Kevin Gluck

Kevin Gluck
AFRL, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH · Cognitive Models and Agents Branch

PhD in Cognitive Psychology

About

96
Publications
15,174
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1,018
Citations

Publications

Publications (96)
Article
Introduction: The study examined how the spacing of training during initial acquisition of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) skill affects longer-term retention and sustainment of these skills. Methods: This was a multiphased, longitudinal study. Nursing students were randomly assigned to 2 initial acquisition conditions in which they complete...
Article
We develop and demonstrate a method for inferring changes in strategy use, applicable to decision making in multi-attribute choice. The method is an extension of one developed by Lee, Gluck, and Walsh (Decision 6:335–368, 2019) and continues to rely on a Bayesian approach for inferring strategy switches based on spike-and-slab priors. The extension...
Article
This article reports the results of baseline cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) skills performance measurements from 467 nursing students. All participants had completed a CPR course. Baseline measurements were compared to performance after one 10-minute refresher training session on the Resuscitation Quality Improvement system. Significant improv...
Article
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Aim Although evidence supports brief, frequent CPR training, optimal training intervals have not been established. The purpose of this study was to compare nursing students’ CPR skills (compressions and ventilations) with 4 different spaced training intervals: daily, weekly, monthly, and quarterly, each for 4 times in a row. Methods Participants w...
Article
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Robust modeling in cognitive science is a laudable goal. Unfortunately, we will never know if we are achieving it if we continue to be vague about what it means to be robust. In this commentary, I point to a previously published domain-agnostic definition of robustness, describe mechanisms for robustness derived from a multi-disciplinary literature...
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Introduction: Sufficient CPR skills in the general population are essential to make them active bystanders and contribute to an effective chain of survival in cardiac arrest emergencies. However, having a large proportion of the population regularly retrained is practically infeasible.Objective: The aim of this study was to assess and retrain cardi...
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In this data report, we describe a three-session experiment spanning six months. Several well-controlled laboratory tasks (Word Learning, Raven Matrices, and Tapping) and Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR), a complex but well-defined real-world task, were administered. Data are reported from 50 participants for the first session, 40 for the second...
Article
We develop models of strategy use in multiple-cue decision making that have a couple of key capabilities. The first is that they incorporate multiple sources of behavior, using the predictions that strategies make about processes and outcomes as a basis for inferring strategy use. The second is that they allow for people to change strategies multip...
Article
Understanding is at the core of higher-level information processing and has a long history in the cognitive sciences. It is often described as a complex phenomenon with many dimensions, which makes it difficult to define with precision. Many researchers have noted that understanding is often ill defined, indirectly addressed, or avoided altogether....
Article
The spacing effect is one of the most widely replicated results in experimental psychology: Separating practice repetitions by a delay slows learning but enhances retention. The current study tested the suitability of the underlying, explanatory mechanism in three computational models of the spacing effect. The relearning of forgotten material was...
Article
The spacing effect is one of the most widely replicated results in experimental psychology: Separating practice repetitions by a delay slows learning but enhances retention. The current study tested the suitability of the underlying, explanatory mechanism in three computational models of the spacing effect. The relearning of forgotten material was...
Article
The spacing effect is among the most widely replicated empirical phenomena in the learning sciences, and its relevance to education and training is readily apparent. Yet successful applications of spacing effect research to education and training is rare. Computational modeling can provide the crucial link between a century of accumulated experimen...
Conference Paper
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One-size-fits-all fixed calendar date approaches to training have proven to be inadequate across an array of domains and contexts, and in the medical field specifically, many studies document that skills deteriorate as early as two months after training (e.g., Madden, 2006; Woollard et al., 2006). Given the individual differences learners inherentl...
Article
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This article presents a new research area called interactive task learning (ITL), in which an agent actively tries to learn not just how to perform a task better but the actual definition of a task through natural interaction with a human instructor while attempting to perform the task. The authors provide an analysis of desiderata for ITL systems,...
Conference Paper
Trust in others transfers between games of strategic interaction (e.g., iterated Prisoner’s Dilemma– PD and Chicken Game – CG). This transfer of trust represents knowledge acquired about the other player (player-specific knowledge), carrying over from one situation to another, which is separate from what was learned about the previous game (game-sp...
Article
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When playing games of strategic interaction, such as iterated Prisoner’s Dilemma and iterated Chicken Game, people exhibit specific within-game learning (e.g., learning a game’s optimal outcome) as well as transfer of learning between games (e.g., a game’s optimal outcome occurring at a higher proportion when played after another game). The recipro...
Article
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A good fit of model predictions to empirical data are often used as an argument for model validity. However, if the model is flexible enough to fit a large proportion of potential empirical outcomes, finding a good fit becomes less meaningful. We propose a method for estimating the proportion of potential empirical outcomes that the model can fit:...
Conference Paper
Mathematical models of learning have been created to capitalize on the regularities that are seen when individuals acquire new skills, which could be useful if implemented in learning management systems. One such mathematical model is the Predictive Performance Equation (PPE). It is the intent that PPE will be used to predict the performance of ind...
Article
In multiple-cue probabilistic inference, people choose between alternatives based on several cues, each of which is differentially associated with an alternative's overall value. Various strategies have been proposed for probabilistic inference (e.g., weighted additive, tally, and take-the-best). These strategies differ in how many cue values they...
Article
Sleep loss impacts cognitive functioning, and the resulting performance changes can have dramatic consequences in the real world. The increased risk to property and human life has motivated decades of empirical research on fatigue and its effects on performance. Models now exist that can predict the general time course and magnitude of changes in c...
Article
To function well in an unpredictable environment using unreliable components, a system must have a high degree of robustness. Robustness is fundamental to biological systems and is an objective in the design of engineered systems such as airplane engines and buildings. Cognitive systems, like biological and engineered systems, exist within variable...
Article
Successfully explaining and replicating the complexity and generality of human and animal learning will require the integration of a variety of learning mechanisms. Here, we introduce a computational model which integrates associative learning (AL) and reinforcement learning (RL). We contrast the integrated model with standalone AL and RL models in...
Book
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Cognitive engineering is an interdisciplinary approach to the analysis, modeling, and design of engineered systems or workplaces in which humans and technologies jointly operate to achieve system goals. As individuals, teams, and organizations become increasingly reliant on information technology and automation, it is more important than ever for s...
Article
Robustness is an important construct in domains as diverse as evolutionary biology, structural engineering, and decision-making. Unfortunately, in many domains, most relevantly cognitive science, considerations of robustness end with vague semantic references. Little attention is paid to formal analysis. The aim of this paper is to initiate a discu...
Article
Inadequate sleep affects cognitive functioning, with often subtle and occasionally catastrophic personal and societal consequences. Unfortunately, this topic has received little attention in the cognitive modeling literature, despite the potential payoff. In this paper, we provide evidence regarding the impact of sleep deprivation on a particular c...
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This symposium is co-sponsored by the Human Performance Modeling Technical Group (HPM-TG) of the Human Factors & Ergonomics Society. Three Research Talks and a Panel Discussion were presented. Each talk used a different style of cognitive modeling and addressed a different problem of interest to the human factors community. For the Panel Dis-cussio...
Article
This chapter describes four models of cognitive control in pilots of remotely piloted aircraft. The models vary in the knowledge available to them and in the aircraft maneuvering strategies that control the simulated pilot's interaction with the heads-up display. These models are Type 3 (knowledge/strategy) variants. The first two models are succes...
Article
Fatigue has been implicated in an alarming number of motor vehicle accidents, costing billions of dollars and thousands of lives. Unfortunately, the ability to predict performance impairments in complex task domains like driving is limited by a gap in our understanding of the explanatory mechanisms. In this paper, we describe an attempt to generate...
Article
Time on task and time awake are two important influences on human cognitive performance. Both extended periods of wakefulness and extended periods of effort on a single task lead to performance declines. Of particular interest in the present work is the time-on-task effect or vigilance decrement, which refers to the progressively worse performance...
Chapter
This chapter aims to provide an introduction to cognitive architectures that will be useful to anyone who wants to understand what a cognitive architecture is and who wants some pointers regarding what to read and consider in order to use an architecture effectively in their research. The first section of the chapter provides definitions and charac...
Article
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The cognitive modeling and artificial general intelligence research communities may reap greater scientific return on research investments – may achieve an improved understanding of architectures and models – if there is more emphasis on systematic sensitivity and necessity analyses during model development, evaluation, and comparison. We demonstra...
Article
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Model comparison is vital to evaluating progress in the fields of artificial general intelligence (AGI) and cognitive architecture. As they mature, AGI and cognitive architectures will become increasingly capable of providing a single model that completes a multitude of tasks, some of which the model was not specifically engineered to perform. Thes...
Conference Paper
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In an attempt to define a generic way to include human factors in a simulation of military operations HFM 128 suggested to break the causal chain between human factors as input and operational outcome into three components: a) human factors science based models to calculate state variables of the human, b) Performance Shaping Functions (PSF) to qua...
Conference Paper
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Volunteer computing is a powerful platform for solving complex scientific problems. MindModeling@Home is a volunteer computing project available to the cognitive modeling community for conducting research to better understand the human mind. We are interested in optimizing search processes on volunteer resources, yet we are also interested in explo...
Article
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Public reporting burden for the collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the collection of information. Send comments regarding this burden estimate or any other aspect...
Article
The Predictive Performance Equation (PPE) is a mathematical model of learning and forgetting developed to capture performance effectiveness across training histories, and to generate precise, quantitative point predictions of performance by extrapolating the unique mathematical regularities indicative of the learner. This equation is implemented in...
Article
The overarching goal of our research is to translate basic cognitive science into an applied, state-of-the-art cognitive tool. We have developed the Predictive Performance Optimizer (PPO) to provide teachers, trainers, and learners of all types with a new generation of adaptive training assistance, which seeks to capture and dynamically assess perf...
Technical Report
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In current military operational models, the human aspect is still often represented in a mechanistic way, bearing little resemblance to observations, as if all humans always act the same way in a situation much as a machine would. In reality, human behavior is not deterministic. Without proper representation of behavior, and the reasons behind the...
Article
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As we, the ICCM community, continue to expand the scope of our cognitive modeling ambitions, we increasingly face computational requirements that are an impediment to progress. Computational complexity grows quickly with increases in the granularity of models, the fidelity of the models' operating environment, and the time scales across which these...
Article
A long history of research has revealed many neurophysiological changes and concomitant behavioral impacts of sleep deprivation, sleep restriction, and circadian rhythms. Little research, however, has been conducted in the area of computational cognitive modeling to understand the information processing mechanisms through which neurobehavioral fact...
Article
Full-text available
The effects of fatigue on multiple-task performance were explored through computational cognitive modeling. Fatigue typically has a negative impact on human performance. Biomathematical models exist that characterize the dynamics of human alertness, but the link between alertness and in situ performance on specific tasks is tenuous. Cognitive archi...
Article
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The deleterious consequences of fatigue have motivated decades of research to understand the impact of inadequate sleep on cognitive performance. A key objective is to use insights from that research to develop predictive models that can serve as valid tools for managing work-rest schedules and making Go, No-Go mission decisions. Ultimately, this i...
Article
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In the field of cognitive science, the primary means of judging a model's viability is made on the basis of goodness-of-fit between model and human empirical data. Recent developments in model comparison reveal, however, that other criteria should be considered in evaluating the quality of a model. These criteria include model complexity, generaliz...
Article
As in many areas in Human Factors, human performance modeling has a long history in the aviation community. The real-time dynamism and safety criticality of the domain calls for the most advanced tools possible, and also provides a strong testbed for any modeling formalism Recent work has demonstrated significant advances in this field in the last...
Conference Paper
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As the penultimate effort of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Human Factors and Medicine Panel (HFM) study group, HFM-128, a Specialists Meeting was held in May 2007. This poster presents the summary recommendations of the more than 30 experts and practitioners in human behavior representation (HBR) who assembled to discuss seven chall...
Article
Visualizing spatial material is a cornerstone of human problem solving, but human visualization capacity is sharply limited. To investigate the sources of this limit, we developed a new task to measure visualization accuracy for verbally-described spatial paths (similar to street directions), and implemented a computational process model to perform...
Article
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Behavior representations in simulation environments have become increasingly sophisticated as computational power and understanding of human cognitive processes have increased. Despite improvements in the breadth and depth of models of human behavior, comparatively little research has explored how human cognition is moderated by external and intern...
Article
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Sustained attention is necessary in a variety of real-world settings, from baggage screeners and air traffic controllers to lifeguards and drivers on highways. Individual differences in performance on these tasks are prevalent, leading to questions about the sources of these differences. In this paper we compare the behavior of computational models...
Chapter
This chapter discusses recent efforts at developing mechanisms for capturing the effects of fatigue on human performance. It describes a computational cognitive model, developed in ACT-R (adaptive control of thought-rational), that performs a sustained attentional task called the psychomotor vigilance task. It uses neurobehavioral evidence from res...
Article
Full-text available
The sophistication of computational cognitive architectures has opened the door to model development across a range of human activity. However, a continuing challenge for model developers is validating the model both by exploring the range of a model's behavior and by optimizing mechanisms, knowledge, and parameters to best account for human cognit...
Article
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This report describes current progress and future plans for research and development in synthetic teammates for applications in training, analysis, and system design for Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle (UAV) operations. Development of these teammates involves the eventual integration of several distinct, yet related, basic and applied research lines, in...
Article
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Intelligent tutoring systems seek to optimize instruction and training by adapting and individualizing the learning experience on the basis of a student model (Shute, 1995). This model represents the system's estimate of the student's current knowledge or skill level, established from a performance history. Knowledge tracing (Aleven & Koedinger, 20...
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This report documents accomplishments and lessons learned in a multi-year project to examine the ability of a range of integrative cognitive modeling architectures to predict human behavior in a common task environment. This Agent-Based Modeling and Behavior Representation (AMBR) project involved a series of human performance model evaluations in w...
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This paper describes a research program for the creation of a large-scale model of language comprehension for use in the development of language enabled intelligent agents. The language comprehension system is being implemented using the ACT-R cognitive architecture and modeling environment and adopts the cognitive principles and constraints of tha...
Article
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This symposium brings together a set of research efforts that have a common focus on the representation of psychological space within a cognitive architecture, but also differ in the basic ways in which space is represented and used in problem solving. Some of the research programs are motivated by theoretical and architectural concern, while other...
Article
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Scientists at the Air Force Research Laboratory's Warfighter Training Research Division in Mesa, AZ are engaged in a basic research program to advance the state of the art in computational process models of human performance in complex, dynamic environments. Current modeling efforts are focused on developing and validating a fine-grained cognitive...
Article
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With what external system have you attached ACT-R? We have attached ACT-R to the Air Force Research Laboratory's (AFRL's) Uninhabited Air Vehicle (UAV) Synthetic Task Environment (STE). The UAV STE is a high fidelity simulation of the Predator RQ1A UAV with built in basic maneuvering, landing, and reconnaissance tasks and data collection capabiliti...