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This chapter investigates the actors involved in ivory and rhino horn poaching in Africa and the types of firearms and methods they use. It also examines state responses to armed poaching and what impact anti-poaching policies and strategies are having in reducing poaching rates. A number of African states have implemented shoot-to-kill policies in...
What are the impacts of war on the participants, and do they vary by gender? Are ex-combatants damaged pariahs who threaten social stability, as some fear? Existing theory and evidence are both inconclusive and focused on males. New data and a tragic natural quasi-experiment in Uganda allow us to estimate the impacts of war on both genders, and ass...
This paper is among the first to analyse children's experiences of reparations programmes, taking into consideration programmes from Africa, Asia and Latin America. The violence, abuse and hardship that girls and boys suffer during armed conflict and political violence under authoritarian and dictatorial regimes continues to severely affect their d...
Data from Uganda challenge conventional notions about the role of females during and after war. Women and girls recruited by the LRA play active roles and are not passive victims. We show how LRA treatment of females—especially strict rules against civilian rape and the use of forced marriage—serves an instrumental purpose, enhancing control of the...
I felt as if my heart had stopped beating, only God gave me the resistance to bear it all. I was very young, but I felt the hardship. …I still dream about Dos Erres and I hear everything I heard then, the shots, the smell, the air, everything. The violence, abuse, and hardship that girls and boys suffer during armed conflict and political violence...
The question "Where are the girls?" is seldom raised in discussions about children or adolescents who are members of fighting forces and groups. This is due in large part to the near exclusive focus on boy soldiers. Consequently, scant attention has been given to girls' active involvement and distinct experiences in these forces and groups, whether...