Kevin Shafer

Kevin Shafer
Brigham Young University - Provo Main Campus | BYU · Department of Sociology

PhD

About

64
Publications
39,012
Reads
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1,158
Citations
Citations since 2016
31 Research Items
1040 Citations
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Introduction
I am currently an associate professor in the Department of Sociology at Brigham Young University and adjunct associate professor of Health & Society at McMaster University. My work primarily focuses on the facilitators of and barriers to father involvement with children–with a strong emphasis on the effects of paternal mental health and masculine norm adherence.
Additional affiliations
October 2019 - present
McMaster University
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
June 2011 - August 2017
Brigham Young University - Provo Main Campus
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)
Education
September 2003 - August 2010
The Ohio State University
Field of study
  • Sociology

Publications

Publications (64)
Article
Full-text available
Family transitions, such as stepfamily formation, can be a source of stress for adults and children. Yet, the stepfamily literature lacks a focus on factors that influence child stress levels while transitioning to stepfamily life. Using a social support perspective, the purpose of this study was to assess the independent and additive influence of...
Article
Full-text available
Substantial attention is paid to the mental health needs of women and children by social work researchers, educators, and practitioners—and with good reason, as these are two vulnerable populations in U.S. society. However, the status of men's mental health; its resulting effect on individuals, families, and communities; and the various challenges...
Article
Full-text available
Prior research has focused on the relationship between parenthood and psychological well-being, with mixed results. Some studies have also addressed potential gender differences in this relationship, again yielding varied findings. One reason may be methodological choices pursued in these studies, including the lack of focus on combined parental ro...
Article
Full-text available
Relationship satisfaction and stability are two commonly studied outcomes in marriage and family research. Majority of studies address socio demographic variability and differences across union type in these outcomes. We extend this literature by addressing how the amount of effort one puts into their relationship is associated with stability and s...
Article
Full-text available
Current research on stepfamily well-being often overlooks the perspective of children, and deals primarily with factors as reported by the adults involved. The authors examine a number of family role characteristics, parental subsystem characteristics, and resources that might influence how children perceive the quality of their stepfamily relation...
Article
Purpose Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) are linked to problematic outcomes across the life course, but it is unclear how ACEs affect psychological distress in adolescence and if this relationship varies by gender. The purposes of this paper are two-fold. First, we explore how the accumulation, timing, and duration of early ACEs influences yout...
Article
Objective To understand how the marriage relationship is related to paternal depression and maternal gatekeeping perceptions. Background Paternal depression is an understudied topic, and research connecting it to maternal gatekeeping is still in its infancy. Research has found that the marriage relationship can be associated with both depression a...
Article
Pornography’s effects have received renewed attention, with particular concern about how viewing impacts committed partner relationships. Given that secrecy and deception about pornography viewing are linked with negative relationship outcomes, we sought to identify variables associated with persons’ endorsement of hiding it. We explored this in tw...
Article
Full-text available
Pornography has become an increasingly salient topic in public discourse. We sought to better understand the role of religiosity in shaping people’s support of policy stances against pornography, in the form of censorship, using nationally representative data from the 2014 General Social Survey (n = 1676). Results from logistic regression indicate...
Article
Full-text available
Father-adolescent child relationship quality has been identified as key to adolescent health outcomes. While factors have previously been identified associated with father-adolescent closeness, a comprehensive model of understanding the influence of these factors is needed. Using cross-sectional data from the Study of Contemporary Fatherhood (SCF),...
Article
Full-text available
Research continues to examine the barriers to and facilitators of positive fathering behaviors. One area recently addressed by researchers focuses on the relationship between masculine norm adherence and father involvement. Yet, little work has examined cross-national variability in this relationship—despite differences in gender norms, fathering e...
Article
Objective This study examines the relationship between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), internalized and externalized psychological distress, and six measures of parenting behavior among fathers in the United States. Background Prior research on ACEs and parenting has focused almost exclusively on mothers, specific types of childhood adversit...
Article
The COVID-19 pandemic created rapid, wide-ranging, and significant disruptions to work and family life. Accordingly, these dramatic changes may have reshaped parents' gendered division of labor in the short term. Using data from 1,234 Canadian parents in different-sex relationships, we compare retrospective reports of perceived sharing in how house...
Article
Clients are increasingly seeking professional help related to pornography viewing in the digital age. Given distress is a key reason clients seek help, the purpose of this study was to identify variables associated with it. Drawing from recent literature, we examined the roles of solitary sexual desire, moral incongruence, feelings of dysregulation...
Article
Objective Examine whether the relationship between ethnicity and parental discipline practices is consistent across contexts. Background Harsh discipline has been linked to negative child behaviors and adolescent outcomes. In examining harsh discipline, scholars have observed ethnic differences. Methods We use the Early Childhood Longitudinal Stu...
Article
Multiple qualitative and quantitative studies have investigated homophobic language and its associated correlates. However, very few studies have approached this phenomenon from an ethnographic methodology. Furthermore, no studies to date have used an ethnography to study this language in a conservative religious community. In this study, the prima...
Preprint
The COVID-19 global pandemic has the potential to change family life and the household division of labour in significant ways. We surveyed 1,249 mothers and fathers in Canada in May 2020 to understand potential pandemic related changes in housework and childcare.
Article
Paternal involvement in instrumental and emotional parenting behaviours benefits families and children. While fathers have become more involved in childrearing over the past several decades, significant variability in paternal involvement with children remains. Yet, little work has focused on the facilitators and barriers to involved fathering and...
Article
Full-text available
Objective To investigate the effectiveness of fatherhood programs targeting unmarried, low‐income, nonresident fathers. Background Programs for unmarried, nonresident, and low‐income fathers increased in number and scope over the past decade. Programs for fathers have typically targeted five broad areas: positive father involvement, parenting, co‐...
Article
Beginning in the mid-1990s, the federal government, supported by both Republican and Democratic administrations, has allocated roughly $1.5 billion to promote “healthy marriage initiatives.” A major target of these initiatives have been unmarried parents, or what researchers call fragile families. Over the past two decades, studies have examined th...
Article
Full-text available
Parental depression has a negative effect on child development including mental and physical health, language and development, and externalizing and internalizing behavior. This quantitative research study examined the relationship between paternal self-efficacy (PSE) and parenting behaviors often associated with paternal depression. Data from the...
Article
Full-text available
While, overall, fathers have become more involved as parents, there may be significant variability in how involved fathers are in the lives of their children. This study examines how paternal depression and masculine norm adherence affect father involvement. Using new data from the Survey of Contemporary Fatherhood (N = 2,181) and ordinary least sq...
Preprint
While, overall, fathers have become more involved as parents there may be significant variability in how involved fathers are in the lives of their children. This study examines how paternal depression and masculine norm adherence affect father involvement. Using new data from the Survey of Contemporary Fatherhood (n=2181) and OLS regression models...
Article
Full-text available
Research suggests that many fathers struggle balancing hegemonic masculine norms with new fatherhood ideals. This study uses data on 2,194 fathers from a national study on fathers of children aged 2 to 18 and incorporates a comprehensive assessment of masculine norms to examine whether adherence to masculine norms is associated with father involvem...
Article
Full-text available
The U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child declares that children are entitled to grow up in a family environment with love, happiness and understanding. Governments and international child welfare agencies have promoted the reintegration of children currently in residential care facilities with family or other caregivers. We assess whether 157...
Article
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Objective Research investigating long-term effects of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) on mental health for men is vastly underdeveloped. This study strengthened the knowledge base by examining: (a) long-term trajectories of depressive symptoms for men with and without a history of CSA, and (b) moderating effects of social support over time. Method We...
Article
Full-text available
Relationship self-regulation refers to the “work” partners put in to keep their relationships healthy. Past relationship self-regulation research has not taken into account distal variables that may affect it, such as respondents’ own and parental avoidant couple conflict-resolution styles. Using data from 4,456 people in their first marriages who...
Article
Full-text available
Depressed parents may negatively influence the well-being and outcomes of their children. However, prior research has mostly addressed mother's depression and early childhood outcomes, whereas fathers and adolescents have been largely ignored in the literature. Using data from the sixth grade and age 15 waves of the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National...
Article
Full-text available
Several decades of research have shown that parental divorce can be a stressful experience for children and may lead to depression and other negative outcomes. Similarly, research has highlighted the stressors often induced by stepfamily formation and their effects on children. Although singular family transitions can exert influence, few studies e...
Article
Full-text available
Social science researchers have long examined the impact of combat experience on individual and family outcomes, but doing so within a stepfamily context has yet to be done. Drawn from a sample of young adults living in the USA, this study examines the effect of emerging adults’ combat experience on the relationship between their childhood attachme...
Article
Full-text available
Relationship quality, as measured by relationship satisfaction and stability, is important to understanding how happy a couple is and the chances their relationship will end. Prior research has linked two aspects of relationship self-regulation (RSR), effort and strategies to improve a relationship, to increased levels of satisfaction and stability...
Article
Full-text available
Men who do not seek help for mental health problems may experience unnecessary suffering which ultimately affects the well-being of themselves and others. Gendered manifestations of depressive symptoms may play an important role in why some men do not seek help for mental health issues. Using data from 2,382 male respondents in the National Comorbi...
Article
Full-text available
Men often express less emotion than women do, are hesitant to express weakness, and seek professional help much less frequently than do their female counterparts. The lack of help seeking is common across characteristics such as age, race, ethnicity, and nationality. Authors used data from the 2006 General Social Surveys mental health module to sug...
Article
Full-text available
While the use of inferential statistics is a nearly universal practice in the social sciences, there are instances where its application is unnecessary and potentially misleading. This is true for a portion of research using administrative data in educational research in the United States. Surveying all research articles using administrative data p...
Article
Full-text available
Compared to first marriages, remarriages have consistently demonstrated higher rates of divorce. Theories used to explain this phenomenon include the family process and selection perspectives. Researchers have attempted to address selection bias in this area but have not yet employed propensity score analysis to bolster causal inference. The purpos...
Article
Full-text available
Few empirical studies have examined the association between parenthood and psychological well-being. Using NLSY79 data (n = 6,297), we examined how various parental roles, or specific parent–child relationship types, were associated with depressive symptoms in adults. We hypothesized that less traditional and more complex parental roles would be as...
Article
Full-text available
We provide a brief response to a commentary submitted by Rosky in which he questions the rationale and methodological merits of our original study about full-disclosure polygraph outcome differences between juvenile and adult sex offenders. At the heart of Rosky's substantive concerns is the premise that only research tying polygraphy outcomes to a...
Article
Full-text available
Several studies demonstrate a strong, positive association between relationship effort, which may be defined as one's attitude and behavior toward improving a romantic relationship, and relationship quality. Relationship self-regulation scholars have argued that effort is dyadic, where one partner's effort influences the other partner's perceptions...
Article
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Few studies have examined relationship quality construct measurement and covariate influence differences between first married and remarried individuals. We employ multiple-sample confirmatory factor analysis and structural regression invariance testing to assess relationship quality measurement and covariate influence differences between these two...
Article
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Current research on predictors of marital atti- tudes highlights the importance of family and interpersonal processes, yet fails to identify which factors are more important and whether there are mediators that help to conceptually simplify the process by which such attitudes are influenced. We examine the influence of family-of- origin quality and...
Article
Full-text available
Stepfamilies face many challenges. Research and clinical work with stepfamilies have tended to use the family systems or developmental perspectives, while overlooking how cognitive processes may influence stepfamily functioning. We fill this gap in the literature by analyzing a sample from the Relationship Evaluation (RELATE) questionnaire database...
Article
Full-text available
Despite the empirical and theoretical chasm between the opponents and proponents of polygraphy, its use is prominent among sex offender agencies in the United States. However, current research on polygraph examination outcomes among juvenile sex offenders, along with potential differences from their adult counterparts, is scarce and outdated. In th...
Article
Full-text available
Educational assortative mating is a crucial aspect of marriage formation because it confers benefits such as improved health and well-being, affects economic standing, and reflects the level of gender equity within marriage. However, little is known about educational assortative mating patterns in remarriage. Using data from the National Longitudin...
Article
Full-text available
This article examines the relationship between egalitarian gender attitudes and its effect on income, poverty, and social service utilization. In a sample of married fathers in the Fragile Families data (N = 717), we conducted regression analyses on these questions, five years after initial interviews. Our results indicate that egalitarian attitude...
Article
Full-text available
One potential problem area in remarriages is problems with or ties to an ex-spouse. This study focuses on identifying factors central to the relationship dynamics such as relationship satisfaction and stability. Additional emphasis is placed on specific and targeted work in a relationship with the goal of improving it, and its potential mediating e...
Article
Full-text available
Summary: Using data from a sample of RELATE (the RELATionship Evaluation Survey) respondents in stepfamilies (N1⁄4560), this study examined the association between relationship quality (satisfaction and stability) and stepparenting issues. Although step- parenting issues can negatively impact romantic partners in stepfamilies, we suggest that high-...
Article
We compare American Indians and Caucasians on the influence of family-of-origin quality on the adult-children's later romantic relationship quality. Using data from the RELATE, 341 American Indians and 341 Caucasian participants were analyzed using group comparison methods. Structural equation modeling demonstrated that, overall, the perceived impa...
Article
Childhood obesity continues to be a major public health problem in the United States. If this problem is unresolved, some children will be at risk for disorders such as type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, and cancer and will become a high economic and social burden for society. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, Child and Young Adul...
Article
Full-text available
Many divorced women experience a significant decline in finan-cial, social, physical, and psychological well-being following a divorce. Using data from the NLSY79 (n= 2,520) we compare welfare recipients, mothers, and impoverished women to less marginalized divorcees on remarriage chances. Furthermore, we look at the kinds of men these women marry...
Article
Full-text available
In this article, we address how first and second marriages are formed by asking whether SES has similar effects on first and second marriage entry. Like many studies of first marriage, we focus on gender, socioeconomic characteristics (education, income, and employment status), and gender differences in the effect of SES. To examine this question,...
Article
Many scholars have noted that divorcees have age-assortative mating patterns distinct from the never-married. Similarly, comparisons between older and younger individuals indicate that hypergamy becomes increasingly likely with age. Unfortunately, prior research has not been able to disentangle the effects of age from the effect of divorce. Using d...
Article
Scholars believe that family ties extending out to previous generations, called kin support, may have allowed American Indians to withstand traumatic events. Although a series of traumatic and historical events disrupted the social structures of family life, kin support was found to be a major factor in the survival of American Indians. This study...
Article
Full-text available
One gap in the remarriage literature to date concerns the timing of remarriage among different groups. This paper begins to fill this gap by examining the tempo of remarriage among individuals whose first marriages ended in divorce and individuals whose first marriages ended in spousal death. Drawing on event-history models, the results suggest tha...
Article
Full-text available
While the use of inferential statistics is a nearly universal practice in the social sciences, there are instances where its application is unnecessary or, worse, misleading. This is true for most research on the Relative Age Effect (RAE) in sports. Given the limited amount of data needed to examine RAE (birth dates) and the availability of complet...
Article
As wealth inequality in the United States continues to grow, family characteristics have become increasingly important to researchers' understanding of changes in wealth inequality over time. One aspect of adulthood is having children and transitioning to parenthood, which can affect numerous outcomes, including wealth trajectories. Due to widely-r...
Article
Educational homogamy is common, but the association between marriage timing and educational assortative mating is not well understood. Following never-married men and women over time with NLSY79 panel data, we explore the relationship between marriage timing and educational assortative mating by educational attainment and gender. Our results show t...

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Project (1)
Project
Increase understanding and awareness of homophobic language use in the mountain west.