperms are represented by Abies, Picea, Pinus spp. (P. roxburghii and P. wallichiana) and Tsuga sp. The angiosperm tree and shrub...
Article
Plant macrofossil investigation was carried out on the Late Quaternary sediments of the Kathmandu Valley, central Nepal. The fluvial-deltaic to fluvio-lacustrine deposits of the Kathmandu Basin are found to be rich in plant macrofossil assemblages. A total of 66tax.a from 38 families were identified to genus and some of them up to species level fro...
Article
Full-text available
Plant macrofossil investigation was carried out on the Late Quaternary sediments of the Kathmandu Valley, central Nepal. The fluvial-deltaic to fluvio-lacustrine deposits of the Kathmandu Basin are found to be rich in plant macrofossil assemblages. A total of 66 taxa from 38 families were identified to genus and some of them up to species level fro...
Article
Full-text available
A high resolution palynostratigraphy from the Besigaon section of the Kathmandu Valley has been studied to understand the past climate changes in this region. In total 90 samples were collected in each 10 cm intervals from the 33 m thick surface exposure belonging to the Gokarna Formation exposed at Besigaon village at northern part of the Kathmand...
Data
Full-text available
Plant macrofossil investigation was carried out on the Late Quaternary sediments of the Kathmandu Valley, central Nepal. The fluvial-deltaic to fluvio-lacustrine deposits of the Kathmandu Basin are found to be rich in plant macrofossil assemblages. A total of 66 taxa from 38 families were identified to genus and some of them up to species level fro...
Article
Full-text available
The fluvio-lacustrine sediments from the Lukundol Formation exposed at the southern part of the Kathmandu Basin had yielded a significant numbers of vertebrate fossils. In this paper, we discuss about the discovery of a new bovid tooth from the Tathali area of Bhaktapur District in the eastern part of the Kathmandu Basin. The collected material is...
Article
Full-text available
The Late Pleistocene plant macrofossils from the Thimi Formation of the Kathmandu Valley have been reported in this paper. On the basis of 71 taxa from 39 families, seven plant macrofossil assemblages T-1 to T-7 were described from 18.5 m thick section of the Thimi Formation exposed at Madhyapur Thimi, Bhaktapur. Pinus, Abies, Tsuga, Carpinus, Samb...
Article
Full-text available
The Thakkhola-Mustang Graben, which reflects Neogene extensional tectonics in the Tibetan Plateau and Himalaya, lies north of the Dhaulagiri-Annapurna ranges and south of the Yarlung-Tsangpo Suture Zone. The basement of Thakkhola-Mustang Graben is made up of Tibetan-Tethyan sedimentary rocks of Paleozoic and Mesozoic ages, which are unconformably o...
Article
Full-text available
The Late Quaternary fluvio-lacustrine sediments of the Kathmandu Valley are found to be rich in the plantmacrofossil assemblages. A 25 m thick exposure near the Mulpani section belonging to the Gokarna Formationis analyzed for macrofossils. A total of 74 taxa from 44 families were identified to genus and some of them up tospecies level from seven d...
Article
Full-text available
A 28-m thick exposure of the younger stage deposits of Kathmandu Valley fluvio-deltaic deposits at Dhapasi has been studied for magnetic susceptibility (MS), remanent magnetization (RM), grain size characteristics of fine-grained sediments, and sedimentary fabric by anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) . In situ volume MS (κ; in 10^[-3] SI)...
Article
Full-text available
The Early–Middle Eocene palynoflora and paleoclimate of Changchang Basin, Hainan Island, South China, is described in the present paper and is compared with that of the Middle–Late Eocene, The nearest living relatives (NLRs) of the recovered palynotaxa suggest a subtropical evergreen or deciduous broad-leaved forest at the center of the basin but a...
Article
Full-text available
One of the commonly quoted weaknesses of pollen analysis is its poor taxonomic resolution, which can be achieved with the Light Microscope (LM). This prevents detailed palaeoecological interpretations from being made. Although the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) has been widely available for almost 40 years, it is rarely used in routine palaeopa...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract The Thimi Formation, constituting the upper part of the sedimentary sequence of the Kathmandu Valley, is characterized by alternation of fine- to medium-grained sand, silt, silty clay and clay deposited by a distal fluvial system in the Late Pleistocene. Palynostratigraphy based on 40 samples revealed the dominance of gymnosperm taxa over...
Article
Full-text available
Pollen of 15 species of Viola L. (Violaceae) from the Himalaya were investigated by lighl ~ i c i st .ming electron microscopy. The pollen of Viola are prolate-spheroidal to prolate, rarely oblate, 3 (4-5)-colporate, having a delicate exine with microvermcate ornamentation. Four types of pollen grains are recognized: (1) Viola hookeri m e , charact...
Article
Full-text available
As part of the Himalayas, Nepal has undergone numerous changes in the past 50 Ma. Folding was responsible for the creation of the Kathmandu Basin. It is here that the most complete sequence of Pleistocene sediments in Nepal is to be found. In this paper, the palynology and palynofacies of the Gokarna, Thimi and Patan Formations is discussed. It is...

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Projects (3)
Project
The Neogene flora of Nepal is important to study the vegetation shift and climate change caused by the upliftment of Himalaya. The flora is also important to study the intensification of South Asia Monsoon as well as precipitation caused by the Western Disturbances during the Neogene.
Project
NECLIME is an open international network of scientists working on Cenozoic climate evolution and related changes of continental ecosystems. During the past 65 million years of Earth history, globally warmer-then-present conditions prevailed in a world with almost modern paleogeography. These timespans represent promising case studies for anticipated future scenarios. Within the NECLIME network, we aim to combine data on past climate change and its environmental impact for large-scale reconstructions. NECLIME research activities comprise paleoclimate reconstructions, including atmospheric CO₂ and ecosystem analysis using multiple quantitative methods on various primarily continental proxies (plants; vertebrates; invertebrates; geochemistry and geological proxies). Complementing model studies are employed to assess connections and processes driving ocean, atmosphere and biosphere at global and regional scales. NECLIME was established in 1999 with the aim to understand Neogene trends across Eurasia. This basic idea quickly and constantly expanded to a global interest and a wider stratigaphical frame. The steadily growing NECLIME network with currently around 140 members in 34 countries is coordinated by a team of researchers and an advisory board. NECLIME holds annual conferences and workshops and administers working groups bringing forward scientific exchange, joint projects, and the integration of research data. For more information go to www.neclime.de