Kevin W McCairn

Kevin W McCairn
Korea Brain Research Institute · Systems Neuroscience

Ph.D

About

26
Publications
9,042
Reads
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1,080
Citations
Citations since 2016
9 Research Items
524 Citations
2016201720182019202020212022020406080100
2016201720182019202020212022020406080100
2016201720182019202020212022020406080100
2016201720182019202020212022020406080100
Additional affiliations
July 2013 - April 2015
Korea Brain Research Institute
Position
  • Principal Investigator
January 2007 - present

Publications

Publications (26)
Preprint
Full-text available
In this study we document the unexpected discovery of multiple coronaviruses and a BSL-3 pathogen in agricultural cotton and rice sequencing datasets. In particular, we have identified a novel HKU5-related Merbecovirus in a cotton dataset sequenced by the Huazhong Agricultural University in 2017. We have also found an infectious clone sequence cont...
Preprint
Full-text available
There is a near consensus view that SARS-CoV-2 has a natural zoonotic origin; however, several characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 taken together are not easily explained by a natural zoonotic origin hypothesis. These include: a low rate of evolution in the early phase of transmission; the lack of evidence of recombination events; a high pre-existing bin...
Article
Full-text available
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a neuropsychiatric disorder that arises from a complex interaction of environmental and genetic factors. Despite numerous pharmacological and behavioral interventions, approximately 10% of patients remain refractory. High-frequency deep brain stimulation (HF-DBS) has shown promising results for treatment-refra...
Article
Full-text available
Background and objectives Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the thalamus is a promising therapeutic alternative for treating medically refractory Tourette syndrome (TS). However, few human studies have examined its mechanism of action. Therefore, the networks that mediate the therapeutic effects of thalamic DBS remain poorly understood. Methods Five...
Article
Inappropriate vocal expressions, e.g., vocal tics in Tourette syndrome, severely impact quality of life. Neural mechanisms underlying vocal tics remain unexplored because no established animal model representing the condition exists. We report that unilateral disinhibition of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) generates vocal tics in monkeys. Whole-brain...
Article
Full-text available
Abnormalities in cortico-basal ganglia (CBG) networks can cause a variety of movement disorders ranging from hypokinetic disorders, such as Parkinson's disease (PD), to hyperkinetic conditions, such as Tourette syndrome (TS). Each condition is characterized by distinct patterns of abnormal neural discharge (dysrhythmia) at both the local single-neu...
Article
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Although there is general consensus that deep brain stimulation (DBS) yields substantial clinical benefit in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), the therapeutic mechanism of DBS remains a matter of debate. Recent studies demonstrate that DBS targeting the globus pallidus internus (GPi-DBS) suppresses pathological oscillations in firing rate and...
Article
This review summarizes animal models of Tourette syndrome (TS) and associated tic disorders that have been developed through pharmacological manipulation. These models provide a useful platform to explore the pathophysiology and the therapeutic interventions available for these disorders. The current pharmacological models, primarily using rodents...
Chapter
This chapter summarizes the different approaches used in the development of valid animal models of tic disorders, which represent important platforms to explore pathobiological mechanisms, as well as to test and validate experimental treatments. Rodent genetic and pharmacological models have been developed throughout the years, providing useful ins...
Article
Full-text available
A neurosurgical intervention that has shown potential for treating basal ganglia (BG) mediated motor tics involves high-frequency deep brain stimulation (HF-DBS) targeted to the output nucleus of the BG: the globus pallidus internus (GPi). This study used a nonhuman primate (Macaca fuscata) model of BG-meditated motor tics, and investigated the sho...
Article
Full-text available
Motor tics, a cardinal symptom of Tourette syndrome (TS), are hypothesized to arise from abnormalities within cerebro-basal ganglia circuits. Yet noninvasive neuroimaging of TS has previously identified robust activation in the cerebellum. To date, electrophysiological properties of cerebellar activation and its role in basal ganglia-mediated tic e...
Article
High-frequency deep brain stimulation targeting the output nucleus of the basal ganglia, the globus pallidus internus, has been suggested as a treatment modality for intractable Tourette syndrome and basal-ganglia-mediated motor tics. Recent studies on the modeling of motor tics induced by focal injections of bicuculline to the striatum, a putative...
Article
Full-text available
The current model of basal ganglia organization postulates their functional division into sensorimotor, associative, and limbic territories, implicated, respectively, in motor, cognitive, and motivational aspects of behavior. Based on this model, we previously demonstrated, in the external segment of globus pallidus of monkeys, that the same neuron...
Article
Full-text available
The cortico-basal ganglia pathway is involved in normal motor control and implicated in multiple movement disorders. Brief repetitive muscle contractions known as motor tics are a common symptom in several basal ganglia related motor disorders. We used focal micro-injections of the GABA-A antagonist bicuculline to the sensorimotor putamen of behavi...
Article
Full-text available
High-frequency stimulation (HFS) in the globus pallidus is used to ameliorate clinical symptoms of Parkinson's disease, dystonia, and other disorders. Previous in vivo studies have shown diverse static effects of stimulation on discharge rates and firing patterns of neurons along the corticobasal ganglia loop. In vitro studies, together with other...
Article
Full-text available
Competing theories seek to account for the therapeutic effects of high-frequency deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the internal globus pallidus (GPi) for medically intractable Parkinson's disease. To investigate this question, we studied the spontaneous activity of 102 pallidal neurons during GPiDBS in two macaques rendered parkinsonian by administra...
Article
Full-text available
The authors sought to examine the therapeutic efficacy of motor cortex stimulation (MCS) in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-treated macaques and to characterize therapeutic differences with varying modes, frequencies, and durations of stimulation. Motor cortex stimulation was delivered at currents below motor threshold and at fr...
Article
Full-text available
The current model of basal ganglia organization postulates the existence of a functional partitioning into sensorimotor, associative and limbic territories, implicated in motor, cognitive and emotional aspects of behaviour, respectively. This organization was proposed initially on the basis of the cortico-striatal projections and was extended to th...
Article
Full-text available
The anatomical organization of the basal ganglia supports their involvement in movement and behavioural disorders. Thus dyskinesia, attention deficit with or without hyperactivity, and stereotyped behaviour can be induced by microinjections of bicuculline, a GABAergic antagonist, into different parts of the external globus pallidus (GPe) in monkeys...

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