Khaled Barkaoui

Khaled Barkaoui
York University · Faculty of Education

About

48
Publications
12,877
Reads
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907
Citations
Citations since 2016
23 Research Items
665 Citations
2016201720182019202020212022020406080100120
2016201720182019202020212022020406080100120
2016201720182019202020212022020406080100120
2016201720182019202020212022020406080100120

Publications

Publications (48)
Article
Despite ample research examining second (L2) and foreign language (FL) teacher feedback, research situated in French as a foreign language (FFL) contexts is scarce, in particular studies that examine the beliefs and practices of corrective written feedback (WCF) among FFL teachers. The present study seeks to address this gap by investigating the WC...
Article
Bien que le public visé joue un rôle important dans tous les modèles de rédaction, peu de chercheurs se sont intéressés à la façon dont les rédacteurs en langue seconde (L2) conceptualisent leur public et s’adressent à lui au cours du processus de rédaction. L’auteur entend combler cette lacune en analysant quand et comment les apprenants de la L2...
Article
Les pratiques d’évaluation monopolisent une part importante du temps des enseignants d’ALS et ont des répercussions considérables sur l’engagement et l’apprentissage des élèves. Ces pratiques sont aussi, à leur tour, fortement influencées par la conception qu’ont les enseignants de l’écrit en L2 et le contexte politique dans lequel ils travaillent....
Article
Full-text available
While feedback is widely considered essential for second language (L2) writing development (Bitchener & Ferris, 2012), teachers may not always be able to provide their learners with immediate and frequent corrective feedback. Automated writing evaluation (AWE) systems can help respond to this challenge by providing L2 learners with written correcti...
Article
This study aimed to compare second-language (L2) students’ ratings of their peers’ essays on multiple criteria with those of their teachers’ under different assessment conditions. Forty EFL teachers and 40 EFL students took part in the study. They each rated one essay on five criteria twice, under high-stakes and low-stakes assessment conditions. M...
Article
When responding to a writing task, writers spend a significant amount of their time not writing. These periods of physical inactivity, or pauses, during writing provide observable and measurable cues as to when, where, and how long writers halt to plan and/or revise their texts. Consequently, examining writers’ pausing patterns can provide importan...
Article
This exploratory study examined the effects of writing mode (computer vs. paper) and computer ability on the scores and linguistic characteristics of essays written in response to a second-language (L2) writing test. Each of 97 test-takers, with two levels of English language proficiency (ELP; low vs. high) and two levels of keyboarding skills (low...
Article
This study aimed to examine the sources of variability in the second-language (L2) writing scores of test-takers who repeated an English language proficiency test, the Pearson Test of English (PTE) Academic, multiple times. Examining repeaters’ test scores can provide important information concerning factors contributing to changes in test scores a...
Article
As the number of candidates who repeat English language proficiency tests more than once to meet a certain cutscore (e.g., for university admission) or to demonstrate progress (e.g., after instruction) continues to increase dramatically, there is a need for more research on the attributes and test performance of test repeaters. This article provide...
Article
This study contributes to the literature on second language (L2) learners' revision behavior by describing what, when, and how often L2 learners revise their texts when responding to timed writing tasks on the computer and by examining the effects of task type, L2 proficiency, and keyboarding skills on what and when L2 learners revise. Each of 54 p...
Article
This study aimed to describe the writing activities that test takers engage in when responding to the writing tasks in the TOEFL iBT® test and to examine the effects of task type and test-taker English language proficiency (ELP) and keyboarding skills on the frequency and distribution of these activities. Each of 22 test takers with different level...
Article
While student engagement plays a central role in the education process, defining it is challenging. This study examines teachers' conceptions of the social and cultural dimensions of student engagement in learning at three low-achieving schools located in a low socioeconomic status (SES) urban area. Sixteen teachers and administrators from the thre...
Article
This article discusses methods used in second language (L2) research to analyze quantitative longitudinal data. Longitudinal studies are experimental and nonexperimental studies that collect repeated measures of the same variable(s) from the same participant(s) at two or more time points. Three challenging areas in longitudinal L2 research are firs...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter provides a conceptual introduction to Rasch models and their potential applications in language test evaluation, with a specific focus on the multifaceted Rasch model (MFRM). In the MFRM, factors in the assessment setting (e.g., task, test taker, rater) are called facets. The MFRM uses the ratings that raters assign to test-taker perfo...
Article
This article critiques traditional single-level statistical approaches (e.g., multiple regression analysis) to examining relationships between language test scores and variables in the assessment setting. It highlights the conceptual, methodological, and statistical problems associated with these techniques in dealing with multilevel or nested data...
Article
A major concern with computer-based (CB) tests of second-language (L2) writing is that performance on such tests may be influenced by test-taker keyboarding skills. Poor keyboarding skills may force test-takers to focus their attention and cognitive resources on motor activities (i.e., keyboarding) and, consequently, other processes and aspects of...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated the strategic behaviors that test-takers reported using when responding to integrated and independent speaking tasks in an English oral proficiency test [the Speaking Section of the Internet-based Test of English as a Foreign Language (TM) (TOEFL iBT)] and the relationship between test-takers' strategic behaviors and their t...
Chapter
Examining and establishing task equivalence in writing tests that employ various tasks across test occasions and/or offer examinees task choice are an essential step to ensure valid score interpretations and fair decisions across examinees, tasks, and test occasions. This chapter illustrates how the question of task equivalence in writing assessmen...
Article
This study examined the effects of marking method and rater experience on ESL (English as a Second Language) essay test scores and rater performance. Each of 31 novice and 29 experienced raters rated a sample of ESL essays both holistically and analytically. Essay scores were analysed using a multi-faceted Rasch model to compare test-takers’ writin...
Article
Adopting a case study approach, we examined the quality of three measures of change in cognition and affect for older adults. The measures were used in a pre/post-test design to examine the effects of engaging older adults in languaging on their cognitive functioning and affect. Each of two researchers engaged each participant in the production of...
Article
Full-text available
We adopt a sociocultural approach to examine the characteristics and roles of the off-task talk (OTT) of three graduate students engaged in a collaborative learning task. Our focus is on three OTT episodes during three out-of-classroom meetings to discuss an academic article in preparation for a graded classroom presentation. In order to obtain an...
Article
This study adopted a multilevel modeling (MLM) approach to examine the contribution of rater and essay factors to variability in ESL essay holistic scores. Previous research aiming to explain variability in essay holistic scores has focused on either rater or essay factors. The few studies that have examined the contribution of more than one factor...
Article
This study adopted a mixed-methods cross-sectional approach to identify similarities and differences in the English as a second language (ESL) essay holistic scores and evaluation criteria of raters with different levels of experience. Each of 31 experienced and 29 novice raters rated a sample of ESL essays holistically and analytically and provide...
Article
Think-aloud protocols (TAPs) are frequently used in research on essay rating processes. However, there are very few empirical studies of the completeness of TAP data and the effects of this technique on rater performance (i.e., rating processes and outcomes). This study aims to start to address this research gap. As part of a larger study on rater...
Article
Full-text available
Various factors contribute to variability in English as a second language (ESL) essay scores and rating processes. Most previous research, however, has focused on score variability in relation to task, rater, and essay characteristics. A few studies have examined variability in essay rating processes. The current study used think-aloud protocols to...
Article
This study responds to the Test of English as a Foreign Language™ (TOEFL®) research agenda concerning the need to understand the processes and knowledge that test-takers utilize. Specifically, it investigates the strategic behaviors test-takers reported using when taking the Speaking section of the TOEFL iBT™ (SSTiBT). It also investigates how the...
Article
In this paper, we report on the process of developing and validating a questionnaire to explore second language learners’ preferences for two types of form-focused instruction (FFI): isolated and integrated FFI. Three types of evidence regarding the validity of the questionnaire were collected: content, reliability and construct. Content validity w...
Article
This study responds to the Test of English as a Foreign Language[TM] (TOEFL[R]) research agenda concerning the need to understand the processes and knowledge that test-takers utilize. Specifically, it investigates the strategic behaviors test-takers reported using when taking the Speaking section of the TOEFL iBT[TM] (SSTiBT). It also investigates...
Article
In 2005, the Educational Testing Service launched the Internet-based Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL-iBT), a new version that claims to be based on a communicative view of language proficiency and to meet high standards of educational measurement. Prior to the launch of this version, numerous studies were undertaken to develop and eval...
Article
Educators often have to choose among different types of rating scales to assess second-language (L2) writing performance. There is little research, however, on how different rating scales affect rater performance. This study employed a mixed-method approach to investigate the effects of two different rating scales on EFL essay scores, rating proces...
Article
Full-text available
Cost studies are program evaluations that judge program worth by relating program costs to program benefits. There are three sets of strategies: cost—benefit, cost-effectiveness, and cost-utility analysis, although the last appears infrequently. The authors searched relevant databases to identify 103 cost studies in education and then reduced the s...
Article
Full-text available
This article reviews theories and research on revision in second-language (L2) writing. It examines how and what L2 writers revise, compares the revision practices of skilled and unskilled L2 writers, and suggests instructional practices to help learners improve their L2 revision skills. Cet article passe en revue les théories et la recherche porta...
Article
Essay tests are widely used to assess ESL/EFL learners' writing abilities for instructional, administrative, and research purposes. Relevant literature was searched to identify 70 empirical studies on ESL/EFL essay tests. The majority of these studies examined task, essay, and rater effects on essay rating and scores. Less attention has been given...

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