Kerry Leigh Wilkinson

Kerry Leigh Wilkinson
University of Adelaide · School of Agriculture, Food and Wine

Wine Science

About

107
Publications
27,270
Reads
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2,042
Citations
Introduction
As a Professor of Oenology at the University of Adelaide (in South Australia) I teach wine education and lead a wine chemistry research group. I led the development of Wine101x - a free, online MOOC on wine accessible via EdX: https://www.edx.org/course/world-wine-grape-glass-adelaidex-wine101x Check out our trailer at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2aBuLPMBpmE
Additional affiliations
January 2019 - September 2019
University of Adelaide
Position
  • Professor
January 2015 - present
The University of Adelaide
Position
  • Professor
January 2012 - December 2014
University of Adelaide
Position
  • Lecturer
Education
May 2015 - September 2015
Radio Adelaide
Field of study
January 2012 - December 2013
University of Adelaide
Field of study
  • Online Education
January 2008 - December 2009
University of Adelaide
Field of study
  • Higher Education

Publications

Publications (107)
Article
Full-text available
M.N.) † These authors contributed equally to this work. Abstract: Vineyard exposure to wildfire smoke can taint grapes and wine. To understand the impact of this taint, it is imperative that the analytical methods used are accurate and precise. This study compared the variance across nine commercial and research laboratories following quantitative...
Article
Full-text available
Ultrafiltration (UF) was evaluated as a process by which proteins can be selectively removed from white wine as an alternative approach to protein stabilization than traditional bentonite fining. Unfined Sauvignon Blanc wine (50 L) was fractionated by UF and the retentate stabilized either by heat and/or protease treatment or bentonite fining befor...
Article
Full-text available
Several vineyard techniques have been proposed to delay grape maturity in light of the advanced maturation driven by increasingly frequent water and heat stress events that are detrimental to grape quality. These studies differ in terms of their experimental conditions, and in the present work we have attempted to summarize previous observations in...
Article
Full-text available
When bushfires occur near wine regions, grapevine exposure to smoke can taint grapes due to the uptake of smoke-derived volatile compounds that can subsequently impart unpleasant smoky, medicinal, burnt rubber and ashy characters to wine. Whereas early research sought to understand the effects of smoke on grapevine physiology, and grape and wine ch...
Article
Grapegrowers and winemakers, around the world, are searching for strategies to mitigate the compositional and sensory consequences of grapevine exposure to smoke from wildfires. This study evaluated the use of activated carbon fabrics as protective coverings to mitigate the uptake of smoke‐derived volatile phenols by grapes, and accordingly, the in...
Preprint
Full-text available
Several vineyard techniques have been proposed to delay grape maturity in light of the advanced maturation driven by increasingly frequent water and heat stress events that are detrimental to grape quality. These studies differ in terms of their experimental conditions, and in the present work we have attempted to summarize previous observations in...
Article
Full-text available
It has been well established that bushfire/wildfire smoke can taint grapes (and therefore wine), depending on the timing and duration of exposure, but the risk of smoke contamination from stubble burning (a practice employed by some grain growers to prepare farmland for sowing) has not yet been established. This study exposed excised bunches of gra...
Article
Ultrafiltration (UF) was performed on six white and rosé wines, at commercial scale (5,400 – 71,000 L), to remove phenolic compounds associated with astringency. Dynamic UF parameters (permeate flux, transmembrane pressure, temperature) were monitored during filtration, and wine composition compared before and after treatment. Over 90% wine permeat...
Article
Grape ripening accelerates under warmer and drier conditions, resulting in the accumulation of sugars (‘technological’ maturity) being decoupled from phenolic and aromatic composition. This study investigated the effect of different rates of ripening on the composition of Cabernet Sauvignon and Riesling wines. Manipulating crop load and irrigation...
Article
Full-text available
Smoke taint has become a prominent issue for the global wine industry as climate change continues to impact the length and extremity of fire seasons around the world. When grapevines are exposed to smoke, their leaves and fruit can adsorb volatile smoke compounds (for example, volatile phenols such as guaiacol, 4-methylguaiacol, o-, m- and p-cresol...
Article
Body is a key sensory characteristic for beverage acceptability, drinkability and important when making a purchase decision. Evidence suggests that consumers perceive low-alcohol beverages as lacking in body. Despite the significance of body, little is known about consumer's understanding of the term. This paper employed a qualitative approach to g...
Article
Full-text available
Taint in grapes and wine following vineyard exposure to bushfire smoke continues to challenge the financial viability of grape and wine producers worldwide. In response, researchers are studying the chemical, sensory and physiological consequences of grapevine smoke exposure. However, studies involving winemaking trials are often limited by the ava...
Article
This study investigated the color, phenolic, polysaccharide, volatile and sensory profiles of Cabernet Sauvignon wines made from flash détente (FD) treated musts fermented at different temperatures (16, 24 or 32 °C), with and without suspended grape solids. Low fermentation temperature and low solids content increased the concentration of esters, w...
Article
Full-text available
Strategies that mitigate the negative effects of vineyard exposure to smoke on wine composition and sensory properties are needed to address the recurring incidence of bushfires in or near wine regions. Recent research demonstrated the potential for post-harvest ozonation of moderately smoke-exposed grapes to reduce both the concentration of smoke...
Article
Full-text available
When bushfires occur near grape growing regions, vineyards can be exposed to smoke, and depending on the timing and duration of grapevine smoke exposure, fruit can become tainted. Smoke-derived volatile compounds, including volatile phenols, can impart unpleasant smoky, ashy characters to wines made from smoke-affected grapes, leading to substantia...
Article
Full-text available
Smoke taint has become a prominent issue for the global wine industry as climate change continues to impact the length and extremity of fire seasons around the world. Although the issue has prompted a surge in research on the subject in recent years, no singular solution has yet been identified that is capable of maintaining the quality of wine mad...
Article
Full-text available
Background and Aims This study explored changes in the profile of selected aroma compounds in individual berries during development to establish whether a correlation exists between aroma compounds and sugar. Previous studies have assessed changes in the aroma compounds of ripening grapes using multiple berries randomly pooled together or sorted ac...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated consumer preferences for different styles of sparkling wine and the influence of wine style and occasion on sparkling wine purchasing and consumption behavior. Australian consumers (n = 203) completed an online survey and blind tasting of representative styles of commercial sparkling wines, including Champagne. Wine sensory...
Article
Background and Aims Precipitation of unstable proteins present in white wine after bottling can cause cloudiness, which is generally considered commercially unacceptable. Winemakers therefore use bentonite to remove protein prior to bottling, however, this can result in losses of wine volume and/or sensory quality. As such, there is interest in alt...
Article
Full-text available
Low color stability of Rubired food and beverage coloring negatively impacts color yield during production and storage while also limiting the use of this type of food colorant in applications where color stability is a key requirement. This study investigated the impact on color stability of using flash détente (FD) for Rubired color extraction in...
Article
Full-text available
Wildfires are an increasing problem worldwide, with their number and intensity predicted to rise due to climate change. When fires occur close to vineyards, this can result in grapevine smoke contamination, and subsequently, the development of smoke taint in wine. Currently, there are no in-field detection systems that growers can use to assess whe...
Article
Full-text available
Bushfires are increasing in number and intensity due to climate change. A newly developed low-cost electronic nose (e-nose) was tested on wines made from grapevines exposed to smoke in field trials. E-nose readings were obtained from wines from five experimental treatments: i) low-density smoke exposure (LS), ii) high-density smoke exposure (HS) an...
Article
Full-text available
Natural flavorings could potentially be used to enhance the intensity of wine aroma and flavor; albeit since flavor additives are not legally permitted winemaking aids, flavored wines would need to be labeled as wine products. In this study, changes in the composition and sensory profiles of flavored Chardonnay (n = 2) and Shiraz (n = 2) wines were...
Article
Full-text available
Wine made from grapes exposed to bushfire smoke can exhibit unpleasant smoky, ashy characters, which have been attributed to the presence of smoke-derived volatile phenols, in free or glycosylated forms. Here we report the uptake and glycosylation of volatile phenols by grapes following exposure of Cabernet Sauvignon vines to smoke, and their fate...
Article
Worldwide, winemakers are increasingly adopting alcohol management strategies to counter the higher wine ethanol concentrations observed over the past ∼30 years. Wines with high ethanol levels exhibit increased ‘hotness’ on the palate, which is generally considered to negatively impact wine quality. This study investigated changes in the chemical a...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated the perceptions and preferences of Australian wine consumers towards different styles of sparkling wine, including French Champagne and Australian sparkling white, red and rosé wine, Moscato and Prosecco. An online survey of 1027 regular sparkling wine consumers captured demographic information, sparkling wine perceptions an...
Article
Full-text available
Volatile phenols have been implicated as contributors to off-odors associated with taints from bushfire smoke and microbial spoilage. Various methods for the amelioration of off-odors have been evaluated, but to date, they have not included cyclodextrin (CD) polymers. In the current study, two CD polymers were prepared from β- and γ-CD, using hexam...
Article
Full-text available
Warmer growing seasons, variations to grape ripening dynamics, and stylistic changes have contributed to increased wine alcohol levels, which can negatively impact sensory properties. As a consequence, winemakers have sought technological innovations to produce reduced alcohol wine (RAW). The sensory methodology used by industry to optimize the eth...
Article
Full-text available
Volatile phenols exist in wine and can be markers for Brettanomyces and smoke taint off-odors. Cyclodextrins (CDs) are found to be capable of forming inclusion complexes with volatile phenols. Cross peaks on 2D 1H ROESY nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra demonstrated inclusion of volatile phenols in the β-CD cavity, while difference tests con...
Article
Full-text available
Bushfires are becoming more frequent and intensive due to changing climate. Those that occur close to vineyards can cause smoke contamination of grapevines and grapes, which can affect wines, producing smoke-taint. At present, there are no available practical in-field tools available for detection of smoke contamination or taint in berries. This re...
Article
Full-text available
Interactions between grape seed tannin and either a mannoprotein or an arabinogalactan in model wine solutions of different ethanol concentrations were characterized with nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA), UV-visible spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering (DLS). NTA results reflected a shift in particle size distribution due to aggregation. F...
Article
This case study describes the use of learning analytics to evaluate the transition of a postgraduate wine business course from face-to-face to online delivery using e-learning course design principles. Traditionally, Foundations of Wine Science lectures were delivered face-to-face, however the decision to transition the course from semester to trim...
Article
Learning to objectively evaluate wine sensory properties (such as appearance, aroma, flavour, taste and mouthfeel attributes) features prominently in wine education programs. Formal, structured sensory classes that involve recording detailed observations and perceptions is the traditional approach to build perceptual and linguistic learning. This r...
Article
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This study investigated compositional changes in red wines resulting from wine alcohol removal by reverse osmosis-vaporative perstraction (RO-EP) and provides insight into the physical and chemical changes in reduced alcohol wine (RAW). Trial 1 involved RO-EP treatment of three wines that were analyzed pre-treatment, post-treatment, and post-treatm...
Article
Main conclusion The accumulation of volatile phenol glycoconjugates in smoke-exposed grapes was monitored following grapevine exposure to smoke, with different glycoconjugate profiles observed for fruit sampled 1 and 7 days after smoke exposure, and at maturity. Foliar application of kaolin reduced the concentration of volatile phenol glycoconjugat...
Article
Full-text available
The tannin and polysaccharide profiles and therefore sensory properties of wine are influenced by fruit maturity at harvest, and practices employed during winemaking. This study investigated the extent to which commercial winemaking supplements (skin and seed tannins, and mannoprotein (MP)) can enhance the mouthfeel properties of red wine, in parti...
Article
Full-text available
Insects have long been consumed as part of the diets of many Asian, African, and South American cultures. However, despite international agencies such as the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations advocating the nutritional, environmental, and economic benefits of entomophagy, attitudinal barriers persist in Western societies. In A...
Article
Full-text available
Proline is the predominant amino acid in grape juice, but it is poorly assimilated by wine yeast under the anaerobic conditions typical of most fermentations. Exploiting the abundance of this naturally occurring nitrogen source to overcome the need for nitrogen supplementation and/or the risk of stuck or sluggish fermentations would be most benefic...
Article
Enotannin and mannoprotein additives are applied to achieve protein, cold, or color stability in wine, or to modify wine sensory properties. In most cases, the manufacturer only provides basic compositional information and a proposed effect in wine. In this study, 14 grape-based enotannins and eight mannoproteins were sourced from the Australian ma...
Article
Full-text available
Bush fires are becoming more frequent, severe and extensive due to changing climate and intentional fires. When bush fires happen to be close to vineyards, especially around veraison, smoke contamination of grapevines and grapes can occur, which is passed to the winemaking process producing smoke-taint in wines. At the moment, detection of contamin...
Poster
Full-text available
Bushfire has become a major threat in viticulture and wine production worldwide, and recently devastated wine producing regions in Chile and California. In Australia, the bushfire window has broaden, and predicted to increase in frequency and severity. • Thebiggestimpactofbushfireistheproductionofsmokethatcontaminatesgrapesin the surrounding areas....
Article
Lipids are the major nutritional component of almonds and almond lipids comprise a range of fatty acids from C14 up to C20, including saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, and oil soluble compounds such as plant sterols and tocopherols. This study investigated the change in fatty acid and tocopherol levels during almond kernel...
Article
Proteins and amino acids are known to influence the foam characteristics of sparkling wines. However, it is unclear to what extent they promote foam formation and/or stability. This study aimed to investigate the effect of protein content and amino acid composition, measured via the bicinchoninic acid assay and high-performance liquid chromatograph...
Article
In recent years, there has been significant growth in the popularity, and therefore sales, of Moscato in Australia. The aim of this study was to determine the sensory and quality variation amongst Australian Moscato wines, as well as consumer acceptance of different styles of Moscato. The sensory profile of 24 Australian Moscato wines was determine...
Article
Smoke taint is the term given to the objectionable smoky, medicinal and ashy characters that can be exhibited in wines following vineyard exposure to bushfire smoke. This study sought to investigate the stability of smoke taint by determining changes in the composition and sensory properties of wines, following 5 to 6 years of bottle aging. Small i...
Article
There is considerable diversity amongst the styles of sparkling white wine produced in Australia, from relatively simple, fruit-forward sparkling wines to those that exhibit complexity due to yeast autolysis and ageing. This study profiled the sensory characteristics and quality of sparkling white wines made via the different methods of production...
Article
Purpose This paper aims to provide further insight into factors influencing Australian consumers’ purchasing preferences for sparkling wine, including champagne. Design/methodology/approach Focus groups were conducted and thematic analysis was undertaken to identify factors influencing sparkling wine consumers’ purchasing preferences. Findings Pe...
Article
Wine quality can be significantly impacted by tannin and polysaccharide composition, which can in turn be influenced by grape maturity and winemaking practices. This study explored the impact of three commercial wine additives, a maceration enzyme, an oenotannin and a mannoprotein, on the composition and sensory properties of red wine; in particula...
Article
The chemical composition (protein, polysaccharide, amino acid and fatty acid/ethyl ester content), foaming properties and quality of fifty Australian sparkling white wines, representing the four key production methods, i.e. Méthode Traditionelle (n=20), transfer (n=10), Charmat (n=10) and carbonation (n=10), were studied. Méthode Traditionelle wine...
Article
The use of winemaking additives is governed by strict regulations, and currently, flavor additives are not legally permitted in commercial wine production: their addition to a wine renders it a “wine product.” However, Australian wine consumers have previously indicated their acceptance of the use of flavorings in wine. Consumers were found to be s...
Article
The relative proportion of water and ethanol present in alcoholic beverages can significantly influence our perception of wine sensory attributes. This study therefore investigated changes in wine ethanol concentration due to evaporation from wine glasses. The ethanol content of commercial wines exposed to ambient conditions whilst in wine glasses...
Article
Previous studies have shown that volatile compounds present within a vineyard during the growing season can be absorbed by grapevines, assimilated within grapes, and then released during fermentation to influence the final aroma of wine. For example, the accumulation of volatile phenols in glycoconjugate forms following grapevine exposure to bushfi...
Poster
Full-text available
INTRODUCTION Due to the presence of carbonation and the influence of foam characteristics on sparkling wine quality, several techniques have been developed to assist the evaluation of foam dynamics. Studies have shown the need for standardised pouring procedures due to the influence of several mechanical and environmental factors affecting foam dyn...
Article
Sparkling wine represents a small but significant proportion of the Australian wine industry’s total production. Yet, Australia remains a significant importer of French Champagne. This study investigated consumer preferences for Australian sparkling wine vs. French Champagne and any compositional and/or sensorial bases for these preferences. A rang...
Article
The appeal of rosé wine is attributable to its sensory profiles and underlying chemical composition, which are determined by viticultural and oenological inputs. This study provided the first insight into the sensory attributes and volatile profiles of Australian rosé wines. An HS-SPME-GC-MS method and a recently developed HPLC-MS/MS method were us...
Article
Full-text available
Smoke was applied to seven different grapevine cultivars (Chardonnay, Sauvignon Blanc, Pinot Gris, Pinot Noir, Shiraz, Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot) for 1 h at approximately 7 days post-veraison. A range of viticultural measurements were subsequently performed to evaluate any effects on crop yield, vegetative growth and vine physiology. Few signif...
Article
Rosé wine aromas range from fruity and floral, to more developed, savoury characters. Lighter than red wines, rosé wines tend to match well with Asian cuisines, yet little is known about the factors driving desirability of rosé wines in emerging markets such as China. This study involved Chinese wine professionals participating in blind rosé wine t...