Keshav Kranthi

Keshav Kranthi
International Cotton Advisory Committee · Technical Information Section

Ph.D

About

91
Publications
24,628
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3,451
Citations
Citations since 2017
11 Research Items
1564 Citations
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200250
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200250
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200250
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200250

Publications

Publications (91)
Article
Full-text available
Asiatic cotton (G. arboreum) cultivars, possessing short staple length, superior water holding capacity and high micronaire values are considered fit for manufacture of absorbent cotton. Such cultivars are cultivated in north and northeast India. Therefore, field studies were conducted to evaluate productivity and fibre properties of Asiatic cotton...
Article
Full-text available
Bt cotton plants, with bollworm resistant trait, have been widely adopted since introduced in India in 2002. As a proactive measure to prevent evolution of resistance to Bt protein(s), it was approved for commercial cultivation with a stipulation of structured refuge of minimum 20% of the Bt area, constituted by plants that do not produce Bt toxins...
Article
Drought stress is one of the major abiotic stresses affecting lint yield and fibre quality in cotton. With increase in population, degrading natural resources and frequent drought occurrences, development of high yielding, drought tolerant cotton cultivars is critical for sustainable cotton production across countries. Six Gossypium hirsutum genoty...
Article
BACKGROUND Pink bollworm (PBW) adaptation to transgenic Bt‐cotton expressing Cry1Ac (Bt‐1) and Cry1Ac+Cry2Ab (Bt‐II) was assessed in India during 2010‐2017 in 38 districts of the 10 major cotton‐growing states. RESULTS PBW larval incidence on Bt‐cotton was nil in north India, wherein the resistance ratios (RRs) to Cry1Ac were 26‐262 and to Cry2Ab...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Drought stress is one of the most important abiotic stresses in cotton, which limited crop production worldwide. To study the drought stress effect on six cotton genotypes (Gossypium hirsutum L.) a pot house experiment was done in a randomize complete block design with three replications in summer 2015 in Central Institute for Cotton Research (CICR...
Article
Full-text available
Amrasca biguttula biguttula (Ishida), the cotton leafhopper, is a polyphagous insect pest of Asia and Southeast Asian countries. We sequenced a mitochondrial COI gene fragment from 67 individuals of cotton leafhopper collected from 7 major cotton growing states of North, Central, and South India. Genetic divergence analysis of leaf hopper populatio...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The Heliothine (Lepidoptera: Heliothinae) insect pests; Heliothis virescens, Helicoverpa armigera, Helicoverpa zea and Helicoverpa punctigera are the important bollworms of cotton in major cotton growing countries; India, China, the USA, Australia, Pakistan. These insect pests have a history of developing resistance to almost all the insecticides u...
Article
Full-text available
Genetic diversity is an essential input for any plant breeding programme. To assess the genetic divergence among the newly identified drought tolerant lines and elite cotton genotypes including popular varieties, a total of 51 distinctly polymorphic markers were identified after screening 142 genome-wide SSR markers. The identified polymorphic mark...
Article
Full-text available
Pink bollworm (PBW), Pectinophora gossypiella is one of the most destructive pest's globally inflicting huge economic losses in cotton even during later stages of crop growth. In the present investigation, the population genetic structure, distribution, and genetic diversity of P. gossypiella in cotton growing zones of India using partial mitochond...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Whitefly dwells in tropical and subtropical climate and is multivoltine, producing 11- 15 generations per year under conducive tropical, subtropical, and fringe-temperate conditions. B. tabaci is primarily a polyphagous pest that colonizes predominantly annual, herbaceous plants. It feeds on the phloem of its host plant, passing its stylet between...
Article
Full-text available
Nineteen insecticidal formulations from 10 groups of insecticides were evaluated for their relative toxicity against cotton mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley and its fortuous parasitoid Aenasius bambawalei Hayat. Insects were exposed to cotton leaves dipped in insecticidal solutions and their mortality was recorded at 24-h intervals. Within 2...
Chapter
Full-text available
Mealybugs are injurious to cotton in India, Pakistan, China, Brazil, Australia, Ethiopia, USA, Emerald and so on. (Table 26.1). Among the mealybug species, the solenopsis mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley was found to cause severe economic damage in all nine major cotton-growing states of India, resulting in loss worth of US $16–20 million wh...
Article
Full-text available
The rapid adoption of Bt cotton hybrids has wiped out the desi cotton varieties, causing a huge shortage of coarse raw cotton needed by the surgical cotton industry. The cultivation of desi cotton, Gossypium arboreum race cernuum with big boll size, good locule retentivity and quality parameters ideal for surgical end-use, is a promising option to...
Article
Full-text available
Cotton seed based artificial diet has been standardized for continuous rearing of pink bollworm Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders) at the Central Institute for Cotton Research, Regional Station, Coimbatore. The ingredients of the diet are easily available and are cost effective. Basic ingredients of the diet are cotton seed flour (processed) and c...
Article
Full-text available
The role of cytochrome P450 monooxygenase in pyrethroid resistance was studied in different strains of the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, from India. Filed collected strains of Nagpur and Delhi were compared to the laboratory reared population. The results showed a high resistance to deltamethrin, α-cypermethrin, and β-cyfluthrin. The resul...
Chapter
Full-text available
In India, agricultural productivity of food and other crops has grown tremendously since the advent of the Green Revolution. Pesticides have been one of the drivers behind this growth in combination with high-yielding varieties and increased irrigation and fertilization. Pesticide use increased from 10,993 metric tons in the mid-1960s to approximat...
Article
Full-text available
India is facing a deadlock over the approval of field trials of new genetically modified (GM) crops. The impasse stems from the delay in decision over the matter by the Genetic Engineering Appraisal Committee (GEAC) under India's Ministry of Forests and Environment (MoEF). In 2005, anti-­GMO activists filed a writ petition in the Supreme Court of I...
Article
Full-text available
Helicoverpa armigera is an important pest of cotton and other agricultural crops in the Old World. Its wide host range, high mobility and fecundity, and the ability to adapt and develop resistance against all common groups of insecticides used for its management have exacerbated its pest status. An understanding of the population genetic structure...
Article
Full-text available
Eco-friendly management of mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley, was important to reduce reliance on insecticides and conservation of natural enemies. The study was conducted to evaluate a set of eco-friendly biopesticides, biorationals and insecticides against mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley. The treatments were applied thrice in meal...
Article
Full-text available
A location specific Insecticide Resistance Management (IRM) strategies module developed for pest management in Bt and Non Bt cotton was implemented and evaluated in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) growing villages of Haryana.Large scale field evaluation of the technology indicated the reduction in number of insecticidal sprays (30.65%, 24.29% in 2007-0...
Book
Full-text available
strategies for management of mealy bug in cotton.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Unforeseen insect pests have emerged as potential threats in India and elsewhere due to large scale cultivation of Bt cottons. Upto 69 % reduction in usage of pesticides has been achieved and reliance on synthetic pyrethroids, broad spectrum highly toxic organophosphates has been almost ceased, paving way for dominance of emerging pests. Hence, sin...
Article
Full-text available
Cry1Ac toxin concentration was assessed in leaves of Bt transgenic cotton hybrid grown on shallow (<60 cm) and deep (>90 cm) black soils of Nagpur, Maharashtra, India. Cry toxin concentration increased up to 80 days after sowing followed by a steep decline. In general, toxin concentration was greater on the deep black soils than the shallow soil. T...
Article
Cotton leaf curl virus disease is one of the major threats for cotton production and has emerged as a serious disease of cotton in North India. Cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD) is caused by a geminivirus, transmitted by whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) vector. Genetic engineering of cotton transgenics resistant to CLCuD through antisense RNA approach is a...
Conference Paper
Three different species of mirid bugs (Miridae : Hemiptera) viz., Creontiades biseratense (Distant), Compylomma livida (Reuter) and Hyalopeplus linefer (Walker) are infesting cotton since 2005. Creontiades biseratense is most potential and widespreadas key pest particularly in Karnataka state. Both adults and nymphs suck the sap from the base of sq...
Article
Cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD) is caused by begomovirus, transmitted by whitefly Bemisia tabaci vector is a serious pest in North India. Cotton leaf Curl Virus Disease is one of the major threats for cotton production and has emerged as serious disease of cotton in North India. Genetic engineering of cotton transgenics resistant to CLCuD through...
Article
Full-text available
Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) has been the current topic of research for insect taxonomists and applied entomologists in India due to its invasiveness, rapid spread, morphological and biological variations and the need for establishing an effective control strategy. The biology of the mealybug P. solenopsis was studied...
Article
Full-text available
An Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer protocol was developed for the diploid cotton Gossypium arboreum using meristematic cells of shoot tips, followed by direct shoot organogenesis or multiple shoot induction of putative transformants. Seven-day- old shoot tips of in vitro-germinated seedlings of G. arboreum cv. RG8 were excised by removing coty...
Article
Full-text available
In India, many IPM programmes have been implemented, but they have not achieved the desired level of success in reducing insecticide use and increasing adoption of IPM practices. This inter-disciplinary study evaluated an Insecticide Resistance Management-based Integrated Pest Management (IRM-IPM) programme in cotton and compared it with non-IRM pr...
Article
The geographical variability in Helicoverpa armigera susceptibility levels to Cry2Ab toxin expressed by transgenic maize (not currently commercialized in India) was determined through log dose probit assays conducted on populations collected during 2004–05 (from 25 districts) and 2007–08 (from 22 districts) across India. While 2004–05 is the year p...
Article
A simple lateral-flow immuno-chromatographic ‘dipstick’ kit was developed in a novel single strip format to test/verify the label claim of active ingredient in commercial insecticide formulations of endosulfan and the type-II synthetic pyrethroids, cypermethrin, deltamethrin and fenvalerate. Polyclonal antisera were raised in rabbits against immuno...
Chapter
The cotton crop sustains more insects than any other crop grown commercially world-wide. Any single insecticidal intervention to control a particular pest invariably sets up a chain reaction causing short-term imbalances in the ecosystem, mostly in favour of the pest in the long run. Thus over the years, insecticide use was establishing undesirable...
Article
A survey was conducted in 47 locations in nine cotton-growing states of India to identify the composition of mealybug species occurring on cotton. Results of the taxonomic study showed that two mealybug species, the solenopsis mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis (Tinsley), and the pink hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green), were found to...
Article
Full-text available
Studies were conducted during 2007 and 2008 over a considerable geographical area under cotton cultivation for finding potential natural enemies of Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley. In July 2008, large numbers of mummified P. solenopsis along with healthy mealybugs were observed on heavily infested cotton crop at Central Institute for Cotton Research...
Article
Full-text available
Helicoverpa armigera and H. zea are amongst the most significant polyphagous pest lepidopteran species in the Old and New Worlds respectively. Separation of H. armigera and H. zea is difficult and is usually only achieved through morphological differences in the genitalia. They are capable of interbreeding to produce fertile offspring. The single s...
Article
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The genus Helicoverpa comprises of 2 species in India-H. armigera and H. assulta. This paper compares partial CO-1 sequences of the two-field-collected species with a laboratory strain of H. armigera and Drosophila yakuba whose entire mitochondrial genome has been sequenced. The region sequenced in the study corresponds to 2111 to 2601 bp sequence...
Article
The mode of inheritance of resistance to Cry1Ac toxin of Bacillus thuringiensis in the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner), was elucidated through bioassay analysis of the response of resistant, susceptible, F1 hybrid and backcross H. armigera progeny to Cry1Ac using semi-synthetic diet and transgenic Bt cotton plants. The dominance valu...
Article
Nature Biotechnology journal featuring biotechnology articles and science research papers of commercial interest in pharmaceutical, medical, and environmental sciences.
Article
Full-text available
The quantitative levels of Cry1Ac and the seasonal decline in expression differed significantly among the eight commercial Bollgard hybrids tested. The Cry1Ac expression was found to be variable among the hybrids and also between different plant parts. The leaves of Bt-cotton plants were found to have the highest levels of Cry1Ac expression followe...
Article
A simple bioassay on Helicoverpa armigera, utilizing Bt-cotton seed as a source of Cry1Ac toxin is described. The CrylAc content in seeds was found to be 1.77 ± 0.23 μg/g and the variability between individual seeds and seed lots was minimal. Bioassays on H. armigera using Bt-seeds stored at room temperature for 2 years showed that there was no sig...
Article
Baseline toxicity of Cry1Ac was determined for the spotted bollworm Earias vittela in India using a semi-synthetic diet. A total of 27 sites from 19 cotton-growing districts of north, central and south India were sampled during the 2002 and 2003 cropping seasons, and Cry1Ac diet incorporation bioassays were carried out to understand the geographica...
Article
Full-text available
A stochastic model 'Bt-Adapt' was developed to simulate the rate of resistance development of Helicoverpa armigera to Cry1Ac under Indian farming conditions. The model integrates genetic and ecological parameters of H. armigera in relation to its response to the Cry1Ac expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)-cotton. Simulation analysis showed that r...
Article
Tobacco armyworm, Spodoptera litura (Fab), a polyphagous insect, is an important pest of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L). It is one of the insect pests which had developed resistance to insecticides. Currently there are no cultivars of groundnut which express high level of resistance to S. litura. Wild species of groundnut, which show high levels of...
Article
H. armigera is a major pest of economically important crops with a wide host range. It has developed resistance to almost all groups of insecticides and successful management of H. armigera is an issue of prime significance for those working in the field of pest management. H. armigera feeds on several members of Lamiaceae family of which, Hyptis s...
Article
The semilooper, Anomis flava Fab is a foliage feeding lepidopteran insect, often found occurring in the cotton ecosystem during the first 60–75 days of sowing. Its occurrence overlaps or just precedes the incidence of Helicoverpa armigera. This study reports the impact of mechanical wounding or of prior herbivory by semilooper larvae on cotton host...
Article
Insecticide resistance to representatives of commonly used insecticide groups (pyrethroids—cypermethrin; organophosphates—chlorpyriphos; cyclodienes—endosulfan) was determined in five major insect pests of cotton from the main cotton growing regions of India with emphasis on Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra. The cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera (...
Article
Discriminating doses of fenvalerate, cypermethrin, quinalphos, and endosulfan were determined with an insecticide-susceptible Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) strain. In-season changes in insecticide resistance were monitored with discriminating dose assays at weekly intervals throughout the cropping season for 6 yr from 1993 to 1999 in central India....
Article
The baseline toxicity of Cry1A δ-endotoxins (derived from Bacillus thruringiensis (Kurstaki)) on field populations of the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hub.), was determined through log dose probit analysis. All the three Cry1A proteins were found to be toxic to the bollworm larvae. Cry1Ac was found to be the most toxic followed by Cry1Aa...
Article
Pyrethroid resistance was found in 54 field strains of Helicoverpa armigera collected between 1995 and 1999 from 23 districts in seven states of India. LD50 values of the field strains ranged from 0.06 to 72.2 microg/larva with slopes of 0.5-3.1. Resistance was highest in regions where pyrethroid use was frequent (four to eight applications per sea...
Article
Full-text available
Monitoring for organophosphate and carbamate resistance was carried out on five major insect pests of cotton collected from 22 cotton-growing districts across India. Resistance was monitored in Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) and Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders) for the period 1995-1999 and for Spodoptera litura (Fabricius), Earias vittella (Fabri...
Article
In the process of development of insect resistant transgenic plants and also to evaluate the consistency in expression of the toxin under greenhouse and field conditions, immunological and bioassays are commonly used. The assay being described in this report, is based on the high levels of sensitivity of a cotton leaf feeding insect, the semilooper...
Article
The cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) was selected for resistance to CrylAc in the laboratory. In the first 4-5 regimens of selection, there was no apparent change in the susceptibility of H. armigera to CrylAc. However, initial indications of resistance were clear after the 6th selection regimen, and by the end of 10th generation resi...
Article
Insecticide resistance was monitored in major insect pests of cotton for six years using standard monitoring protocols. The information thus generated was used to develop strategies aimed at resistance management. Adequate care was taken to ensure that the strategies were simple, incorporating components that were readily available and effective. T...
Article
The baseline toxicity of Cry1A toxins on seven field populations of Earias vittella (Fab.) was determined through log dose probit analysis. In almost all populations tested the spotted bollworm larvae were found to be extremely susceptible to all the three Cry1A toxins. Results indicated that the three Cry toxins tested against neonates were very e...