Kevin D O'Brien

Kevin D O'Brien
The University of Manchester · School of Dentistry

BDS, FDS, D.Orth, PhD

About

171
Publications
68,466
Reads
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6,639
Citations
Additional affiliations
October 1991 - October 1992
University of Pittsburgh
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)
January 1989 - present
The University of Manchester
Education
January 1989 - January 1992
The University of Manchester
Field of study
  • Orthodontics

Publications

Publications (171)
Article
The gender balance on boards is an important issue because any imbalance represents gender inequality and is not acceptable. We describe data that we have gathered on the current balance of the UK dental boards and then outline potential ways forward to address any imbalance. Understand the current gender balance of the UK dental boards.Identify wh...
Article
Full-text available
Objective Cleft palate (CP) can affect breathing, leading to sleep-disordered breathing (SDB). Sleep position can affect SDB, but the optimum sleep position for infants with CP is unknown. We aimed to determine the design of a pragmatic study to investigate the effect of the 2 routinely advised sleep positions in infants with CP on oxygen saturatio...
Article
Full-text available
W e thank Professor Benson for his letter about our article. We are pleased that our review has raised the comments on this relevant and challenging orthodontic subject. In reply to his comments, we would like to clarify several points. Our conclusions were somewhat different from other reviews. This was because of our strict inclusion criteria and...
Article
Introduction: A diverse range of outcomes is used in orthodontic research with a focus on measuring outcomes important to clinicians and little consistency in outcome selection and measurement. We aimed to develop a core outcome set for use in clinical trials of orthodontic treatment not involving cleft or orthognathic patient groups. Methods: A...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Currently, there is limited evidence on the effects of malocclusion on oral health and whether the correction of malocclusion results in an improvement in oral health. In this review, we examined the evidence from randomized controlled trials and prospective cohort studies to provide information on any association between malocclusion...
Article
In this short paper, I will outline the issue of uncertainty in orthodontic treatment and the dilemma that we face in interpreting rapidly changing information.
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis is an approach to managing dropouts and missing data in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). In this study, we systematically reviewed orthodontic RCTs to assess the frequency that an ITT analysis was carried out, to compare the number of trials that reported using ITT analyses with those that had tru...
Article
The goal of this paper is to examine the effect of religious heterogeneity on various important metro-area variables such as total expenditure, taxes, property taxes, debt, and employment as well as spending on the specific services of education, roads, police, health, and welfare. Two indices are used to measure religious heterogeneity, a fraction...
Chapter
One of the main reasons to carry out research is to reduce the uncertainty about any health‐care intervention. It is well established that there is a hierarchy of research evidence that moves from the case report to the systematic review. Evidence from each level allows people to reduce clinical uncertainty. However, it is not always true that all...
Article
Introduction: The selection of appropriate outcomes that matter to both patients and operators is increasingly appreciated, with core outcome sets in clinical trials gaining in popularity. The first step in core outcome set development is the generation of a list of possible important outcomes based on a scoping literature review. Moreover, outcom...
Article
Full-text available
Background Prominent upper front teeth are a common problem affecting about a quarter of 12-year-old children in the UK. The condition develops when permanent teeth erupt. These teeth are more likely to be injured and their appearance can cause significant distress. Children are often referred to an orthodontist for treatment with dental braces to...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Prominent upper front teeth are a common problem affecting about a quarter of 12-year-old children in the UK. The condition develops when permanent teeth erupt. These teeth are more likely to be injured and their appearance can cause significant distress. Children are often referred to an orthodontist for treatment with dental braces t...
Article
Full-text available
Background: A Class II division 2 malocclusion is characterised by upper front teeth that are retroclined (tilted toward the roof of the mouth) and an increased overbite (deep overbite), which can cause oral problems and may affect appearance.This problem can be corrected by the use of special dental braces (functional appliances) that move the up...
Article
Full-text available
Background The Herbst appliance is an orthodontic appliance that is used for the correction of class II malocclusion with skeletal discrepancies. Research has shown that this is effective. However, a potential harm is excessive protrusion of the lower front teeth. This is associated with gingival recession, loss of tooth support, and root resorptio...
Article
The present paper investigates whether there is a relationship between eBay auction outcomes for memorabilia and various predictions from the FiveThirtyEight site for the 2016 U.S. presidential election. We find that changes in the value of various FiveThirtyEight prediction variables were almost always correlated with the number of bids. For the n...
Article
Full-text available
Background: A Class II division 2 malocclusion is characterised by upper front teeth that are retroclined (tilted toward the roof of the mouth) and an increased overbite (deep overbite), which can cause oral problems and may affect appearance.This problem can be corrected by the use of special dental braces (functional appliances) that move the up...
Article
Full-text available
I was delighted to receive the invitation to coordinate this interview with Kevin O'Brien. My first contact with his work occurred in 2009 when I came across two of his papers 1,2 that had changed my mind about research. Since then, his thoughts about the scientific evidence available also influenced several people around the world. His surprisingl...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We address the challenge of model transfer learning for a shape model matching (SMM) system. The goal is to adapt an existing SMM system to work effectively with new data without rebuilding the system from scratch. Recently, several SMM systems have been proposed that combine the outcome of a Random Forest (RF) regression step with shape constrain...
Article
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Background Orthodontic treatment is commonly undertaken in young people, with over 40% of children in the UK needing treatment and currently one third having treatment, at a cost to the National Health Service in England and Wales of £273 million each year. Most current research about orthodontic care does not consider what patients truly feel abou...
Article
The aim of this study was to identify and summarize the outcomes measured in orthodontic studies of children with cleft lip and/or palate. The objectives were to categorize the outcomes into pre-determined domains and to explore whether any domains were under-represented. Electronic databases and grey literature were searched until December 2016 to...
Article
Children with a cleft palate (CP) have an increased tendency towards otitis media with effusion (OME) compared with other children; There are no epidemiological data available to indicate how many children within specific age groups with CP have OME, or will still have OME, after the current recommended ‘watchful waiting’ period of three-months bef...
Article
Objectives: There is an increasing recognition that research outcomes should resonate with patients rather than fixating on technical aspects of interventions. We aimed to assess the nature of outcomes within a representative subset of clinical trials published in leading dental journals. Methods: Randomized controlled trials published over a 3-...
Article
Full-text available
Cleft lip and palate are among the most common congenital malformations, with an incidence of around 1 in 700. Cleft palate (CP) results in impaired Eustachian tube function, and 90% of children with CP have otitis media with effusion (OME) histories. There are several approaches to management, including watchful waiting, the provision of hearing a...
Article
This paper examines the effect of ethnic diversity on municipal spending, taxes, and employment, as well as on municipal spending in various subcategories. Previous work has found that diversity is associated with decreased productive spending but increased overall spending and employment. The goal of this paper is to investigate whether these oppo...
Article
Full-text available
In this article, we summarize the most clinically relevant findings of our recently updated Cochrane systematic review into the treatment of Class II Division 1 malocclusion. A systematic review of the databases was performed to identify all randomized controlled trials evaluating early treatment with functional appliances to correct Class II Divis...
Article
Full-text available
Approximately 75% of children with cleft palate (CP) have Otitis Media with Effusion (OME) histories. Evidence for the effective management of OME in these children is lacking. The inconsistency in outcome measurement in previous studies has led to a call for the development of a Core Outcome Set (COS). Despite the increase in the number of publish...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper we will provide our personal viewpoint on the current provision of orthodontic education and discuss the need for further developments. This will include training relevant to the following: (i) student dentists, (ii) specialists, and (iii) general practitioners: particularly those who wish to develop an interest in orthodontics. We wi...
Article
Introduction The selection of appropriate outcomes is a fundamental part of the design of clinical trials. Orthodontic treatment aims to improve a person's dentofacial appearance, and research outcomes should therefore reflect the perspectives of both clinicians and patients. In this study, we aimed to identify which outcomes were measured in recen...
Article
Background: The term anchorage in orthodontic treatment refers to methods of controlling unwanted tooth movement. This is provided either by anchor sites within the mouth, such as the teeth and the palate, or from outside the mouth (headgear). Recently, new methods of providing anchorage have been developed using orthodontic implants which are sur...
Article
Introduction The objective of this 3-arm parallel randomized clinical trial was to compare the effectiveness of temporary anchorage devices (TADs), Nance button palatal arches, and headgear for anchorage supplementation in the treatment of patients with malocclusions that required maximum anchorage. This trial was conducted between August 2008 and...
Article
Full-text available
There is a paucity of evidence to guide the management of otitis media with effusion (OME), which is a common problem causing significant hearing impairment in children with cleft palate. The insertion of grommets is currently being used to correct hearing impairment and prevent complications of unmanaged OME, but there is ongoing discussion about...
Article
Full-text available
No gold standard method currently exists for the development of a core outcome set (COS) although key issues to consider have been identified [1]. Methodologi-cal decisions in the design of a project to develop a COS for otitis media with effusion (OME) in children with cleft palate (CP) will be explained. Stakeholder groups Clinicians involved in...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: To explore the views of children with cleft palate and their parents about daily life with otitis media with effusion and associated hearing loss. Design: A qualitative study. Semistructured interviews were used to collect data from parents. Participatory techniques, including activities on a tablet computer, were used to collect data...
Article
Background: Prominent upper front teeth are a common problem affecting about a quarter of 12-year old children in the UK. The correction of this condition is one of the most common treatments performed by orthodontists. This condition develops when the child's permanent teeth erupt and children are often referred to an orthodontist for treatment w...
Chapter
One of the great buzz phrases over the last few years is evidenced-based care. However, while this is easy to promote as a concept, we have to carry out the research that is going to provide us with the evidence that will either reinforce or make us change the care that we provide. At this point it is relevant for us to consider the type of investi...
Article
When orthodontic treatment is provided with fixed appliances, it is sometimes necessary to move the upper molar teeth backwards (distalise) to create space or help to overcome anchorage requirements. This can be achieved with the use of extraoral or intraoral appliances. The most common appliance is extraoral headgear, which requires considerable p...
Conference Paper
Purpose: There is a paucity of evidence to guide the treatment of Otitis Media with Effusion (OME), which is a common problem causing hearing impairment in children with Cleft Palate (CP). The surgical insertion of grommets is being used as a means of correcting hearing impairment and preventing complications of untreated OME, but there remains act...
Chapter
Obtaining Research Evidence for Treating Increased Overjets in Class II Malocclusions Ethical Issues in Class II Research Early Orthodontic Treatment for Class II Malocclusion Treatment Provided During Adolescence Synthesis of the Evidence General Summary and the Way Forward
Article
Full-text available
Background Cleft palate (CP) has an incidence of approximately 1 in 700. Children with CP are also susceptible to otitis media with effusion (OME), with approximately 90% experiencing nontrivial OME. There are several approaches to the management of OME in children with CP. The Management of Otitis Media with Effusion in Children with Cleft Palate...
Article
Full-text available
Self-ligating brackets have become increasingly established in orthodontics in recent decades. While proponents haveprofessed overwhelming advantages of self-ligation, most notably a reduction in treatment time and a reduced requirement for extractions, there has been little convincing evidence to support many of these claims. In this review the ev...
Article
I have been asked to provide an update on the way that we see the General Dental Council (GDC) evolving over the duration of time that I will be Chairman (until September 2013). I have been in post for almost twelve months and am pleased to report that we are seeing a consistent improvement in performance across all areas. This is due to the improv...
Article
Full-text available
Our objectives were to evaluate the evidence with regard to the effectiveness and stability of orthodontic treatment interventions for Class II Division 2 malocclusion in children and adolescents. This is a systematic review conducted according to the PRISMA statement. The Cochrane Oral Health Trials Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Contr...
Article
Randomised clinical trials are commonly undertaken in medical and dental research. However, few authors discuss the difficulties associated with such studies, including costs, ethical issues and recruitment of an adequate number of patients. There is little information available on the number of studies which are terminated early as a result of the...
Article
Introduction The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of Twin-block and Dynamax appliances for the treatment of Class II Division 1 malocclusion. Methods This was a randomized controlled trial involving 32 boys and 32 girls aged 10 to 14 years with Class II Division 1 malocclusion. They were randomly allocated to either the Dynamax a...
Article
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of Twin-block and Dynamax appliances for the treatment of Class II Division 1 malocclusion. METHODS: This was a randomized controlled trial involving 32 boys and 32 girls aged 10 to 14 years with Class II Division 1 malocclusion. They were randomly allocated to either the Dynamax...
Article
Einleitung: Ziel dieser Studie war die Evaluation der Effektivität einer kieferorthopädischen Frühbehandlung der Klasse-II / 1-Malokklusion mit ­einem Twin-Block. An der randomisierten, kon­trollierten Multizenterstudie nahmen Patienten aus 14 kieferorthopädischen Kliniken im Verei­nigten Königreich teil. Methoden: Die Studie erfolgte an 174 Kinder...
Article
I have been asked to provide an update on my personal view of specialisation in dentistry. This viewpoint is entirely my own and does not represent any other body or organisation. Am I in a position to have a viewpoint? Over several years, I have been a specialty programme lead, member of a Specialist Advisory Committee (part of the Joint Committee...
Article
Full-text available
To screen patients with oligoarticular and polyarticular forms of Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) to determine (i) the severity of their class II skeletal pattern; (ii) temporomandibular joint signs and symptoms and (iii) use of systemic corticosteroids. Cross-sectional screening. Sixty-eight children with JIA aged between 9 and 16 years old wh...
Article
This paper uses the usual eBay auction variables and some data from ABE and Amazon, namely, lot size and the alternative e-price, the lowest price for a given book on a given site, to examine in the question of how information from ABE and Amazon affects eBay auction outcomes. We find that although lot-size sometimes affects bids and final sale pri...
Article
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of orthodontic/orthognathic surgical care provided in the North West region of England. It was an observational, prospective cohort study at 13 maxillofacial clinics in the United Kingdom. The 131 patients comprised 47 males (35.9%) and 84 females (64.1%), with an average age of 22.6 years. Th...
Article
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of early orthodontic treatment with the Twin-block appliance for the treatment of Class II Division 1 malocclusion. This was a multi-center, randomized, controlled trial with subjects from 14 orthodontic clinics in the United Kingdom. The study included 174 children aged 8 to 10 years with Cla...
Article
Our aims in this study were to (1) develop a method of measuring 3-dimensional (3D) tooth movement using a 3D surface laser scanner, (2) test the accuracy of this method, and (3) compare the measurements with those from cephalometric radiographs. A method of superimposing pretreatment and posttreatment models on the palatal rugae was developed, and...
Article
The aims of this study were to assess whether early Twin-block appliance treatment improves the attractiveness of Class II profiles and to determine the orofacial features of a profile that most influence the perception of attractiveness. Silhouetted profiles of 20 treated patients and 20 untreated controls randomly selected from 174 subjects (ages...
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Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability of the Royal London Space Analysis (RLSA) and to evaluate its influence on orthodontic treatment decisions. Thirty-one case records were collected to represent various levels of crowding and different types of malocclusions. Seventeen examiners assessed these records and completed a data...
Article
Full-text available
The mode of questionnaire administration may affect the estimates and applicability of oral health-related quality of life indicators. The aim of this study was to compare psychometrically the self-administered Child-OIDP index with the original interviewer-administered instrument. This was a cross-sectional study of 144 consecutive children aged 9...
Article
Full-text available
To evaluate whether the index of orthodontic treatment need (IOTN) could be improved by adding an oral health-related quality of life measure to predict both the outcome of orthodontic consultation and the child's perceived need for orthodontic treatment. The sample consisted of 187 children aged 11-16 years referred to orthodontic clinics in the B...
Article
Background: Prominent upper front teeth are an important and potentially harmful type of orthodontic problem. This condition develops when the child’s permanent teeth erupt and children are often referred to an orthodontist for treatment with dental braces to reduce the prominence of the teeth. If a child is referred at a young age, the orthodontis...
Article
Full-text available
The main aim of the present investigation was to evaluate whether there is an association between completion of orthodontic treatment and quality of life measures, i.e. age, gender, socio-economic status, type of appliance and need for orthodontic treatment. The secondary aim was to evaluate whether compliance with orthodontic treatment (missed app...
Article
The article uses auction data collected from the eBay internet site to examine the effect of various parameters on number of bids and selling price of art. The article further uses an insight from the auction literature to gather evidence about whether art on eBay is purchased for consumption or investment purposes. The article argues that the evid...
Article
BACKGROUND: Prominent upper front teeth are an important and potentially harmful type of orthodontic problem. This condition develops when the child's permanent teeth erupt and children are often referred to an orthodontist for treatment with dental braces to reduce the prominence of the teeth. If a child is referred at a young age, the orthodontis...
Article
The early treatment of severe Class II malocclusion remains a surprisingly controversial issue despite the publication of 3 large randomized controlled trials in the United States. 1-3 Perhaps a main reason is the belief that these trials were carried out on selected populations who received treatment at dental schools. As a result, these studies m...
Article
The purpose of this study was to validate the child perception questionnaire (CPQ(11-14)) with a sample of schoolchildren in Greater Manchester, United Kingdom. We made a longitudinal survey of children from 1999 to 2002, using the index of orthodontic treatment need (IOTN) at baseline when the children were 11 to 12 years old, the CPQ(11-14), and...
Article
This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: Null hypotheses There is no difference between the outcome of treatment of children (<16 years) with Class II division 2 malocclusion who have undergone orthodontic treatment only or those who have had no treatment. There is no difference between the outcome...
Article
Background: Correction of the type of dental problem where the bite is deep and the upper front teeth are retroclined (Class II division 2 malocclusion) may be carried out using different types of orthodontic treatment. However, in severe cases, surgery to the jaws in combination with orthodontics may be required. In growing children, treatment ma...
Article
Full-text available
If someone had told us, when we were undergraduates, that there was a career which allowed you the time, and gave you the support, to pursue and research the things about your profession which most interested you, we would have been intrigued. If we had then been informed that there was paid employment which encouraged you to travel extensively abr...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the index of orthodontic treatment need (IOTN) could be weighted by using consumer-based sociodental measures to predict the uptake of orthodontic services. The sample consisted of 525 schoolchildren, 11 to 12 years old, from Greater Manchester, United Kingdom. Child-perceived IOTN aesthetic component (...