Kevin Power

Kevin Power
University of Stirling · Department of Psychology

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109
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Publications

Publications (109)
Article
Background: Although it is well established that prisoners commonly have histories of childhood trauma, little is known about mediators between exposure to trauma and criminal behaviour. Hypotheses: We hypothesised that the experience of trauma in adulthood, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and emotional dysregulation would mediate the rela...
Article
Although the relationship between psychological trauma and medically unexplained symptoms (MUS) is well established, this relationship is less well understood in people with medically unexplained neurological symptoms. In the present study, we set out to compare people with functional neurological disorders, and organic neurological disorders, in t...
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Background: Despite empirical evidence suggesting complex associations between childhood trauma and self-harm, there is a dearth of research investigating this association in the female prison population. The current study explored pathways to self-harm following childhood trauma, by investigating the mediating roles of Post-traumatic Stress Disor...
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PurposeDespite empirical evidence suggesting complex associations between psychological trauma, substance misuse, and violent offending, there is a dearth of research investigating these associations in the female prison population. MethodsA cross-sectional, interview-format questionnaire study was undertaken with a sample of 89 female prisoners. H...
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Objective We aimed to develop and establish the reliability and validity of a measure of Fear of Recurrence, measuring cognitive appraisals of relapse rather than standard early signs of relapse. We also aimed to establish the sensitivity and specificity to relapse.Method Participants diagnosed with schizophrenia or a related disorder were randomiz...
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This qualitative study aimed to explore experiences of women currently undergoing specialist inpatient treatment for anorexia nervosa. Interviews were carried out with 21 women with a diagnosis of anorexia nervosa from a specialist adult inpatient eating disorder unit. Five master themes emerged using thematic analysis: (1) shifts in control, (2) e...
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Background/aims: There is limited research on the association between post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and life satisfaction in community samples. We set out to investigate levels of life satisfaction and its demographic, trauma related and clinical predictors in a sample of people with PTSD (n = 46). Methods: Participants completed a batte...
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Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is being increasingly recognised as a behaviour of significant clinical importance. Yet, there remains uncertainty regarding the underlying mechanisms of NSSI. This study aimed to explore the relationship between maladaptive schema modes, parental bonding, and NSSI. Seventy psychiatric outpatients with a history of N...
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Investigate the effect of a theory-based intervention on oral-health knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of early years staff (EYS), parents and nursery children. Qualitative research with staff and parents from eight nurseries through interviews/focus groups. An intervention was developed and piloted using pre-posttest design. Nurseries in deprive...
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There is currently no clear understanding of the ways in which predisposing and maintaining variables exert their influence on eating attitudes and behaviours. This study investigated two potentially meaningful variables: parental bonding and perfectionistic schemas. Both variables have been implicated in the onset and maintenance of anorexia nervo...
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Characteristics of medical work suggest that doctors are especially vulnerable to stress between work and home. The present study adopted a theoretical approach towards the study of the relationship between occupational stress and home life in doctors in Scotland, comparing male and female general practitioners (GPs) and specialist consultants. Fir...
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Having breakfast, eating food 'cooked from scratch' and eating together as a family have health and psychosocial benefits for young children. This study investigates how these parentally determined behaviours relate to children's dietary quality and uses a psychological model, the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), to investigate socio-cognitive pr...
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The aim of the present study was to investigate predictors of outcome of counselling, using mean change scores of three outcome measures, at treatment completion and at 4-months follow-up, in a randomised trial of face-to-face (n=30) versus telephone counselling (n=30) for occupational stress. Factors associated with treatment outcome were investig...
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The present study reports on the first ever controlled comparison between eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) and emotional freedom techniques (EFT) for posttraumatic stress disorder. A total of 46 participants were randomized to either EMDR (n = 23) or EFT (n = 23). The participants were assessed at baseline and then reassessed af...
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Despite the importance of reducing prenatal exposure to alcohol, a recent Cochrane review found limited evidence from randomised controlled trials (RCTs) regarding effectiveness of interventions to reduce drinking during pregnancy. The aim of this systematic review was to consider additional evidence by including RCTs and non-RCTs to determine whet...
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Poor problem-solving and low self-esteem are frequently cited as significant factors in the development and maintenance of anorexia nervosa. The current study examines the multi-dimensional elements of these measures and postulates a model whereby self-esteem mediates the relationship between social problems-solving and anorexic pathology and consi...
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The inpatient treatment of anorexia nervosa lacks a clear evidence base. We sought to determine the effectiveness of, and predictors of response to, a specialist inpatient programme for adults with anorexia nervosa, and to survey satisfaction with the same. Demographic and clinical data were collected, at three time points, for 90 consecutive admis...
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The aim of the present study was to investigate psychosocial correlates of comorbid psychopathology. Data were collected from a total of 90 female inpatients with anorexia nervosa (AN). Higher levels of general psychopathology were detected in depression, interpersonal sensitivity, obsessive-compulsive and anxiety subscales of the Symptom Checklist...
Article
A number of studies have concluded that dissociative features are common in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The present study aimed to investigate correlates of dissociation in outpatients with chronic PTSD in Scotland. For the purposes of this study, a total of 102 participants completed the Dissociative Experiences Scale, the...
Article
Parental relationships and maladaptive problem solving have been associated with anorexic symptomatology. This study investigates the relationship between perceived parental bonding, social problem solving and eating psychopathology. Forty three female inpatients with anorexia nervosa and 76 student controls were assessed using the Parental Bonding...
Article
The aim of the present study was to compare the effectiveness and acceptability of three interventions for occupational stress. A total of 90 National Health Service employees were randomized to face-to-face counselling or telephone counselling or bibliotherapy. Outcomes were assessed at post-intervention and 4-month follow-up. Clinical Outcomes in...
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Response rates in surveys have been falling over the last 20 years, leading to the need for novel approaches to enhance recruitment. This study describes strategies used to maximise recruitment to a home interview survey of mothers with young children living in areas of high deprivation. Mothers of two year old children received a letter from their...
Article
The present study aimed to investigate demographics, trauma variables, PTSD symptomatology, co-morbid psychopathology, dissociation and personality variables as correlates of vividness of imagery (i.e. general ability to imagine objects) in people with PTSD. Participants were 98 outpatients with PTSD who completed a number of self- and assessor-rat...
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To investigate the maternal factors associated with poor diet among disadvantaged children. Survey of 300 mothers of 2-year-old children from areas of high deprivation in Scotland (response rate 81 %). A diet quality score was derived from reported consumption of carbohydrates, protein, fruit and vegetables, dairy products and restriction of sugary...
Chapter
IntroductionSocial Problem-Solving Ability as a Key Mental Health DeterminantProblem-Solving Interventions: The Outcome Studies for Mental Health in the General PopulationThe Social Problem-Solving Abilities of OffendersKey Components in a Problem-Solving Programme for Mental HealthProblem-Solving Interventions for Mental Health and Self-Harm: The...
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Comorbidity of anxiety and affective disorders in people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia is common. This study investigated the hypothesis that greater negative beliefs about illness and lower self-esteem will be significantly associated with the presence of anxiety or affective comorbidity in a sample of persons (n = 138) diagnosed with schizoph...
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The aim of the present study was to investigate predictors of treatment outcome for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) after treatment completion and at 15-months follow-up (n = 48), in a trial of Eye Movement Desensitisation and Reprocessing (EMDR) versus Imaginal Exposure and Cognitive Restructuring (E+CR). Factors associated with treatment out...
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The emotional distress resulting from the experience of giving birth to a preterm infant (gestational age , 37 weeks) and the subsequent neonatal unit hospitalisation may be a traumatic experience for parents. In the present systematic literature review, studies on parental posttraumatic symptomatology following birth of a premature infant were rev...
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Research examining cognitive and behavioural determinants of anorexia is currently lacking. This has implications for the success of treatment programmes for anorexics, particularly, given the high reported dropout rates. This study examines two-dimensional self-esteem (comprising of self-competence and self-liking) and social problem-solving in an...
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The present study investigated the association between the personality constructs of self-esteem/affectivity and General Well-Being (GWB) in Scottish adolescents. A total of 425 secondary school pupils completed the P.G.I. General Well-Being Scale [Verma et al. Ind J. Clin. Psychol. 10 (1983) 299], the Hare Self-esteem Scale (HSES) [Hare, The Hare...
Article
Background: A significant proportion of air travelers experience situational anxiety and physical health problems. Takeoff and landing are assumed to be stressful, but anxiety related to other aspects of the air travel process, anxiety coping strategies, and in-flight health problems have not previously been investigated. Methods: We aimed to inves...
Article
The study aimed to test two hypotheses. Firstly, that participants who relapsed during the 12-month follow-up period of our randomized controlled trial, would show increased negative beliefs about their illness and reduced self-esteem, in comparison to the non-relapsed participants. Secondly, that cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for early signs...
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Many health promotion educational interventions assume that increasing knowledge directly influences beliefs, intentions and behaviour, whereas research suggests that knowledge alone is insufficient for behavioural change. Social cognition frameworks such as the Theory of Reasoned Action propose a central role for beliefs and social normative influ...
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This paper reports a study investigating new mothers' subjective norms in relation to both breast- and bottle-feeding. The influence of norms on women's infant feeding decisions and the relative influence of social referents at varying degrees of social distance were assessed. Increasing breastfeeding initiation and continuation rates is a key chal...
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This study set out to investigate whether socially anxious individuals with psychosis will perceive more loss, entrapment, shame and humiliation, will blame themselves more for their illness and have lower self-esteem than non-socially anxious individuals with psychosis. Two groups of participants with psychosis with (n=19) and without (n=19) socia...
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Poor parenting has long been associated with the diagnosis of anxiety and mood disorders, but it is not clear whether perceived parenting can predict long-term outcome following treatment. The shortened Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) was examined in respect to outcome, 3–14 years after initial treatment, in a group of patients having an original...
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Cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) for generalized anxiety disorder produces variable results. It would be valuable to identify which patients respond well to brief CBT and whether increased intensity of therapy improves outcome for those with a poor prognosis. This clinical effectiveness study was designed to address these issues using a prognostic...
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Breast self-examination (BSE) is a method of early detection of breast cancer. Although BSE is recommended for all women, it is mostly suitable and readily available for younger women. BSE beliefs and practices of women in Scotland, a country with organised health campaigns about BSE, were compared with those of women in Greece, a country without s...
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Panic disorder and agoraphobia is a prevalent clinical condition which places heavy demands on treatment resources in primary care. The efficient delivery of evidence-based psychological treatment for this disorder is therefore important. Previous research has investigated both individual and group treatment formats for cognitive behaviour therapy...
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The current study examined the relationship between measures of trait vulnerability and long-term outcome in 83 patients diagnosed and treated for Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) 8-14 years previously. Diagnostic status was assessed by structured interview, and trait affect, trait anxiety and trait depression were measured by the Positive and Ne...
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Background: Generalized anxiety disorder is a common condition of excessive worry and tension which tends to run a chronic course associated with significant psychiatric and medical problems. Cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) has been shown to be of clinical value in about 50% of cases with treatment gains maintained over follow-up periods ranging...
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Background: The paper describes a randomized controlled trial of targeting cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) during prodromal or early signs of relapse in schizophrenia. We hypothesized that CBT would result in reduced admission and relapse, reduced positive and negative symptoms, and improved social functioning. Method: A total of 144 partici...
Article
Recent research has indicated that vulnerable incarcerated young offenders--such as those at risk of suicidal behaviour, those on formal protection due to their inability to assimilate into mainstream, and those who are bullied but remain in normal circulation--display impoverished problem-solving abilities. Furthermore, deficits in their problem-s...
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Two hundred prisoners, in Scottish penal establishments, identified ‘at risk’ of suicidal behaviour were interviewed. Difficulty coping with imprisonment was associated with previous suicidal behaviour prior to custody, difficulties mixing with other prisoners, fewer friends in prison, previous psychological/psychiatric treatment whilst imprisoned,...
Article
A total of 105 patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) were randomly allocated to eye-movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) (n = 39) versus exposure plus cognitive restructuring (E + CR) (n = 37) versus waiting list (WL) (n = 29) in a primary care setting. EMDR and E + CR patients received a maximum of 10 treatment sessions o...
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Previous research has suggested that bullying is an increasingly severe problem in schools. Such research has approached the phenomenon from two different angles. Earlier research has treated bullying and victimisation as separate entities. However, current research suggests that bullies and victims engage in a special dynamic and interactive relat...
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The importance in studying Quality of School Life (QSL) lies predominantly on research findings concerning its relationship with educational outcome. Although some studies have focused on factors affecting QSL, no study so far has assessed various factors of QSL simultaneously, with regard to secondary education, in order to construct a QSL model a...
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Improvement of the services offered by secondary schools in the UK has been a major concern for the educational authorities. One of the most widely accepted ways to test the quality of school services is the performance indicators approach. Performance indicators, as they stand, are quite complicated to use. Many of them could be criticised for not...
Article
A shortened form of the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) (Pederson, 1994) was used to examine the relationship between parenting styles and the psychological distress and offending patterns of a group of young male offenders held in custody in Scotland. High levels of psychological distress were linked with low parental care, but there was no asso...
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Organizational change and restructuring is often perceived as leading to increased occupational stress, impacting negatively on the psychological well-being of employees. This pragmatic study investigates the role of social support and dispositional affect as moderators of role stress post-restructuring for employees in a public utility company. A...
Article
A. KARATZIAS, V. PAPADIOTI-ATHANASIOU, K. G. POWER V Goodenow & Grady, 1992), greater motivation to learn (Keys F Ekstrom et al., 1986) and higher achievement accordingto one’s ability (Voekl, 1995). Pupils who perceive their school positively are alsoless likely to experience health problems (Jessor, 1991; Nutbeam & Aaro, 1991).Lower levels of sch...
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It was aimed firstly to investigate prevalence rates and consumption patterns of smoking, alcohol use, and drug use in a sample of Scottish adolescents, and secondly to study the role of demographic (grade, gender, parental socioeconomic and educational status), school (Quality of School Life (Q.S.L.), school stress), nonschool (well-being) and per...
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Panic disorder, with and without agoraphobia, is a prevalent condition presenting in general practice. Psychological treatments are effective but are limited by restricted availability. Interest has grown in methods by which the efficiency and thus availability of psychological treatments can be improved, with particular emphasis on reduced therapi...
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The impact of a new GP programme of asthma care was examined using: a) a retrospective pre- and post-casenote survey of 400 asthma patients, comparing patients in practices using the health board programme (HBP) and other programmes (OP); and b) a patient satisfaction questionnaire, completed by 532 people on asthma clinic lists in HBP and OP pract...
Article
The Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) was developed in order to help quantify the parental contribution to psychological distress. It has subsequently been shown to be of value in examining the influence of parents in many diverse areas including delinquency. A shortened form of the PBI and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) were admi...
Article
Panic disorder with or without agoraphobia is a prevalent clinical disorder which places heavy demands on treatment resources in primary care. The efficiency of delivery of psychological treatments for this disorder is therefore important. Previous research has focused on psychological treatments delivered with reduced therapist contact but methodo...
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The ability to predict post-treatment response on indices of pre-treatment condition is likely to have considerable clinical utility. Previous attempts to identify prognostic indicators are reviewed and methodological problems in such research discussed. The present study attempts improvements in study methodology including the use of standardized...
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This paper outlines a theoretical analysis of current psychological conceptualizations of psychosis that draws on Teasdale and Barnard's (1993) Interacting Cognitive Subsystems (ICS) model of depression. The ICS model differs from Beck et al.'s (1979) model of emotional disorders in that it specifies two qualitatively different levels of meaning. T...
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This research examines the relation between means-end thinking and psychological distress in a group of young, incarcerated Scottish offenders who exhibited difficulties in adjusting to the prison regime. Four groups of inmates were examined: (a) those placed in suicidal supervision; (b) those removed from main circulation and placed in protection;...
Article
This research examines the relationships betweenmeans-end problem solving and psychological distress ina group of incarcerated Scottish young offenders who hadbeen identified within the institution as bullies, victims of bullying, or anon-bully/non-victim control group. The Means-EndProblem Solving Procedure (MEPS) was used alongside theHospital An...
Article
Stress in doctors has major implications for themselves, their family and patients. In dual-doctor partnerships, stress may or may not be compounded. Previous studies have suggested that demands of work have a greater impact on home life than vice versa, and that there may be a gender difference in stress between work and home. This study compared...
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This research examines the relationships between means-end problem solving and suicidality in a group of Scottish incarcerated young offenders. The paper examines the issue concerning whether trait or state problem-solving deficits are more inextricably linked to suicidality. Using the Means-End Problem-Solving Procedure [MEPS] with 61 inmates, res...
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GPs and nurses play a major role in dementia care. Negative attitudes and uncertainties may be common sources of stress in both professions. Specific anxieties related to dementia management in primary care need to be identified. To assess whether dementia care is a stress-provoking experience and examine perceived roles, attitudes, and anxieties f...
Article
A significant proportion of air travelers experience situational anxiety and physical health problems. Take-off and landing are assumed to be stressful, but anxiety related to other aspects of the air travel process, anxiety coping strategies, and in-flight health problems have not previously been investigated. We aimed to investigate frequency of...
Article
This research examines the relationships between means-end problem solving and suicidality in a group of Scottish incarcerated young offenders. The paper examines the issue concerning whether trait or state problem-solving deficits are more inextricably linked to suicidality. Using the Means-End Problem-Solving Procedure [MEPS] with 61 inmates, res...
Article
This study utilized the Parental Bonding Instrument [PBI] in a group of 125 incarcerated Scottish young offenders aged 16-21. The study examined the response profiles of young offenders and compared the results to normative data and demographics relating to family and penal experiences. Furthermore, it investigated relationships between parenting s...
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Using Power, Champion, and Aris's Significant Others Scale, the present study examined the function and structure of social support in a group of incarcerated young offenders. Support across nine key relationships from both outside and inside the prison were examined. The study aimed to examine social support as a key variable in coping with incarc...
Article
This study provides data on the characteristics and management of all prisoners identified at risk of suicidal behaviour over a 12 month period in all Scottish prisons. From a total of 44,093 admissions, 1,984 (4.5%) prisoners were identified at time of reception as at risk while 857 (1.9%) inmates were classified as at risk at some other point dur...
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Targets for reduction in suicide deaths have been set against a background of an increasing number of people committing suicide. It is often assumed that a reduction can be effected by increasing the detection in primary care of patients at risk. This presupposes that there are indicators that enable suicide risk to be detected reliably. To compare...
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Full-text available
Panic disorder, with and without agoraphobia, is a prevalent condition which presents primarily in general practice. Previous clinical outcome studies have been conducted mainly in specialist university departments or hospital settings, and have tended to employ complex rating scales that are not well suited for use as outcome measures in primary c...
Article
The Coping Scale of the Occupational Stress Indicator (OSI) was administered to 699 Scottish police officers (aged 18–56 yrs; 85 females) to examine the coping skills they might employ in dealing with routine police work. Differences in coping style according to age, gender, and rank were observed. Overall, a preference for more problem-focused, di...
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This paper describes an empirical study (n = 699) of occupational stress in a Scottish police force. The self-perceived stress associated with a variety of organizational and opearational stressors was examined along with the associated distress in the police officers in terms of symptoms of anxiety, somatic complaint, severe depression and social...
Article
Rates of travel-related diarrhoea vary from 8% to 50% depending on the country visited. Travellers' diarrhoea has social, health and economic costs. The impact of these may be reduced by relevant pre-travel advice. Little is known of the effect of pre-travel advice on the incidence of diarrhoea among travellers abroad. To determine the 'true' attac...
Article
Panic disorder with or without agoraphobia has been the subject of sustained treatment-outcome research. Studies have been conducted by both pharmacologically- and psychologically-oriented researchers each employing their own methodologies. Problems arise in attempting to reconcile the demands of these two treatment-outcome methodologies, whilst at...
Article
A sample of 559 inmates in Scottish prisons were administered a 48-item HIV/AIDS knowledge questionnaire. High levels of HIV-related knowledge were associated with: a history of drug offences, having had an HIV test, knowing someone who has had an HIV test, knowing someone who is HIV seropositive, a history of injecting drug use and having a sexual...
Article
One hundred and ninety patients meeting DSM-III-R criteria for panic disorder with or without agoraphobia were randomly allocated to (a) Fluvoxamine, (b) placebo, (c) Fluvoxamine + cognitive behaviour therapy, (d) placebo + cognitive behaviour therapy, or (e) cognitive behaviour therapy alone. Patients were treated over 13 weeks and all participate...
Article
During the past 20 years, interest has arisen concerning the existence of a specific police personality. Much of the early studies had significant methodological difficulties. The present study aimed to examine the personality traits of ‘Positive and Negative Affectivity’ in a group (n = 699) of serving Scottish police officers. The PANAS scale (Wa...
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This study aimed to assess and compare the impact of letter of invitation, initial breast screening mammography, and subsequent recall procedures on the level of anxiety over breast problems. The survey of females undergoing routine breast screening procedures in a primary care setting is part of the first wave of a national breast screening progra...
Article
Questionnaires assessing sources and levels of job satisfaction and occupational stress were completed by male and female general practitioners (N = 547) and consultant doctors (N = 449) in Scotland during a period of structural change in the health service. Job satisfaction and occupational stress scales from the Occupational Stress Inventory30 we...
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The demographic, logistical and psychiatric characteristics of 83 suicides in Scottish custodial establishments between 1976 and 1993 were described. Over much of this period the suicide rate in Scottish prisons showed an increase disproportionate to the rise in the overall prison population. Compared with the general prison population, the mean ag...
Article
Four hundred and eighty male prisoners and 500 male staff from 7 Scottish prisons took part in a study assessing perception of risk and attitudes towards HIV/AIDS. Prison staff were found to perceive prison as a higher-risk environment for HIV/AIDS than outside prison, whereas prisoners perceived the opposite. Prisoners perceived less personal risk...
Article
Increased general practice attendance rates have been associated with the diagnosis of mental illness but panic disorder has not been specifically investigated in this respect. In addition, studies have failed adequately to assess type and frequency of secondary care referral and patterns of psychotropic prescription in patients with panic disorder...
Article
The development and reliability/validity check of an 80-item, 8-scale measure for use with eating disorder patients is presented. The Stirling Eating Disorder Scales (SEDS) assess anorexic dietary behavior, anorexic dietary cognitions, bulimic dietary behavior, bulimic dietary cognitions, high perceived external control, low assertiveness, low self...
Article
Assessed HIV/AIDS related attitudes among 559 prisoners (aged 16–68 yrs) and 591 prison officers (aged 20–59 yrs) from 8 Scottish prisons. Results indicate a great degree of tolerance by both staff and prisoners, on a number of HIV/AIDS related issues. A substantial majority of both staff and prisoners were supportive of maintaining social and pers...
Article
This retrospective study involved a 20% quota, age and sex stratified sample of people over 16 years of age, presenting to a group medical practice over a period of one year (N = 1568). A standardised, computer-scored, self-report questionnaire was administered. The response rate was 98.3%. 42% of respondents had travelled outwith the UK in the pre...
Article
The psychological impact of an epidemiological study of benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) was assessed in a representative sample of practice list patients. Of the 889 men completing a general health self-report questionnaire previously validated in a screening programme, 75% knew nothing of problems of the prostate, and 84.5% were not at all worr...