Kent L. Norman

Kent L. Norman
University of Maryland, College Park | UMD, UMCP, University of Maryland College Park

About

116
Publications
55,695
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4,257
Citations
Citations since 2016
4 Research Items
1040 Citations
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2016201720182019202020212022050100150
Introduction

Publications

Publications (116)
Book
Once, human-computer interaction was limited to a privileged few. Today, our contact with computing technology is pervasive, ubiquitous, and global. Work and study is computer mediated, domestic and commercial systems are computerized, healthcare is being reinvented, navigation is interactive, and entertainment is computer generated. As technology...
Book
Cambridge Core - Applied Psychology - Cyberpsychology - by Kent L. Norman
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Demo Hour highlights new prototypes and projects that exemplify innovation and novel forms of interaction. Audrey Desjardins, Editor
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A mediation paradigm employing a “double-function” paired-associate list for the acquisition of the A-B and B-C chaining associations was investigated. Following acquisition of the double-function list, Ss received four multiple-choice test trials on a list containing “chaining” items for which one alternative could be chosen on the basis of a medi...
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In recent years, research on the psychological aspects and assessment of video games has become more and more important due to their impact in entertainment and education. The development of psychometric instruments to measure different factors of a player’s engagement and skills in playing video games and to measure different factors of the game’s...
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Hill-climbing problems were presented to undergraduate students to investigate search strategies for finding a maximum point on the surface. Subjects guessed the values of two variables, X and Y, that could result in the maximum value of a criterion variable Z. The function relating X and Y to Z was an inverted paraboloid. Subjects tended to use a...
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New experimental designs and analytic techniques are presented for investigating serial effects in verbal discrimination. These designs and techniques derive from earlier studies of serial information integration. On a given study trial, feedback is presented for a fixed percentage of the items. Across items in the list, feedback-nonfeedback sequen...
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The processes of numeric comparison and integration were investigated in a choice reaction time task requiring subjects to choose the pair of digits having the greatest total. Two alternative modes of processing were identified. Subjects either added each pair separately and then compared the totals or compared adjacent digits and then combined the...
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Computer users need training on menu selection systems to remember how to access target functions. This experiment investigated the effects of studying documentation before searching for target words in a content-free menu. Subjects studied one of the following: sequences of choices to arrive at a desired target (command-sequence mode), individual...
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The processes of hypothesis selection and testing were investigated in a simple multiple-cue learning task. Subjects learned to predict the numeric value of a criterion on the basis of a set of cues. The criterion was computed as the average of two of the cues plus random error. Following each trial, subjects were asked to select the two cues that...
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It seems clear that different video games require different skills. However, there has been no systematic way of assessing what these skills are or assessing the extent to which particular skills are required by a particular game. This study used a psychometric approach to help identify these skills and profile particular games and genres of video...
Chapter
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New electronic educational environments invite almost unlimited possibilities for interactive learning and collaboration in the digital university. However, to support quality education, learning activities need to be guided by principled models of interaction, guidelines for the design of user interfaces, and policies for the management of interac...
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Usability of an interface is an emergent property of the system and the user; it does not exist independently of either one. For this reason, characteristics of the user which affect his or her performance on a task can affect the apparent usability of the interface in a usability study. We propose and investigate, using a Wikipedia information-see...
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Isr develops, applies and teaches advanced methodologies of design and analysis to solve complex, hierarchical, heterogeneous and dynamic problems of engineering technology and systems for industry and government. Isr is a permanent institute of the university of maryland, within the a. James clark school of engineering. It is a graduated national...
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In this study, I seek to emphasize the contributions of cognitive psychology and human factors research in the design of menu selection systems. Menu selection systems are used in computer interfaces to allow users to enter choices, set parameters, and navigate to items, functions, and locations. Designers of these systems have many choices concern...
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Spatial Visualization Ability is a determinant of performance efficiency on website navigation tasks. It is unclear, however, why this is the case; though the spatial metaphor for web “navigation” is popular, it is not accurate. We put forth a hypothesis that strategy use is another important component of web navigation efficiency that relates to S...
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Most of the existing efforts for supporting the design, preparation, and deployment of accessible e-learning applications propose guidelines that primarily address technical accessibility issues. Little, if any, consideration is given to the real actors involved in the learning experience, such as didactical experts and disabled learners. Moreover,...
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This paper identifies a number of factors involved in current practices of usability testing and presents profiles for three prototype methods: think-aloud, subjective ratings, and history files. We then identify ideal levels to generate the profile for new methods. These methods involve either a human observer or a self-administration of the test...
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Auditory information is an important channel for the visually impaired. Effective sonification (the use of non-speech audio to convey information) promotes equal working opportunities for people with vision impairments by helping them explore data collections for problem solving and decision making. Interactive sonification systems can make georefe...
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The Laboratory for Automation Psychology and Decision Processes (LAPDP) focuses on the cognitive/psychological aspects of human/computer interaction and does both basic and applied research in this area. It is housed in the Department of Psychology and is affiliated with the Human/Computer Interaction Laboratory (HCIL) in the University of Maryland...
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An Internet form for the U. S. Census Bureau's 2004 Overseas Enumeration Test was evaluated in two rounds of usability testing. Participants were assigned to one of two conditions: Think-Aloud, in which they talked about what they were doing; or Retrospective-Report, in which they completed the form and then talked about their experience while view...
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Information retrieval and visualization can be com bined in dynamic query systems that allow users unparalleled access to information for decision making. In this paper, we report on the development and evaluation of a dynamic query system (YMap) that displays information on a chloropleth map using double thumb sliders to select ranges of query var...
Conference Paper
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This report is released to inform interested parties of (ongoing) research and to encourage discussion of work in progress. The views expressed are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the U.S. Census Bureau. Researchers are only beginning to create rules for the design of electronic forms (Couper et al., 2001). Some of these design ru...
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Conditional branching is used to direct respondents to skip inappropriate questions or to answer follow-up questions. When surveys are implemented on the World Wide Web, branching can be automated in different ways. Three implementations of conditional branching in Web-based surveys were compared: (a) a manual form which replicated the paper-and-pe...
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Conditional branching is used in surveys to direct respondents to skip inappropriate questions or to answer additional follow-up questions. When surveys are implemented on the World Wide Web, conditional branching can be automated in different ways. This study compares three implementations: (a) a manual form which replicates the paper-and-pencil v...
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An experiment is reported that compared expandable indexes providing full menu context with sequential menus providing only partial context. Menu depth was varied using hierarchies of 2, 3, and 4 levels deep in an asymmetric structure of 457 root level items. Menus were presented on the World Wide Web within a browser. Participants searched for spe...
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The AT&T Teaching Theater is a highly interactive, multimedia electronic classroom at the University of Maryland offering instructors many new and creative teaching opportunities. Although this technology may hold many exciting possibilities, it is important to not lose sight of the main objective of any teaching facility - the students. Therefore,...
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In this investigation, the Questionnaire for User Interaction Satisfaction (QUIS 5.5), a tool for assessing users' subjective satisfaction with specific aspects of the human/computer interface was used to assess the strengths and weaknesses of the Information System for Youth Services (ISYS). ISYS is used by over 600 employees of the Maryland State...
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Answering questions on surveys involves the access of internal knowledge structures, the retrieval of records from external databases and the navigation of items on the interface. In this study a number of alternative designs for online questionnaire presentation were investigated. A long heterogeneous survey was partitioned in four ways: whole for...
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On-line surveys can automate conditional branching in self-administered questionnaires and make the task easier for the respondent. This paper discusses the types of branching that can be automated and different techniques for designing the interface. Design factors take into consideration the level of automation pre-programmed into the survey vers...
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: American Voice and Robotics (AVR), in conjunction with the Maryland Industrial Partnerships (MIPS) program, contracted the Human-Computer Interaction Laboratory (HCIL) to evaluate the user interface of AVR's "Guardian"home automation system. Among their goals for the system were:Ease of use and learning of the system (intuitiveness), Aesthetic ap...
Conference Paper
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Previous researchers have assumed that an analyst or engineer, who has not been maintaining an active awareness of an automated system's behavior or context, will be able to respond to a call when his help is needed to address a problem that the system itself cannot handle. As an example, in planning for lights-out spacecraft operations, provision...
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Thirty-six participants used a static version of either LifeLines, a graphical interface, or a Tabular representation to answer questions about a database of temporal personal history information. Results suggest that overall the LifeLines representation led to much faster response times, primarily for questions which involved interval comparisons...
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The most important factor determining the usability of electronic documents (e.g. hypertexts) is neither the set of links within the material nor the structure of the database but the availability "hypertools" defined as a vast range of electronic tools to support a diversity of reading activities. To illustrate this point, an analysis is undertake...
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In many computer interfaces the underlying structures and contingencies are often hidden from the user's view. Users high in Spatial Visualization Ability (SVA) are able to quickly determine and manage the contingencies of these relationships and are not severely affected by this problem. Low SVA users, however, have difficulty visualizing these co...
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Novel patterns of teaching/learning have emerged from faculty and students who use our three teaching/learning theaters at the University of Maryland, College Park. These fully-equipped electronic classrooms have been used by 74 faculty in 264 semester-long courses since the fall of 1991 with largely enthusiastic reception by both faculty and stude...
Conference Paper
The concepts of “lights-out” operations and human/computer interfaces and interactions (HCI) are not incongruous ideas. The concept of automated operations without the immediate presence of people raises interesting and complicated issues associated with human/computer interfaces and interactions when, in fact, people are integrated back into and m...
Conference Paper
aire for User Interaction Satisfaction (QUIS)The QUIS focuses on the user's perception of interface usability by as it is expressed in specific aspectsof the interface (i.e., overall reaction to the system, screen factors, terminology and system feedback,learning factors, system capabilities) .Each of the specific interface factors and optional sec...
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Electronic classrooms offer instructors and students a new way to interact with technology and each other. By understanding the dynamics of the classroom lecture environment and the ways in which multimedia can assist in the learning process, education can become a more active and engaging pursuit. This study focuses on the effects of control and i...
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The Consortium Interactive Research on Collaborative Learning Environments (or CIRCLE) project, was designed to examine how the distance among remote universities can be bridged electronically and how this bridge can be used to develop truly collaborative learning with shared, distributed student and faculty responsibilities. Although the problem o...
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The Consortium Interactive Research on Collaborative Learning Environments (or CIRCLE) project, was designed to examine (a) how the distance among remote universities can be bridged electronically; and (b) how this bridge can be used to develop truly collaborative learning with shared, distributed student and faculty responsibilities. Although the...
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In our seven year effort to build electronic classrooms we tried to balance the pursuit of new technologies with the exploration of new teaching/learning styles while providing the necessary infrastructure for faculty training and support, and collecting ample evaluation data to guide our transformation. This experience has led to a growing communi...
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This study examines the anesthesia care providers' workspace in the trauma resuscitation bay of the shock/trauma unit of a university hospital. Intubation, the placement of a tube into the trachea to facilitate ventilation, is performed in critical cases brought to the trauma resuscitation unit. This analysis focuses on the task of intubation and e...
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An electronic classroom with computer workstations and multimedia offers tremendous potential for interactive instruction. To support such instruction, HyperCourseware was developed as an environment and authoring system that recreates on a computer network familiar objects of instruction, such as the syllabus, lecture notes, class rolls, seating c...
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The positive impact of computer-based technology in education varies in part as a function of the individual abilities of users. A model is proposed for how individual differences are expected to affect performance when technology is introduced. The primary cognitive factor driving differences in performance using computer-based technology is spati...
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Navigation is a spatial metaphor for the activity of steering a course through hypermedia. When hypermedia is used in the context of education, navigation takes on a number of critical functions related to learning (e.g., acquisition, generation, and organization of knowledge) as well as the service functions related to the database (e.g., retrieva...
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The Questionnaire for User Interaction Satisfaction(QUIS) is a usability testing tool designed to gauge computer user's subjective satisfaction with the computer interface. The QUIS contains a demographic questionnaire, an overall measure of satisfaction, and measures of user satisfaction in four specific interface aspects (screen factors, terminol...
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Menu selection is emerging as an important mode of human/computer interaction. This text, devoted to the topic, provides detailed theoretical and empirical information of interest to software designers and human/computer interaction specialists and researchers. A theoretical approach to menu is taken by developing a psychological theory of cognitiv...
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Electronic documents allow readers to access definitions of unfamiliar words by clicking on the screen display. Five studies report eight comparisons which explore how changing the modality (visual/auditory) and form (verbal/graphic) of the defining information influences people's willingness to consult definitions while reading short stories. Stud...
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The human–computer interface has become a focal point in the development of complex control systems, and the mediator of the flow of control and information between the operator and the system. This chapter provides an overview of the survey models and modeling approaches at the human–computer interface with emphasis over many of the aspects, issue...
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The introduction of hypermedia into the classroom presents both an opportunity to expand the power of teaching through electronic facilitation of the media and a challenge to redesign the classroom and instructional environment to exploit the enhanced features of hypermedia. This paper briefly surveys the current state of computers in the classroom...
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How do managers expect the proficiency of users and the power of the computers to determine overall performance? Five different models are proposed: (a) a matching model in which optimal performance is achieved when the power of the system is judged to be compatible with the proficiency of the user, (b) an averaging model in which expected performa...
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Menu selection in human/computer interaction is a metaphor of the restaurant menu. Although menu selection is widely used, its scope is currently limited, ill-defined, and information lean. A comparison of the restaurant menu and the computer menu reveal three avenues of improvement in menu systems. The correspondence of elements and features betwe...
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Many investigations concerned with human decision making have centered their attention on the issues of cue integration and cue importance. Unfortunately, an equally important issue-that of cue relevance-has been either neglected or equated with the importance issue. Two experiments tested the ability of information integration theory (N. H. Anders...
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This study is a part of a research effort to develop the Questionnaire for User Interface Satisfaction (QUIS). Participants, 150 PC user group members, rated familiar software products. Two pairs of software categories were compared: 1) software that was liked and disliked, and 2) a standard command line system (CLS) and a menu driven application (...
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Menu selection systems provide a means of selecting operations and retrieving information which requires little training and reduces the need for memorizing complex command sequences. However, a major disadvantage of many menu selection systems is that experienced users cannot traverse the menu tree significantly faster than novices. A common solut...
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In order to make computers easier to use and more versatile many system designers are exploring the use of multiple windows on a single screen and multiple coordinated screens in a single work station displaying linked or related information. The designers of such systems attempt to take into account the characteristics of the human user and the st...
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Novice computer users searched an interactive menu system given either an explicit target phrase or a subject-matter topic. Two menus were used: an original menu as designed by a commercial timesharing service and a slightly modified version intended to increase the distinctiveness of same-level items. Subjects acquired knowledge about the system t...
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50 National Institutes of Health program directors, executive secretaries, and administrators rated hypothetical evaluations of grant proposals. Presence or absence and the value of 8 evaluative factors were varied in a fractional factorial design. Ratings of scientific merit and traditional "priority scores" were analyzed using an information inte...
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All the models of information integration predict that the greater the reliability of an information, the greater its effectiveness. However, they disagree with the relationship between reliability of information of one type and effectiveness of information of another type. The multiplying model predicts that reliability of information of one type...
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Managers and students of management in India predicted performance in human/computer system from information about the user?s proficiency with computers and the power of the system. User proficiency was defined as the user?s ability to work with computers; and system power was defined as the computer?s ability to store, retrieve, and analyze data....
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Menu selection systems sometimes present learning problems for novice users. This comparison of four training methods for novice users found that the global tree diagram of the menu system was superior to command sequence and frame presentation methods, and somewhat better than trial and error. Methods were evaluated on the basis of (1) number of t...
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Programmers might benefit from larger screens with multiple windows or multiple screens, especially if convenient coordination among screens are arranged. Uses for multiple coordinated displays in a programmers workstation are explored. Initial efforts focus on the potential applications, a command language for coordinating the displays, and the ps...
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Laboratory research aimed at increased understanding of judgment and decision-making behavior has been criticized for lack of external validity. To counter this criticism, the present paper describes a number of laboratory studies of information integration that demonstrate that responses to independent variable manipulations in the laboratory are...
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Only after a system of moral and ethical values has been established can viable models of judgment and decision making be designed. Such models may then be used to either prescribe how a decision should be made or describe the behavior of decision makers. This article suggests ways in which the Christian presuppositional system may affect a decisio...
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In two experiments subjects were given information about how one person in a dyadic interaction had allocated outcomes to self and the other participant. The interaction was depicted as competitive in Experiment 1 and noncompetitive in Experiment 2. Subjects made judgments about the allocator's intentions and the recipient's liking for the allocato...
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In many environmental and decisional systems evaluative judgments may be viewed as functions of system attributes. Researchers in a variety of applied areas are interested in the importance of such attributes in determining the behavior of individuals interacting with the system. Relative importance can be assessed by the amount of variance account...
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24 college students judged the probability that they would ride hypothetical bus systems for a work trip (to or from a job or school) and for a leisure trip (to or from shopping or recreation). Bus systems varied in terms of the attributes of fare, total walking distance to and from the bus stop, number of intervening stops en route, and time of se...
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A brief introduction to Anderson's information integration theory is provided and its application to transportation mode choice is outlined. A similar discussion is provided for the "policy capturing" approach to information processing in judgment. The two approaches are compared and contrasted. Their application to transportation problems is illus...
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Judgment processes were studied in an information integration task requiring subjects to rate the quality of hypothetical job applicants. Three types of information were systematically varied and presented in all possible pairwise combinations such that only two types of information were available to the subject for any one applicant. Following eac...
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A linear judgment model incorporating both relative weights and subjective values of information was investigated in a task in which subjects rated the quality of hypothetical job applicants on the basis of length of work experience, score on an aptitude and skills test, and interview rating. Results of Experiment 1 indicated that a linear model ad...
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Weight parameters in information integration theory represent viable theoretical constructs. Unfortunately, empirical estimates of weights are indeterminate in some models when the stimulus sets are composed from a complete factorial manipulation of the levels of different types of information. This paper introduces a methodological change in the t...
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Studied judged probability of riding hypothetical bus systems as a function of fare, frequency of service, and walking distance to the bus stop. The judgment process of 20 undergraduates was modeled by 2 different approaches. A policy-capturing approach using regression analysis indicated that a linear model accounted for the data adequately. Howev...
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Studied 40 undergraduates to examine learning of simple linear and configural rules in a stimulus integration task. Ss learned to produce horizontal motor movements that represented a weighted average biased toward either the shorter or longer distance or the 1st or 2nd movement in a sequence of 2 fixed movements. On each trial Ss reported which of...
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Conducted a stimulus integration experiment with 60 undergraduates which provided feedback to S in a task requiring the averaging of 2 fixed-movement lengths. Feedback indicated the relative position of each response to a weighted average of the lengths. Changes in the integration rule as a function of feedback were indicated by changes in the weig...
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In two experiments Ss averaged pairs of fixed, linear motor movements. A production method of motor averaging was used in Exp. 1, and category scaling procedures were used in Exp. 2. Stimulus interaction effects were found in Exp. 1 but not in Exp. 2. Prior exposure to long or to short movements produced slight contrast effects in each experiment,...