Khosrow Kashfi

Khosrow Kashfi
City University of New York School of Medicine · Molecular, Cellular, and Biomedical Sciences

PhD MSc FRSC FRSB

About

190
Publications
28,907
Reads
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4,779
Citations
Additional affiliations
August 1999 - October 2015
City College of New York
Position
  • Associate Medical Professor & Program Director, Divisions of Biochemistry/Chemistry
August 1999 - October 2015
City College of New York
Position
  • Associate Medical Professor & Program Director, Divisions of Biochemistry/Chemistry
August 1999 - March 2016
City University of New York School of Medicine
Position
  • Associate Medical Professor & Program Director, Divisions of Biochemistry/Chemistry

Publications

Publications (190)
Article
Full-text available
Sulindac is chemopreventive and has utility in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis; however, side effects preclude its long-term use. NOSH-sulindac (AVT-18A) releases nitric oxide and hydrogen sulfide, was designed to be a safer alternative. Here we compare the gastrointestinal safety, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-pyretic, anti-plate...
Article
Nitric oxide (NO) a gaseous free radical is one of the ten smallest molecules found in nature, while hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a gas that bears the pungent smell of rotten eggs. Both are toxic yet they are gasotransmitters of physiological relevance. There appears to be an uncanny resemblance between the general actions of these two gasotransmitter...
Article
Full-text available
Hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) was once considered to have only toxic properties, until it was discovered to be an endogenous signaling molecule. The effects of H 2 S are dose dependent, with lower concentrations being beneficial and higher concentrations, cytotoxic. This scenario is especially true for the effects of H 2 S on mitochondrial function, whe...
Article
Nitrate, a nitric oxide (NO) donor, has antiobesity effect in female rats. This study hypothesized that the antiobesity effect of nitrate in female rats is due to the browning of white adipose tissue (WAT). Female Wistar rats (aged 8 months) were divided into two groups (n = 10/group): the control group received tap water and the nitrate group rece...
Article
Full-text available
: The literature review is integral to the research process, from developing research ideas to disseminating findings. It involves explaining, interpreting, and summarizing published materials around a topic to elaborate a research hypothesis/question, synthesize new concepts, identify knowledge gaps, develop new theories, and identify new research...
Article
Carbon monoxide is a molecule with notoriety in modern culture and extensive documentation regarding its toxic physiological effects, long predating its formal discovery in the 18th century. Upon its discovery as a molecule in 1772, subsequent investigations into its properties have provided mechanisms describing its toxicity and insights into its...
Article
Viral infections are a continuing global burden on the human population, underscored by the ramifications of the COVID-19 pandemic. Current treatment options and supportive therapies for many viral infections are relatively limited, indicating a need for alternative therapeutic approaches. Virus-induced damage occurs through direct infection of hos...
Article
Carbon monoxide (CO), a member of the multifunctional gasotransmitters family produced by heme oxygenases (i.e., HO-1 and HO-2), has received significant attention because of its involvement in carbohydrate metabolism. Experimental evidence indicates that both HO-2- and HO-1-derived CO stimulate insulin secretion, but the latter mainly acts as a co...
Article
Decreased heart levels of nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in type 2 diabetes (T2D) are associated with a higher risk of mortality following ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. This study aimed to determine the effects of co-administration of sodium nitrite and sodium hydrosulfide (NaSH) on IR injury in the isolated heart from rats with T...
Article
Full-text available
Background and aim Hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S), a signaling gasotransmitter, is involved in carbohydrate metabolism. Here, we aimed to assess the potential association between serum H 2 S and dysglycemia in the framework of a population-based study. Methods Adults men and women with completed data ( n = 798), who participated in the Tehran Lipid and...
Article
Full-text available
Brucella abortus vaccines help control bovine brucellosis. The RB51 strain is a live attenuated vaccine with low side effects compared with other live attenuated brucellosis vaccines, but it provides insufficient protective efficacy. Cell-mediated immune responses are critical in resistance against intracellular bacterial infections. Therefore, we...
Article
Full-text available
Statins are a class of drugs widely used worldwide to manage hypercholesterolemia and the prevention of secondary heart attacks. Currently, available statins vary in terms of their pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles. Although the primary target of statins is the inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase (HMGR), the rate-limiting enzyme in cholester...
Article
Full-text available
Acute inflammation or resolved inflammation is an adaptive host defense mechanism and is self-limiting, which returns the body to a state of homeostasis. However, unresolved, uncontrolled, or chronic inflammation may lead to various maladies, including cancer. Important evidence that links inflammation and cancer is that nonsteroidal anti-inflammat...
Article
Full-text available
Hyperuricemia, defined as elevated serum concentrations of uric acid (UA) above 416 µmol L−1, is related to the development of cardiometabolic disorders, probably via induction of endothelial dysfunction. Hyperuricemia causes endothelial dysfunction via induction of cell apoptosis, oxidative stress, and inflammation; however, it's interfering with...
Article
Full-text available
: Getting feedback from the journals’ editorial office upon the peer-review process, revising the manuscript, and responding to reviewers’ comments are the essential parts of scientific publishing. The process of revising seems cumbersome and time-consuming as authors must be engaged probably with many comments and requested changes. Authors are ad...
Article
Type 1 diabetes (T1D)-induced osteoporosis is characterized by decreased bone mineral density, bone quality, rate of bone healing, bone formation, and increased bone resorption. Patients with T1D have a 2-7-fold higher risk of osteoporotic fracture. The mechanisms leading to increased risk of osteoporotic fracture in T1D include insulin deficiency,...
Article
Full-text available
Nitric oxide and its production by iNOS is an established mechanism critical to tumor promotion or suppression. Macrophages have important roles in immunity, development, and progression of cancer and have a controversial role in pro-and antitumoral effects. The tumor micro-environment consists of tumor-associated macrophages (TAM), among other cel...
Article
Full-text available
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized with increased formation of amyloid-β (Aβ) in the brain. Aβ peptide toxicity is associated with disturbances of several intracellular signaling pathways such as mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs). The aim of this study was to investigate the role of MAPKs and their interactions in Aβ-induced neurotox...
Article
Background In postmenopausal women, nitric oxide (NO) deficiency is associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D). This study aims at determining the long-term effects of low-dose nitrate administration on metabolic and obesity indices in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Methods OVX rat model was induced using the two dorsolateral skin incision meth...
Article
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Animal experimentation helps us to understand human biology. Rodents and, in particular, rats are among the most common animals used in animal experiments. Reporting data on animal age, animal body weight, and animal postnatal developmental stages is not consistent, which can cause the failure to translate animal data to humans. This review summari...
Article
Full-text available
During the last decade, we have persistently addressed the question, “how can the innate immune system be used as a therapeutic tool to eliminate cancer?” A cancerous tumor harbors innate immune cells such as macrophages, which are held in the tumor-promoting M2 state by tumor-cell-released cytokines. We have discovered that these tumor-associated...
Article
Objective Increased renal and hepatic gluconeogenesis are important sources of fasting hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes (T2D). The inhibitory effect of co-administration of sodium nitrite and sodium hydrosulfide (NaSH) on hepatic but not renal gluconeogenesis has been reported in rats with T2D. The present study aimed to determine the effects of co...
Article
Full-text available
: A cover (covering) letter is a brief business letter introducing the scientific work alongside the submission process of a manuscript and is required by most scientific peer-review journals. A typical cover letter includes the name of the editor and the journal, date of submission, the characteristics of the manuscript, the importance of the work...
Article
Background and Objective Decreased nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability contributes to the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This study aims to determine the effects of nitrate (NO 3 –) on gene and protein expression of NO synthase (NOS) enzymes in the liver, soleus muscle (SM), and epididymal adipose tissue (eAT) of rats with T2DM....
Article
Cholesterol is an amphipathic sterol molecule that is vital for maintaining normal physiological homeostasis. It is a relatively complicated molecule with 27 carbons whose synthesis starts with 2-carbon units. This in itself signifies the importance of this molecule. Cholesterol serves as a precursor for vitamin D, bile acids, and hormones, includi...
Article
A library of N -thiocarboxyanhydrides (NTAs) derived from natural amino acids with benign byproducts and controlled H 2 S-release kinetics is reported.
Article
Full-text available
Beneficial metabolic effects of inorganic nitrate (NO3−) and nitrite (NO2−) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have been documented in animal experiments; however, this is not the case for humans. Although it has remained an open question, the redox environment affecting the conversion of NO3− to NO2− and then to NO is suggested as a potential reas...
Article
Full-text available
Diabetoporosis, diabetic-related decreased bone quality and quantity, is one of the leading causes of osteoporotic fractures in subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D). This is associated with lower trabecular and cortical bone quality, lower bone turnover rates, lower rates of bone healing, and abnormal posttranslational modifications of collagen. Dec...
Article
The resolution of inflammation has emerged as a critical endogenous process that protects host tissues from prolonged or excessive inflammation that can become chronic. Failure of the resolution of inflammation is a key pathological mechanism that drives the progression of numerous inflammation-driven diseases. Essential polyunsaturated fatty acid...
Article
Full-text available
Impaired skin nitric oxide production contributes to delayed wound healing in type 2 diabetes (T2D). This study aims to determine improved wound healing mechanisms by acidified nitrite (AN) in rats with T2D. Wistar rats were assigned to four subgroups: Untreated control, AN-treated control, untreated diabetes, and AN-treated diabetes. AN was applie...
Data
Supplementary Figure S1. Wound induction. An 8 mm punch is used to mark the location of the excisional wound (2 cm below the ears) (a). Forceps retract the skin outward and scissors are used to sharply excise a circular piece of skin down through the panniculus carnosus (b). One full thickness excisional wound (c).
Article
Full-text available
: Publishing in peer-reviewed high-quality journals is a gold standard method for disseminating scientific work. Choosing the right journal is one of the most important and difficult aspects of publishing research results. Submitting to an inappropriate journal is one of the most common reasons for fast rejection of manuscripts, resulting in time w...
Article
Both arginine (Arg) and its precursor citrulline (Cit) have received much interest in the past two decades because of their potential effects on whole‐body nitric oxide (NO) production and augmentation of NO‐dependent signalling pathways. However, the usefulness of Arg supplementation for NO production is questionable because of its high splanchnic...
Article
Objective A deficiency in hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and nitric oxide (NO) contributes to the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D). An inhibitory effect on liver gluconeogenesis has been reported in rats with T2D with co-administration of sodium nitrite and sodium hydrosulfide (NaSH); the underlying mechanisms have however not yet been elucidated. The...
Article
This research article describes an approach to modify the thiazolidinedione scaffold to produce test drugs capable of binding to, and inhibit, the in vitro transcriptional activity of the oncogenic protein FOXM1. This approach allowed us to obtain FOXM1 inhibitors that bind, directly, to the FOXM1-DNA binding domain without targeting the expression...
Conference Paper
Epidemiological and interventional human studies have shown that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) reduce cancer incidence and mortality. However, while NSAIDs are chemopreventive against cancer, they are not potent enough to be chemotherapeutic, and their long-term use may lead to significant gastrointestinal (GI), cardiovascular (CV)...
Article
Results of animal experiments are used for understanding the pathophysiology of diseases, assessing safety and efficacy ofnewly developed drugs, and monitoring environmental health hazards among others. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses of animal data are important tools to condense animal evidence and translate the data into practical clinical...
Article
Full-text available
Evidence for potential effects of inorganic nitrate (NO3) on body weight is limited to inconsistent findings of animal experiments. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we aimed to quantify the overall effect of inorganic NO3, administered via drinking water, on body weight gain in rats. We searched PubMed, Scopus, and Embase databases, and...
Cover Page
Full-text available
Biochemical Pharmacology June 2020 Issue
Article
Objective Subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D) have lower circulating hydrogen sulfide (H2S) levels following myocardial ischemia and a higher risk of mortality. The aim of this study was to determine the dose-dependent favorable effects of sodium hydrosulfide (NaSH) on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury in rats with T2D. Methods T2D was i...
Article
Full-text available
Citation, the act of properly referring to others' ideas, thoughts, or concepts, is a common and critical practice in scientific writing. Citations are used to give credit to own work, to support an argument, to acknowledge others' work, to distinguish other authors' ideas from one's work, and to direct readers to sources of information. A good cit...
Article
Nitric oxide (NO) and its pro and anti-tumor activities are dual roles that continue to be debated in cancer biology. The cell situations in the tumor and within the tumor microenvironment also have roles involving NO. In early tumorigenic events, macrophages in the tumor microenvironment promote tumor cell death, and later are reprogramed to suppo...
Article
Nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) are industrial toxins or pollutants; however, both are produced endogenously and have important biological roles in most mammalian tissues. The recognition that these gasotransmitters have a role in physiological and pathophysiological processes has presented opportunities to harness their intracellular...
Article
Full-text available
Decreased circulating levels of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) are associated with higher mortality following myocardial ischemia. This study aimed at determining the long-term dose-dependent effects of sodium hydrosulfide (NaSH) administration on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. Male rats were divided into control and NaSH groups that were tre...
Article
Pancreatic cancer has poor survival rates and largely ineffective therapies. Aspirin is the prototypical anti-cancer agent but its long-term use is associated with significant side effects. NOSH-aspirin belongs to a new class of anti-inflammatory agents that were designed to be safer alternatives by releasing nitric oxide and hydrogen sulfide. In t...
Article
An abstract is a self-contained, short, powerful statement that describes a larger body of work. It may be incorporated as part of a published paper, book, grant proposal, thesis, research report, or a conference paper. An abstract of a scientific paper will be published online independently, so it should make sense when it is read alone. An abstra...
Article
To date several circuities in supraspinal site of the central nervous system have been known to engage in pain modulation. Lateral hypothalamus (LH) is known as part of the circuit of pain modulation among supraspinal sites. Its role in several animal pain models has been well defined. In this study, we examined the role of spinal orexin receptors...
Article
Nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) are two gasotransmitters that are produced in the human body and have a key role in many of the physiological activities of the various organ systems. Decreased NO bioavailability and deficiency of H2S are involved in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes and its complications. Restoration of NO levels...
Article
Full-text available
Osteoporosis affects about 200 million people worldwide and is a silent disease until a fracture occurs. Management of osteoporosis is still a challenge that warrants further studies for establishing new prevention strategies and more effective treatment modalities. For this purpose, animal models of osteoporosis are appropriate tools, of which the...
Article
Full-text available
Land plants are continuously exposed to multiple abiotic stress factors like drought, heat, and salinity. Nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) are two well-examined signaling molecules that act as priming agents, regulating the response of plants to stressful conditions. Several chemical donors exist that provide plants with NO and H2S sepa...
Article
Obesity leads to many diseases including hypercholesterolemia, type-2 diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. It is the fastest-growing lethal disease in the Western and developing countries. The link between obesity and cancer is relatively underappreciated among the general population. Obesity represents the number one risk fa...
Article
Full-text available
The title of a paper is "like a hat on a head or the front door to a house" and its initial impression. Writing a good and effective title makes the paper more retrievable by search engines and maximizes its impact in the scientific community. The paper's title presents what has been studied, how it has been done, and what are the major results. A...
Article
Full-text available
Graphs, an effective form of data presentation, are used for summarizing complex information and making them easier to understand. Extracting numerical data from graphs, which is commonly required in systematic reviews and meta-analyses, is however a challenging issue. Since this kind of results presentation is common, ignorance of such data may re...
Article
Objective: Decreased nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) deficiency have been linked with the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Restoration of NO levels by nitrite have been associated with favorable metabolic effects in T2D. Moreover, H2S can potentiate the effects of NO in the cardiovascular system. The aim of th...
Conference Paper
NBS-1120 is a member of the novel ‘enhanced NSAID’ class of anti-cancer agents that release nitric oxide and hydrogen sulfide targeting tumor inflammatory pathways while inducing ROS, caspases and apoptosis and inhibiting proliferation, beta catenin and FOXM1, ultimately impacting the regulation of NF-kB. NBS-1120, a derivative of aspirin that is d...
Article
Thyroid hormones have a role in the regulation of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) biosynthesis. In this study, we determined the effects of hyperthyroidism on H2S levels in various tissues and messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of cystathionine‐β‐synthase (CBS), cystathionine‐γ‐lyase (CSE), and 3‐mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3‐MST) in the liver and musc...
Article
Full-text available
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is involved in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes. Inhibition and stimulation of H2S synthesis has been suggested to be a potential therapeutic approach for type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was therefore to determine the effects of long-term sodium hydrosulfide (NaSH) administration as a H2S releasing agent on carbo...
Article
Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is now considered an independent risk factor for the development of some types of cancers, including liver, pancreas, endometrium, colon, rectum, breast, and bladder cancers. Several underlying mechanisms have been proposed that connect T2DM and cancer: hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, increased levels of free steroid and pep...
Article
Full-text available
Brucella abortus is a Gram-negative facultative and intracellular bacteria, it causes bovine brucellosis, a zoonotic disease that is responsible for considerable economic loss to owners of domesticated animals and can cause problems in otherwise healthy humans. There are a few available live attenuated vaccines for animal immunization against bruce...
Article
Introduction: Nitric oxide (NO) deficiency is associated with obesity. Nitrate could act as a substrate for production of NO and is a novel therapeutic agent in obesity. This study aims at determining effects of long-term nitrate administration on obesity indices in normal adult female rats. Methods: Female Wistar rats were divided into four gro...