Keshavan Niranjan

Keshavan Niranjan
University of Reading · Food and Nutritional Sciences

B Chem Eng, M Chem Eng, PhD (tech)

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164
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Publications (164)
Article
Background: The physicochemical characteristics, antioxidant properties, and bacterial profiles of Itama, Dorsata, and Mellifera honey of Malaysian origin were studied and the results were assessed using Pearson correlation analysis and Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA). Results: The analysis showed that the Mellifera honey was characteris...
Article
Full-text available
This study systematically established the most effective refining process for Moringa oleifera (MO) kernel oil. Acid degumming (20.33 ± 1.37 ppm) removed significantly greater phosphorus than water degumming (31.18 ± 0.90 ppm). Neutralization was more effective than deodorization in decreasing the acid (0.06 mg KOH/g) and p-Anisidine (p-AV, 0.36 ±...
Article
Stable silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) of size 80 ± 11 nm produced by chitosan (CH) mediated green synthesis were blended with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) to form electrospun fibrous composite nano-layers (FCNLs). The chitosan acted as the stabilising as well as an antimicrobial agent in combination with the AgNPs which were characterised using UV–visible...
Article
Full-text available
The effects of temperature and pressure processing on myrosinase extracted from fresh broccoli and brown mustard seed was studied. Brown mustard seeds had higher myrosinase activity (2.75 un/mL) than fresh broccoli (0.58 un/mL). The extent of enzyme inactivation increased with pressure (200-800 MPa) and temperature (30-80°C) for both brown mustard...
Article
Background: Moringa oleifera (MO) kernel oil is categorized as high-oleic oil which resembles olive oil. However, different from olive, MO trees are largely available in most subtropical and tropical countries. Therefore, in these countries, the benefits of oleic acid can be obtained at a cheaper price through consumption of MO kernel oil. This st...
Article
BACKGROUND: N,N’-diacetylchitobiose (GlcNAc2) is known to be highly functional and offers a wide range of applications, especially as an antimicrobial agent. In this study, a thermal pre-treatment process using steam under pressure in an autoclave, has been employed to facilitate subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis of chitin with chitinase from Strepto...
Article
A novel variant of osmotic dehydration, named here as postdipping dehydration—where a material is dipped in a salt or sugar solution for a very short time followed by simple exposure to ambient conditions was explored with the aim of lowering water content of potato slices but at the same time not gain a high level of sugar/salt. The rate of water...
Article
Foxtail millet is one of the few crops that can thrive under relatively few agricultural inputs and have valuable amount of nutritional components. Therefore, processing of foxtail millet for value addition to various food products can significantly help in economic development as well as enhancing food and nutritional security. This study deals wi...
Article
Full-text available
Scope Broccoli contains the glucosinolate glucoraphanin which, in the presence of myrosinase, can hydrolyse to the isothiocyanate sulforaphane, reported to have anti‐carcinogenic activity. However, the myrosinase enzyme is denatured on cooking. Addition of an active source of myrosinase, such as from powdered mustard seed, to cooked brassica vegeta...
Article
Full-text available
Foxtail millet is one of the commonly cultivated, nutritionally competitive source of protein, fibre, phytochemicals and other micronutrients, as compared to major cereals like wheat and rice. Considering the potential of these grains, the high pressure processed flours of germinated (GFMF) and non-germinated foxtail millet (NGFMF) grains were stud...
Article
Background: This research employed mild-subcritical alkaline water extraction (SAW) technique to overcome the difficulty of active compounds extractability from an industrially defatted rice bran (IDRB). Mild-SAW (pH 9.5, 130 °C, 120 min) treatment, followed by enzymatic hydrolysis (Protease G6) were applied to produce rice bran hydrolysate (RBH)....
Article
Chitin is, after cellulose, the most abundant organic natural polysaccharide on Earth, being synthesized as a dominant component in the exoskeletons of crustaceans, among other sources. In the processing of seafood for human consumption, between 40 and 50% of the total raw material mass is wasted, causing a significant problem for the environment d...
Article
Polycaprolactone (PCL) was incorporated separately with cinnamaldehyde (CNMA), pomegranate methanolic extract (PME), freeze dried arils of pomegranate (FDAP) and seed flour of pomegranate (SF) to form antimicrobial films to be used for active food packaging. PCL-CNMA films completely inactivated growth of the artificially inoculated Escherichia col...
Article
Full-text available
Foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.) is one of the earliest cultivated crops, extensively grown in the arid and semi-arid regions of Asia and Africa, as well as in some other economically developed countries of the world where it is more commonly used as bird feed. This paper presents a comprehensive review of the physico-chemical and health-functio...
Article
Full-text available
The current study aimed at the improvement of raw meatball (Cig Kofte) safety, by using high hydrostatic pressure (HP) treatment. Beef mince, one of the main raw material of meatball, was treated by high HP at 400 MPa for 15 minutes at 22 °C. After the HP treatment, 3-decimal reduction was achieved, by measuring total viable counts. HP treated and...
Article
High pressure processing (HPP) was applied as a pre-treatment on Moringa oleifera (MO) kernels, for the first time, prior to aqueous enzymatic extraction (AEE) of the MO oil, and the effect of this pre-treatment is reported in terms of the free oil recovery and the nature of the cream emulsions formed. The HPP pre-treatments (50–250 MPa, 20–60 °C,...
Article
Full-text available
Tiger nut oil is a novel oil that requires more research data on its characteristics. In this study, the oil was extracted using both enzyme-aided pressing (EAP) and aqueous enzymatic extraction (AEE) methods. Using enzymes as a pre-treatment prior to mechanical pressing increased the concentration of some phenolic acids and tocopherols present in...
Article
Backgrounds: The use of biopolymer coatings appears as a good alternative to preserve highly perishable fruits and the environment as well. Proteins generally produce films with good mechanical properties, but their highly hydrophilic nature limits the use in many applications. Nanoparticles, such as nano-clays, can play a critical role in improvi...
Article
Food industry is critical to any nation's health and well-being; it is also critical to the economic health of a nation, since it can typically constitute over a fifth of the nation's manufacturing GDP. Food Engineering is a discipline that ought to be at the heart of the food industry. Unfortunately, this discipline is not playing its rightful rol...
Article
This paper reports on the extraction of Moringa oleifera (MO) oil by using aqueous enzymatic extraction (AEE) method. The effect of different process parameters on the oil recovery was discovered by using statistical optimization, besides the effect of selected parameters on the formation of its oil-in-water cream emulsions. Within the pre-determin...
Article
Given the high susceptibility of baby spinach leaves to thermal processing, the use of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) is explored as a non-thermal blanching method. The effects of HHP were compared with thermal blanching by following residual activity of polyphenol oxidases and peroxidases, colour retention, chlorophyll and carotenoids content, an...
Article
Tiger nut (Cyperus esculentus) tuber contains oil that is high in monounsaturated fatty acids, and this oil makes up about 23% of the tuber. The study aimed at evaluating the impact of several factors and enzymatic pre-treatment on the recovery of pressed tiger nut oil. Smaller particles were more favourable for pressing. High pressure pre-treatmen...
Article
The aim of this work is to build on the success of in vitro studies of an active packaging, produced by coating the surface of post-consumer recycled polyethylene terephthalate (PCRPET) package with an aqueous silicone solution (2%, v/v) containing an antifungal agent (potassium sorbate, KS). Antifungal efficacy was evaluated, in vivo, during the s...
Article
Full-text available
Foam properties depend on the physico-chemical characteristics of the continuous phase, the method of production and process conditions employed; however the preparation of barista-style milk foams in coffee shops by injection of steam uses milk as its main ingredient which limits the control of foam properties by changing the biochemical character...
Article
Cassava starch, typically, has resistant starch type 3 (RS3) content of 2.4%. This paper shows that the RS3 yields can be substantially enhanced by debranching cassava starch using pullulanase followed by high pressure or cyclic high-pressure annealing. RS3 yield of 41.3% was obtained when annealing was carried out at 400MPa/60°C for 15min, whereas...
Conference Paper
In Brassica vegetables, myrosinase isoenzymes hydrolyse glucosinolates and bioactive hydrolysis products are of significant health importance. Glucsinolates influences sensory characteristics of Brassicas. This study investigates thermal, pressure and combined thermal-pressure inactivation of myrosinase enzymes extracted from black, brown and yello...
Article
BACKGROUND Chemical chitin extraction generates large amounts of wastes and increases partial deacetylation of the product. Therefore, the use of biological methods for chitin extraction is an interesting alternative. The effects of process conditions on enzyme assisted extraction of chitin from the shrimp shells in a systematic way were the focal...
Article
This study investigates the effects of temperature and pressure on inactivation of myrosinase extracted from black, brown and yellow mustard seeds. Brown mustard had higher myrosinase activity (2.75un/mL) than black (1.50un/mL) and yellow mustard (0.63un/mL). The extent of enzyme inactivation increased with pressure (600-800MPa) and temperature (30...
Article
Air frying is being projected as an alternative to deep fat frying for producing snacks such as French fries. In air frying, the raw potato sections are essentially heated in hot air containing fine oil droplets, which dehydrates the potato and attempts to impart the characteristics of traditionally produced French fries, but with a substantially l...
Chapter
Full-text available
Osmotic dehydration is gaining popularity due to several energy and product quality related advantages it offers. It has huge potential as a complementary process steps prior to operations such as air-drying, microwave drying, freezing, frying etc, if not an alternative one, in the food process chain. It can be easily integrated with other process...
Article
Fried products impose a health concerns due to considerable amount of oil they contain. Production of snack foods with minimal oil content and good management of oil during frying to minimize the production of toxic compounds continue to be challenging aims. This paper aims to investigate the possibility of producing a fat-free food snack by replac...
Article
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Active and nanostructure packaging is widely being researched for extending shelf lives of many food products recently. In this review, mantı, a traditional Turkish dish, which is similar of tortellini, ravioli, pelmeni and baozi in world cuisine, and novel packaging technologies are briefly described. Specifically, active and nanostructure packagi...
Article
Full-text available
Active and intelligent food packaging is developing novel food packaging solutions for industry and consumers. It includes packaging materials that have antimicrobial or scavenger properties, freshness and shelf-life indicators, controlled released packaging (CRP).
Article
This study proposes to incorporate an antifungal agent (potassium sorbate, KS) to post-consumer recycled polyethylene terephthalate (PCRPET), by adding KS to the dip solution through which PCRPET normally passes after extrusion, in order to acquire a non-stick silicone coating, which prevents individual packages from adhering to each other while st...
Chapter
Osmotic dehydration can be considered as the most eligible energy saving method for the partial removal of water from foods, if and even as a method of preservation in the case of candy preparation. It can affect marked reduction in the moisture content of the foods before they are subjected to further processing steps such as drying, freezing, fry...
Article
Broccoli, a rich source of glucosinolates, is a commonly consumed vegetable of the Brassica family. Hydrolysis products of glucosinolates, isothiocyanates, have been associated with health benefits and contribute to the flavor of Brassica. However, boiling broccoli causes the myrosinase enzyme needed for hydrolysis to denature. In order to ensure h...
Article
Full-text available
Paneer, a popular indigenous dairy product of India, is similar to an unripened variety of soft cheese which is used in the preparation of a variety of culinary dishes and snacks. It is obtained by heat and acid coagulation of milk, entrapping almost all the fat, casein complexed with denatured whey proteins and a portion of salts and lactose. Pane...
Chapter
Liquid foods (fruit juices and natural colors) are gaining importance in the food industry because they contain components beneficial for human health. Both fruit juices and natural colors, when extracted from their sources, have a low solid content, color strength, and a high water load. Water, being the major constituent of liquid foods/natural c...
Article
Despite its high nutritional value, tiger nut oil is hardly used in food industries compared to other vegetable oils such as olive and peanut oil. However, its benefits are increasingly being recognized, including its stability and similarity to olive oil in particular. This review discusses its composition, physico-chemical properties and economic...
Article
Regulatory, safety, and environmental issues have prompted the development of aqueous enzymatic extraction (AEE) for extracting components from oil-bearing materials. The emulsion resulting from AEE requires de-emulsification to separate the oil; when enzymes are used for this purpose, the method is known as aqueous enzymatic emulsion de-emulsifica...
Article
In this study an active packaging was developed for marketing fresh berries by extruding recycled PET with potassium sorbate (KS) added as the antifungal agent at two concentrations (2.5 and 4.0 wt.%). The mechanical, thermal and optical properties of the extrudate were characterized using Resistance to dynamic compression, Differential Scanning Ca...
Article
Full-text available
This paper explores the possibility of combining moderate vacuum frying followed by post-frying high vacuum application during the oil drainage stage, with the aim to reduce oil content in potato chips. Potato slices were initially vacuum fried under two operating conditions (140 °C, 20 kPa and 162 °C, 50.67 kPa) until the moisture content reached...
Article
Crystallization must occur in honey in order to produce set or creamed honey; however, the process must occur in a controlled manner in order to obtain an acceptable product. As a consequence, reliable methods are needed to measure the crystal content of honey (ϕ expressed as kg crystal per kg honey), which can also be implemented with relative eas...
Article
Freeze concentration in a one-step configuration has emerged as an interesting alternative to conventional processes in terms of both the construction and operation of the equipment. For vacuum-assisted freeze concentration reported in this study, vacuum was used as the driving force to remove the concentrated solution from the ice matrix. By apply...
Article
Full-text available
This paper represents a study of the transient changes occurring in temperature, and moisture and oil contents during the so called “post-frying drainage”—which is the duration for which a product is held in the head space of the fryer after it is removed from the oil. Since most of the oil adhering to the product penetrates into the structure duri...
Article
Full-text available
The pressure, temperature, pH and treatment time are assumed to be key factors affecting the enzyme activity, and their combined influence on α-mannosidase activity Jack bean was investigated by measuring α-mannosidase activity under conditions of pressure at 0-500 MPa, temperature at 35-55°C, pH at 3.5-5.5 and treatment time at 24-168 h in this st...
Article
Postharvest quality of Alphonso mangoes (Mangifera indica L) is vital to ensure proper ripening and good quality. 500 g mature green mangoes, were subjected to three pre- packaging hot water dips (20, 30 & 40°C) for 40 min, two packaging films (OPP unperforated and perforated), using three levels of gas concentrations of 25,50 and 75% v/v CO2 treat...
Article
Full-text available
The changes occurring in the levels of nutritionally relevant oil components were assessed during repeated frying of potato chips in a blend of palm olein and canola oil (1:1 w/w). The blend suffered minimal reductions in omega‐3 and omega‐6 polyunsaturated fatty acids. There was no significant difference between the fatty acid composition of the o...
Article
Full-text available
Myrosinase, a family of enzymes which coexist with glucosinolates in all Brassica vegetables, catalyses the hydrolysis of glucosinolates to yield compounds that can have beneficial effects on human health. In this study, the thermal and pressure inactivation of myrosinase from green cabbage was kinetically investigated. Thermal inactivation started...
Article
Unlabelled: Frozen par-fried French fries are finish-fried either by using the same type of oil used for par frying, or a different type. The nutritive quality of the final oil contained in the product depends on the relative amounts and the fatty acid (FA) composition of the oils used for par frying and finish frying. With the aim of understandin...
Article
IntroductionWaste CharacteristicsWastewater Processing TechnologyResource Recovery from Food Processing WastesEnvironmental Impact of Packaging WastesRefrigerantsEnergy Issues Related to the EnvironmentLife Cycle AssessmentCalculating Greenhouse Gas EmissionsReferences
Article
Rheology of milk foams generated by steam injection was studied during the transient destabilization process using steady flow and dynamic oscillatory techniques: yield stress (τy) values were obtained from a stress ramp (0.2 to 25 Pa) and from strain amplitude sweep (0.001 to 3 at 1 Hz of frequency); elastic (G′) and viscous (G″) moduli were measu...
Article
Full-text available
The effect of high-pressure (HP) pretreatment on oil uptake of potato slices is examined in this paper. Potato slices were treated either by HP or thermal blanching, or a combination of thermal blanching followed by HP prior to frying. The effect of HP on starch gelatinization and potato microstructure was assessed by differential scanning calorime...
Article
Four protocols involving the application of low pressures, either toward the end of frying or after frying, were investigated with the aim of lowering the oil content of potato chips. Protocol 1 involving frying at atmospheric pressure followed by a 3 min draining time constituted the control. Protocol 2 involved lowering of pressure to 13.33 kPa,...
Article
The effects of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) processing (at 200 to 600 MPa, 25 to 55 degrees C, and from 5 to 15 min) on some structural properties of alpha-lactalbumin was studied in a pH range of 3.0 to 9.0. The range of HHP processes produced a variety of molten globules with differences in their surface hydrophobicity and secondary and tertia...
Article
The aim of this work was to study the effects of drying methods and conditions (i.e., ambient drying, hot air drying at 40 °C, vacuum drying and low-pressure superheated steam drying within the temperature range of 70–90 °C at an absolute pressure of 10 kPa) as well as the concentration of galangal extract on the antimicrobial activity of edible ch...
Article
1. Abstract Foamed beverages, such as cappuccino, have become very popular with consumers in recent years. Though the main appeal of such products lies in their milky frothy top, there is a lack of understanding on the liquid properties and process parameters driving froth quality. There are also no reliable methods to evaluate foam characteristics...
Article
With the increasing production and consumption of potato and its products, glycoalkaloid (GA) formation and toxicity are likely to become an important focus for food safety researchers and public health agencies. Not only the presence of GA, particularly in the form of α-solanine and α-chaconine, but also the changes occurring as a result of variou...
Article
High pressure pretreatment (100–700 MPa) was applied to enhance mass transfer rates during osmotic dehydration of pineapples and accelerate the process. Experimentally determined diffusivity values, based on a Fickian model, increased fourfold for water and twofold for sugar. Diffusivity values were correlated with pretreatment pressure by an equat...
Chapter
Bubbles are always perceived to represent the best in food and drink. Their presence and characteristics have dominated our perception of the quality of bread, champagne, ice creams, and let’s not forget the good olde beer! In recent years, there has been a constant flow of new bubble-containing snack foods into our supermarkets—whipped cream, choc...
Chapter
The presence of bubbles in a number of food products, such as bread, champagne, ice cream and beer, has dominated our perception of product quality. Novel bubble-containing products occupy a greater proportion of supermarket shelf space. The inclusion of bubbles in foods permits the creation of very novel structures while offering lighter alternati...
Article
The chemical composition and fractional distribution of protein isolates prepared from species of Mucuna bean were studied. Using six different extraction media, the yield of protein based on the Kjeldahl procedure varied from 8% to 34%, and the protein content varied from 75% to 95%. When the yields were high, the colour of the isolates generally...
Article
The effective diffusivities of total solids and pectic substances from apple tissue were determined at 40 and 60°C in water and buffer; the addition of pectolytic enzyme in buffer at 40°C was also investigated. the Fickian model for unsteady-state diffusion was applicable in all cases. Effective diffusivity values both for total solids and soluble...
Article
Heating conditions are the most important variables in the processing of soymilk. the heat treatments given to soymilk during extraction, cooking, and subsequent pasteurization or sterilization, principally influence (1) the yields and nutritive quality of solids and proteins, (2) destruction of spoilage microorganisms, and (3) the colour and the f...
Article
Bubbles impart a very unique texture, chew, and mouth-feel to foods. However, little is known about the relationship between structure of such products and consumer response in terms of mouth-feel and eating experience. The objective of this article is to investigate the sensory properties of 4 types of bubble-containing chocolates, produced by usi...
Article
The combined effect of pressure and temperature on the rate of gelatinisation of starch present in Thai glutinous rice was investigated. Pressure was found to initiate gelatinisation when its value exceeded 200 MPa at ambient temperature. On the other hand, complete gelatinisation was observed at 500 and 600 MPa at 70 degrees C, when the rice was s...
Article
Full-text available
Consumers increasingly demand convenience foods of the highest quality in terms of natural flavor and taste, and which are free from additives and preservatives. This demand has triggered the need for the development of a number of nonthermal approaches to food processing, of which high-pressure technology has proven to be very valuable. A number o...
Article
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Accession Number: 23820953; Pardo, Mauricio 1; Email Address: mauricio.pardo1@unisabana.edu.co Niranjan, Keshavan 2; Affiliation: 1: Ingeniería de Producción Agroindustrial, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad de la Sabana, Bogotá, Colombia 2: School of Food Biosciences, The University of Reading, England; Source Info: Dec2006, Vol. 8 Issue 2, p25;...
Article
Commercially available UHT cream was tempered at 4°C for 24h and whipped for different times: 3, 6, 9 and 12min. The following properties of cream were measured: rheological and interfacial properties, overrun and size distribution of air bubbles. The whipping process changes the properties of cream, which exhibits viscoelastic behaviour with a hig...
Article
Full-text available
Whole fruit persimmons were dehydrated osmotically by immersion in a ternary solutions consisting of sucrose and NaCl at a constant temperature (30°C). A second-order central composite design (CCD) with two variables was used involving combinations of sucrose concentration from 30 to 60 g / 100g and NaCl concentration from 0 to 10 g / 100g. The mas...
Article
Bubble inclusion is one of the fastest growing operations practiced in the food industry. A variety of aerated foods is currently available in supermarkets, and newer products are emerging all the time. This paper aims to combine knowledge on chocolate aeration with studies performed on bubble formation and dispersion characteristics. More specific...
Chapter
IntroductionMeasurement of Process ParametersControl Systems Manual ControlAutomatic Control On/Off (Two Position) ControllerProportional ControllerProportional Integral ControllerProportional Integral Derivative ControllerProcess Control in Modern Food Processing Programmable Logic ControllerSupervisory Control and Data AcquisitionManufacturing Ex...
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