Kerstin Hell

Kerstin Hell
Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research | CGIAR · International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA)

Doctorate

About

91
Publications
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Publications

Publications (91)
Article
Full-text available
In a previous study, raw cashew kernels were assayed for the fungal contamination focusing on strains belonging to the genus Aspergillus and on aflatoxins producers. These samples showed high contamination with Aspergillus section Nigri species and absence of aflatoxins. To investigate the diversity of secondary metabolites, including mycotoxins, t...
Article
Full-text available
Pachyrhizus erosus is a legume plant that produces tubers rich in nutrients (protein, iron, zinc, etc.) that are used in various kinds of food processing. The objective of this study was to analyse producers’ and processors’ perception regarding processing P. erosus tubers into gari in on-farm conditions and its financial profitability. Kendall’s c...
Article
A total of 420 samples were collected from agrarian households. While 51% (215/420) of the samples were contaminated with one or more toxins, the contamination rate for maize, peanuts and cassava products were 74%, 62% and 24%, respectively. The fumonisins (20-5412 g/kg), aflatoxin B1 (6-645 g/kg), roquefortine C (1-181 g/kg) and deoxynivalenol...
Article
Full-text available
Maize was artificially infested with either 10 or 25 individual Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) and Sitophilus zeamais (Motschulsky) or a mixture of both, and stored in a hermetic grain bag (HGB) or a woven polypropylene bag (WPB) for 150 days. Population growth of P. truncatus and S. zeamais during storage was low in HGB, while in WPB, the insect po...
Article
The purpose of this research is to screen different processes, which could potentially decrease or even eliminate rotenone, a toxic isoflavonoid, from Pachyrhizus seeds. The yam bean seeds have very interesting nutritional characteristics, especially their high proteins and lipids contents, and could potentially increase food security in under-nour...
Data
Distribution of SNPs and indels among haplotypes for each A. flavus L-strain population. Vertical lines correspond to putative boundaries for distinct LD blocks shown in Figure 3. (TIF)
Data
Distribution of SNPs and indels among haplotypes for each A. flavus S-strain and A. minisclerotigene population in Australia and Benin, respectively. Vertical lines correspond to putative boundaries for distinct LD blocks shown in Figure 3. There was no evidence of recombination in A. flavus S sampled in Australia. (TIF)
Data
Aspergillus parasiticus isolates from Córdoba, Argentina. (DOC)
Data
Aspergillus flavus S and A. minisclerotigenes isolates from Queensland, Australia. (DOC)
Data
Aspergillus flavus S and A. minisclerotigenes isolates from Littoral, Benin. (DOC)
Data
Distribution of SNPs and indels among haplotypes for each A. parasiticus population. Vertical lines correspond to putative boundaries for distinct LD blocks shown in Figure 3. There was no evidence of recombination in the Argentina population and the entire region examined falls into a single LD block. (TIF)
Data
Aspergillus parasiticus isolates from Georgia, United States. (DOC)
Data
Aspergillus flavus L isolates from Córdoba, Argentina. (DOC)
Data
Aspergillus flavus L isolates from Littoral, Benin. (DOC)
Data
Aspergillus flavus L isolates from Queensland, Australia. (DOC)
Data
Aspergillus parasiticus isolates from Queensland, Australia. (DOC)
Data
Aspergillus flavus L isolates from Karnataka, India. (DOC)
Data
Aspergillus flavus L isolates from Georgia, United States. (DOC)
Data
Aspergillus flavus S and A. minisclerotigenes isolates from Córdoba, Argentina. (DOC)
Article
Full-text available
Aflatoxins are produced by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus in oil-rich seed and grain crops and are a serious problem in agriculture, with aflatoxin B1 being the most carcinogenic natural compound known. Sexual reproduction in these species occurs between individuals belonging to different vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs). We examined n...
Article
Full-text available
Yam bean (Pachyrhyzus erosus) tubers were processed singly and mixed with cassava into different types of gari (100% yam bean gari, 75% yam bean gari, 50% yam bean gari and 25% yam bean gari) following the traditional gari processing method. Conventional gari from cassava was processed following the same approach and used as control. Physical chara...
Article
Full-text available
After insects, mites are the major arthropod pests that inhabit stored agricultural products worldwide. To determine the acarofauna that infests cowpea, maize, paddy rice and sorghum in Benin (West Africa), surveys were conducted in some principal markets (Dantokpa, Glazoue and Parakou) of this country. A total of 555 samples of grains and debris w...
Article
Full-text available
Mango (Mangifera indica L., Anacardiaceae) is a popular fruit in Africa because of its high nutritional and economic value. However, smallholders in Benin, a West African country, are currently unable to take advantage of this potential because of various constraints along the value chain. A survey with 150 mango producers in three agro-ecological...
Article
Fungal contaminants in major food staples in Kenya have negatively impacted food security. The study sought to investigate peanut market characteristics and their association with levels of aflatoxin in peanuts from Western, Nyanza and Nairobi Provinces of Kenya. Data were collected from 1263 vendors in various market outlets using a structured que...
Article
Full-text available
Mycotoxins contamination in some agricultural food commodities seriously impact human and animal health and reduce the commercial value of crops. Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by fungi that contaminate agricultural commodities pre- or postharvest. Africa is one of the continents where environmental, agricultural and storage co...
Article
Full-text available
Le present article explore les marches du manioc et du « gari » dans le Sud et le Centre du Benin. L’accent est mis sur les performances des marches de ladite zone ainsi que sur les principales contraintes a leur developpement. Les investigations ont ete menees aupres de 52 commercants des marches du Sud et du Centre du Benin. Des observations fait...
Article
Full-text available
Résumé L’amélioration des revenus des transformatrices passe par un bon positionnement des amandes et du beure de karité sur le marché international. Les produits du Bénin sont achetés trois fois moins chers que ceux du Ghana. La correction de cette situation passe par le développement et l’adoption de technologies appropriées. La connaissance et l...
Poster
Full-text available
A trial was carried out in Benin, West Africa to test PICS Bags for safe storage of cassava chips. After 6 mo of storage the density of P. truncatus was higher in the control (polypropylene bag) with 100.55 ± 3.6 insects/kg compare to both artificially infected (98.7 ± 7.2 insects/kg) and non-infected PICS bags (92.7 ± 4.7 insect/kg), but no signif...
Article
Full-text available
Shea butter, a fat from the nuts of shea tree, is of great nutritional and commercial value for local communities of Africa. The sanitary and physicochemical qualities of shea butter sold in Benin markets are unknown. This study assesses the quality characteristics of 54 samples of shea butter collected from eight markets in Benin, West Africa. Tot...
Article
Full-text available
The effects of soil inoculation with A. flavus, variety and cropping system on the level of aflatoxin in stored maize were investigated under crop storage conditions in Benin. The experiment was organized in a factorial scheme (two varieties x two cropping system x with or without A. flavus soil inoculation) with eight treatments carried out in a c...
Article
Full-text available
Storage conditions are key constraints for quality assurance of the shea (Vitellaria paradoxa Gaertner) butter. In the Sudan savannah Africa, storage conditions of butter produced by women vary across and among processors, traders and consumers. These conditions could impact the quality of the products and reduced their access to international mark...
Article
Full-text available
Aflatoxins are secondary fungal metabolites that contaminate agricultural commodities and can cause sickness or death in humans and animals. Risk of aflatoxin contamination of food and feed in Africa is increased due to environmental, agronomic and socio-economic factors. Environmental conditions especially high humidity and temperature favour fung...
Article
Full-text available
Mycotoxins are secondary fungal metabolites that contaminate agricultural commodities and can cause sickness or death in humans and animals. Risk of mycotoxin contamination of food and feed in Africa is increased due to environmental, agronomic and socio-economic factors. Environmental conditions especially high humidity and temperature favour fung...
Article
Full-text available
Maize production in Benin, especially in resource-poor farmers' fields, is constrained by stemborers among other factors. One of the major stemborers in southern Benin is Sesamia calamistis Hampson (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). African farmers cannot afford to use commercial insecticides for controlling stemborers - they are expensive and unsuitable fo...
Article
Full-text available
American yam bean (Pachyrhizus spp.), a storage root forming legume, is currently disseminated in five West and Central African countries to investigate its food production potential. The genetic base of yam bean germplasm under custody by the International Potato Center (CIP) was broadened by seed acquisition and interspecific hybridization. Multi...
Article
Full-text available
Résumé Les mauvaises méthodes de stockage des céréales et des légumineuses augmentent le risque de contamination par l’aflatoxine. Cette toxine constitue une réelle menace pour la sécurité alimentaire. Pour relever ce double défi à la fois sanitaire et économique, le Bénin n’a qu’une seule alternative : prévenir la contamination par les technologie...
Poster
Full-text available
A trial was carried out in Benin, West Africa to test the effectiveness of PICS Bags for controlling post harvest insects, of cassava chips and to evaluate the cost/benefit of this technology. Firsts results after 2 months of storage showed that losses were significantly higher in Polypropylene bag (PPB) the main traditional method used by traders...
Presentation
Full-text available
Maize Stored Pests Control by PICS-Bags: Technological and Economic Evaluation
Article
Full-text available
Food diversification is recognized as an approach to reduce nutrient deficiencies among the population. Samples of food commonly consumed by the children in two agro ecological zones (Coastal Savannah Zone in the South (CSZ) and Sudan Savannah Zone in the North (SSZ)) of Benin were collected for energy, protein, fat, iron, zinc and vitamin A conten...
Article
In West Africa, the most damaging lepidopteran pest of maize ears is the pyralid Mussidia nigrivenella. Although it is mostly described as a field pest, it can be found feeding on maize stored for up to 4 months. A survey was conducted in Benin in 2006 to assess M. nigrivenella infestations in different maize storage systems in the Southern (SGS) a...
Article
Stem and cob borers cause substantial damage to maize and affect the quality and economic value of maize in West Africa. Manipulation of planting dates is considered a possible mechanism for averting the overall impact of borers and their damage to the crop. Experiments were carried out in southern Benin to evaluate the effect of various planting d...
Article
Full-text available
Fungal infection and aflatoxin contamination was evaluated on 180 samples of dried vegetables such as okra, hot chilli, tomato, melon seeds, onion and baobab leaves from Benin, Togo and Mali collected in September to October 2006. These products are dried to preserve them for lean periods and decrease their perishability. Fungal contamination was e...
Article
Food safety and compliance with international standards is a major challenging to achieve food security in sub-Saharan Africa. The present study evaluated the occurrence of Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium spp., and related fungi, and resultant aflatoxins and fumonsins in dried cassava and maize samples from various markets and villages in Tanzania and...
Article
BACKGROUND: Maize constitutes the main staple food and most important crop grown in Zambia. However, maize incurs considerable losses both in field and storage due to pathogens and insects. Some of the pathogens and resultant mycotoxins reduce the nutritional quality of the product. Mycotoxins are toxigenic fungal compounds that can cause cancer an...
Article
Full-text available
Maize pests feeding on grains can transmit with their movement fungi harmful to human and animal health. The aim of the present work was to study the immigration and the dynamics of storage pests in traditional African maize granaries and the fungal spectrum associated with these insects. Treatments were (i) maize cobs protected just after pollinat...
Article
Natural insect infestation in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz subspecies esculenta) and yam (Dioscorea spp.) chips was evaluated during two consecutive storage seasons (2003-2004 and 2004-2005) in two agroecological zones of Benin (Northern Guinea Savanna [NGS] and Sudan Savanna [SS]). The insects infesting chips were collected, identified, and c...
Article
Full-text available
In Africa the larger grain borer, Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) (Fig. 1) is a serious pest of stored commodities mainly of stored maize, dried cassava roots and to a lesser extent yam chips. This bostrichid pest of meso-American origin was accidentally introduced into Africa some 30 years ago and started to spread over th...
Article
Mycotoxins have both economic and health impacts because they contaminate human foodand animal feeds. A central question is whether there are food processing strategies thatreduce mycotoxin levels in food products. In this chapter we critically review food processing methods tested in Africa for their efficacy in reducing mycotoxin contamination in...
Article
This book is an outcome of the MycoGlobe conference in Accra. Most of the chapters are based on invited oral presentations made at the conference. The chapters in this book touch on issues including health, trade, ecology, epidemiology, occurrence, detection, management, awareness and policy. This book serves as a source of information on the occur...
Article
Full-text available
Pre- and postharvest contamination of aflatoxin in maize is a major health deterrent for people in Africa where maize production has increased dramatically. This chapter highlights management options for pre- and postharvest toxin contamination in maize. Sound crop management practices are an effective way of avoiding, or at least diminishing, infe...
Chapter
Full-text available
The major mycotoxins studied at the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Re-search (CGIAR) institutes are aflatoxins in maize, groundnut, sorghum and cassava, Fusa-rium toxins in maize, wheat and sorghum, and ochratoxin in cocoa and cashew. Genetic en-hancement (both through plant breeding and biotechnology), biological control, habitat...
Article
The presence of fungi, aflatoxins and fumonisin B1 in cassava and yam chips (during 28 processing and storage) were evaluated during two consecutive seasons in two agroecological zones of Benin (Northern Guinea Savannah, NGS and Sudan Savannah, SS). The Benin samples were assessed for moisture content, fungal infestation and total aflatoxin and fum...
Chapter
This book is an outcome of the MycoGlobe conference in Accra. Most of the chapters are based on invited oral presentations made at the conference. The chapters in this book touch on issues including health, trade, ecology, epidemiology, occurrence, detection, management, awareness and policy. This book serves as a source of information on the occur...
Article
Globalization and competitiveness of agricultural commodities could have significant potential benefits for food security and poverty reduction in West Africa. Participation in global trade and economy is potentially important but not enough to ensure benefits at all levels of the chains and equitable distribution of income for each participant. Ef...
Article
Une enquête diagnostique a été conduite en zones agro-écologiques côtière et guinéenne du Bénin pour évaluer le niveau d’exposition � l’aflatoxine d’origine alimentaire et l’état nutritionnel et de santé des enfants de moins de 5 ans. La régression multiple et une analyse économétrique (Probit) ont été effectuées pour identifie les principaux facte...
Article
Rotary International with the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) conducted an information campaign from 2000 to 2004 to increase public awareness of aflatoxin in Benin, Ghana and Togo. Key informant interviews with 2416 respondents showed poor baseline knowledge of aflatoxin and its health risks. The campaign included monitoring...
Article
In trials conducted in Benin, conidia of Beauveria bassiana were evaluated as a control method against the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus, in stored cowpea. In the first trial using a high artificial infestation of C. maculatus in 8-kg batches of cowpea in jerry cans under typical conditions, concentrations of 1 × 109 and 1 × 1011 conidia...
Article
Full-text available
A trial was set up in northern Benin to evaluate the potential of Teretrius nigrescens to reduce the infestation and damage to cassava chips caused by storage insects. Cassava chips were stored for 5 months in mud silos and 50 adults of T. nigrescens were added when the stores were first filled. Stores where no predator was released were monitored...
Article
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Consecutive outbreaks of acute aflatoxicosis in Kenya in 2004 and 2005 caused > 150 deaths. In response, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the World Health Organization convened a workgroup of international experts and health officials in Geneva, Switzerland, in July 2005. After discussions concerning what is known about aflatoxins...