Kent C Berridge

Kent C Berridge
University of Michigan | U-M · Reprints at: http://www.lsa.umich.edu/psych/research&labs/berridge/publications.htm

About

245
Publications
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Introduction
Berridge lab reprints are available for download at: http://www.lsa.umich.edu/psych/research&labs/berridge/Publications.htm
Additional affiliations
January 1985 - December 2013
University of Michigan
January 1983 - December 1985
Dalhousie University
Education
September 1979 - June 1983
September 1975 - June 1979

Publications

Publications (245)
Article
Full-text available
Corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) systems in limbic structures are posited to mediate stress-induced relapse in addiction, traditionally by generating distress states that spur drug consumption as attempts at hedonic self-medication. Yet evidence suggests that activating CRF-expressing neurons in the central amygdala (CeA) or nucleus accumbens (...
Article
Berridge and Dayan outline the psychological and neural basis of the hedonic concept of 'liking', and its relationship with close, but not always consonant, motivational cousin, 'wanting'.
Article
Full-text available
Research over the past decades has demonstrated the explanatory power of emotions, feelings, motivations, moods, and other affective processes when trying to understand and predict how we think and behave. In this consensus article, we ask: has the increasingly recognized impact of affective phenomena ushered in a new era, the era of affectivism?
Article
The central nucleus of amygdala (CeA) mediates positively-valenced reward motivation as well as negatively-valenced fear. Optogenetic or neurochemical stimulation of CeA circuitry can generate intense incentive motivation to pursue and consume a paired natural food, sex, or addictive drug reward, and even create maladaptive ‘wanting what hurts’ suc...
Article
The positive affect of rewards is an important contributor to well-being. Reward involves components of pleasure ‘liking’, motivation ‘wanting’, and learning. ‘Liking’ refers to the hedonic impact of positive events, with underlying mechanisms that include hedonic hotspots in limbic brain structures that amplify’ liking’ reactions. ‘Wanting’ refers...
Article
Background Corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) neural systems are important stress mechanisms in central amygdala (CeA), bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BNST), nucleus accumbens (NAc) and related structures. CRF-containing neural systems are traditionally posited to generate aversive distress states that motivate over-consumption of rewards and r...
Article
It is becoming clearer how neurobiological mechanisms generate ‘liking’ and ‘wanting’ components of food reward. Mesocorticolimbic mechanisms that enhance ‘liking’ include brain hedonic hotspots, which are specialized subregions that are uniquely able to causally amplify the hedonic impact of palatable tastes. Hedonic hotspots are found in nucleus...
Chapter
Addiction is characterized by excessive desire for a particular substance or behavioral incentive at the expense of other life rewards. Addictive desire can develop even in absence of any associated increase in pleasure, and also in absence of withdrawal. Here we review evidence that the brain mechanisms underlying desire or ‘wanting’ can operate i...
Article
Full-text available
How do brain mechanisms create maladaptive attractions? Here intense maladaptive attractions are created in laboratory rats by pairing optogenetic channelrhodopsin (ChR2) stimulation of central nucleus of amygdala (CeA) in rats with encountering either sucrose, cocaine, or a painful shock-delivering object. We find that pairings make the respective...
Chapter
The science of happiness is still in its infancy; there is little consensus on how happiness might be best defined, let alone studied. Still, the pursuit of happiness was inscribed in the American Constitution as a fundamental right, and recently governments around the world have started to measure the happiness and well-being of people as a measur...
Article
Microinjections of a glutamate AMPA antagonist (DNQX) in medial shell of nucleus accumbens (NAc) can cause either intense appetitive motivation (i.e., 'desire') or intense defensive motivation (i.e., 'dread'), depending on site along a flexible rostrocaudal gradient and on environmental ambience. DNQX, by blocking excitatory AMPA glutamate inputs,...
Article
Full-text available
The lateral hypothalamus (LH) includes several anatomical subregions involved in eating and reward motivation. This study explored localization of function across different LH subregions in controlling food intake stimulated by optogenetic channelrhodopsin excitation, and in supporting laser self-stimulation. We particularly compared the tuberal LH...
Article
The ventral pallidum (VP) is an important structure in processing reward. The VP may be the only brain structure where localized lesions in rats replace normal facial “liking” expressions to sweetness with excessive “disgust” reactions, such as gapes and chin rubs, that are normally reserved for unpalatable tastes. The posterior half of the VP (pVP...
Preprint
Full-text available
The lateral hypothalamus (LH) regulates eating and motivation, and includes several anatomical subregions. This study explored localization of function across different LH subregions in controlling food intake stimulated by optogenetic channelrhodopsin excitation, and in supporting laser self-stimulation. We particularly compared the tuberal LH, th...
Article
Two major questions about addictive behaviors need to be explained by any worthwhile neurobiological theory. First, why do people seek drugs in the first place? Second, why do some people who use drugs seem to eventually become unable to resist drug temptation and so become “addicted”? We will review the theories of addiction that address negative-...
Article
How do brain systems evaluate the affective valence of a stimulus — that is, its quality of being good or bad? One possibility is that a neural subsystem, or ‘module’ (such as a subregion of the brain, a projection pathway, a neuronal population or an individual neuron), is permanently dedicated to mediate only one affective function, or at least o...
Article
Full-text available
The nucleus accumbens (NAc) contains multiple subpopulations of medium spiny neurons (MSNs). One subpopulation expresses D1-type dopamine receptors, another expresses D2-type receptors, and a third expresses both. The relative roles in NAc of D1 neurons versus D2 neurons in appetitive motivation were assessed here. Specifically, we asked whether D1...
Data
D1 and D2 ChR2 spout self-stimulation. Video shows side by side comparisons of spout-based self-stimulation in D1 and D2 ChR2 mice. (Left) D1 ChR2 mice approach and show robust self-stimulation behavior, using mouth and forepaws to earn 1mW, 1s, constant laser illuminations. (Right) D2 ChR2 mice also seek out laser-paired bottle spouts and self-sti...
Article
Full-text available
This review takes a historical perspective on concepts in the psychology of motivation and emotion, and surveys recent developments, debates and applications. Old debates over emotion have recently risen again. For example, are emotions necessarily subjective feelings? Do animals have emotions? I review evidence that emotions exist as core psycholo...
Article
Affective neuroscience research has revealed that reward contains separable components of 'liking', 'wanting', and learning. Here we focus on current 'liking' and 'wanting' findings and applications to clinical disorders. 'Liking' is the hedonic impact derived from a pleasant experience, and is amplified by opioid and related signals in discrete si...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Stimulating either endogenous cannabinoids or opioids within a restricted dorsomedial “hedonic hotspot” in nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell enhances hedonic impact, or “liking” reactions to sweet tastes. In this study, we probed within this hotspot the relationship between endocannabinoid and opioid signals in hedonic enhancement. Materi...
Article
A new understanding of how the brain generates pleasure could lead to better treatment of addiction and depression—and even to a new science of happiness
Article
Hedonic hotspots are brain sites where particular neurochemical stimulations causally amplify the hedonic impact of sensory rewards, such as "liking" for sweetness. Here, we report the mapping of two hedonic hotspots in cortex, where mu opioid or orexin stimulations enhance the hedonic impact of sucrose taste. One hedonic hotspot was found in anter...
Article
Addiction is often characterized by intense motivation for a drug, which may be narrowly focused at the expense of other rewards. Here, we examined the role of amygdala-related circuitry in the amplification and narrowing of motivation focus for intravenous cocaine. We paired optogenetic channelrhodopsin (ChR2) stimulation in either central nucleus...
Article
Arguably, emotion is always valenced—either pleasant or unpleasant—and dependent on the pleasure system. This system serves adaptive evolutionary functions; relying on separable wanting, liking, and learning neural mechanisms mediated by mesocorticolimbic networks driving pleasure cycles with appetitive, consummatory, and satiation phases. Liking i...
Article
Full-text available
Where does normal brain or psychological function end, and pathology begin? The line can be hard to discern, making disease sometimes a tricky word. In addiction, normal ‘wanting’ processes become distorted and excessive, according to the incentive-sensitization theory. Excessive ‘wanting’ results from drug-induced neural sensitization changes in u...
Article
The Office of the Surgeon General recently produced its first Report on the consequences of alcohol and drug abuse on health, making several very laudable policy recommendations. The Report also emphasizes the importance of adequate funding for biomedical research, which is good news for both researchers and patients. However, the Report is marred...
Chapter
Drive and motivation are central to affective neuroscience. Here, we describe the development of conceptualizations from early behaviorist theories to contemporary theories linking motivation closely to reward. Current experimental data suggest key roles of drive and motivation in the wanting, liking, and learning processes underlying the pleasure...
Article
Rewards are both “liked” and “wanted,” and those 2 words seem almost interchangeable. However, the brain circuitry that mediates the psychological process of “wanting” a particular reward is dissociable from circuitry that mediates the degree to which it is “liked.” Incentive salience or “wanting,” a form of motivation, is generated by large and ro...
Article
Pavlovian cues for rewards can become attractive incentives: approached and 'wanted' as the rewards themselves. The motivational attractiveness of a previously learned cue is not fixed, but can be dynamically amplified during re-encounter by simultaneous activation of brain limbic circuitry. Here we report that opioid or dopamine microinjections in...
Article
The nucleus accumbens (NAc) contains a hedonic hotspot in the rostral half of medial shell, where opioid agonist microinjections are known to enhance positive hedonic orofacial reactions to the taste of sucrose ('liking' reactions). Within NAc shell, orexin/hypocretin also has been reported to stimulate food intake and is implicated in reward, wher...
Chapter
Throughout history, people were concerned with eating sufficiently to survive and reproduce. It is only recently with the advent of the modern food industry that the mass consumption of easily accessible high-calorie, tasty foods (e.g., high in sugars and/or fats) has produced an evolutionarily novel state in which many people eat too much and beco...
Article
Wanting (incentive salience) is a psychological process, triggered by rewards and their cues or imagery, which normally provides an ‘oomph’ that spurs motivation for objects of desire. Typically ‘wanting’ is in conformity with significant needs. But ‘wanting’ can sometimes dissociate from needs and from deliberative plans in maladaptive ways. Most...
Article
Full-text available
Self-grooming is a complex innate behaviour with an evolutionarily conserved sequencing pattern and is one of the most frequently performed behavioural activities in rodents. In this Review, we discuss the neurobiology of rodent self-grooming, and we highlight studies of rodent models of neuropsychiatric disorders - including models of autism spect...
Article
The hedonic value of a sweet food reward, or how much a taste is 'liked', has been suggested to be encoded by neuronal firing in the posterior ventral pallidum (VP). Hedonic impact can be altered by psychological manipulations, such as taste aversion conditioning, which can make an initially pleasant sweet taste become perceived as disgusting. Pair...
Article
Self-grooming is a commonly occurring, complex innate behavior with an evolutionarily conserved sequencing pattern. Here, we discuss the neurobiology of grooming, its circuitry, genetic mechanisms and novel approaches to behavioral and physiological analyses. We also highlight studies of grooming behavior in rodents as a valuable asset for basic, c...
Article
Amphetamine and stress can sensitize mesolimbic dopamine-related systems. In Pavlovian autoshaping, repeated exposure to uncertainty of reward prediction can enhance motivated sign-tracking or attraction to a discrete reward-predicting cue (lever-conditioned stimulus; CS+), as well as produce cross-sensitization to amphetamine. However, it remains...
Article
Full-text available
The study of the neural bases of eating behavior, hunger, and reward has consistently implicated the lateral hypothalamus (LH) and its interactions with mesocorticolimbic circuitry, such as mesolimbic dopamine projections to nucleus accumbens (NAc) and ventral pallidum (VP), in controlling motivation to eat. The NAc and VP play special roles in med...
Article
Pleasure is mediated by well-developed mesocorticolimbic circuitry and serves adaptive functions. In affective disorders, anhedonia (lack of pleasure) or dysphoria (negative affect) can result from breakdowns of that hedonic system. Human neuroimaging studies indicate that surprisingly similar circuitry is activated by quite diverse pleasures, sugg...
Article
Pavlovian cues associated with junk-foods (caloric, highly sweet, and/or fatty foods), like the smell of brownies, can elicit craving to eat and increase the amount of food consumed. People who are more susceptible to these motivational effects of food-cues may have a higher risk for becoming obese. Further, overconsumption of junk-foods leading to...
Article
Although AgRP and POMC neurons in the hypothalamus have long been associated with regulation of food intake, in this issue of Cell, Chen et al. use direct imaging in vivo to demonstrate rapid changes in their activity upon food presentation. The rapidity of their altered responses challenges classic notions of their functions and raises new hypothe...
Article
Choosing one reward above another is important for achieving adaptive life goals. Yet hijacked into excessive intensity in disorders such as addiction, single-minded pursuit becomes maladaptive. Here, we report that optogenetic channelrhodopsin stimulation of neurons in central nucleus of amygdala (CeA), paired with earning a particular sucrose rew...
Article
Disgust is a prototypical type of negative affect. In animal models of excessive disgust, only a few brain sites are known in which localized dysfunction (lesions or neural inactivations) can induce intense ‘disgust reactions’ (e.g. gapes) to a normally pleasant sensation such as sweetness. Here, we aimed to map forebrain candidates more precisely,...
Article
This article summarizes presentations from “Neurocognition: The Food–Brain Connection” symposium held at the ASN Scientific Sessions and Annual Meeting at Experimental Biology 2014 in San Diego, CA on 28 April 2014. Presenters reviewed research from several disciplines, including neurobiology, neuropsychology, cognitive neuroscience, and nutrition,...
Article
Evidence supports at least two methods for learning about reward and punishment and making predictions for guiding actions. One method, called model-free, progressively acquires cached estimates of the long-run values of circumstances and actions from retrospective experience. The other method, called model-based, uses representations of the enviro...
Article
Full-text available
A specialized cubic-millimeter hotspot in the rostrodorsal quadrant of medial shell in nucleus accumbens (NAc) of rats may mediate opioid enhancement of gustatory hedonic impact or "liking". Here, we selectively stimulated the three major subtypes of opioid receptors via agonist microinjections [mu (DAMGO), delta (DPDPE), or kappa (U50488H)] and co...
Chapter
Full-text available
Throughout history, people were concerned with eating sufficiently to survive and reproduce. It is only recently with the advent of the modern food industry that the mass consumption of easily accessible high-calorie, tasty foods (e.g., high in sugars and/or fats) has produced an evolutionarily novel state in which many people eat too much and beco...
Article
This chapter discusses how different forms of outcome utility are embedded in brain systems. Experienced utility, the actual pleasure of an outcome when received, is encoded by a neural activations in a network that includes limbic prefrontal cortex as well as deep brain structures below the cortex, but it is possible that causal generation of expe...
Chapter
Full-text available
Despite the best efforts of many people to maximize well-being, the human condition is still marred by great levels of unhappiness. Here we discuss how recent advances in the understanding of the human brain may offer some insights. In particular, progress has been made in understanding pleasure or positive affect (hedonia) and the underlying proce...
Article
Intense fearful behavior and/or intense appetitive eating behavior can be generated by localized amino acid inhibitions along a rostrocaudal anatomical gradient within medial shell of nucleus accumbens of the rat. This can be produced by microinjections in medial shell of either the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A agonist muscimol (mimicking intrinsic...
Article
Pavlovian cues [conditioned stimulus (CS+)] often trigger intense motivation to pursue and consume related reward [unconditioned stimulus (UCS)]. But cues do not always trigger the same intensity of motivation. Encountering a reward cue can be more tempting on some occasions than on others. What makes the same cue trigger more intense motivation to...
Article
Full-text available
Orexin (hypocretin) is implicated in stimulating appetite as well as arousal, and in both food reward and drug reward. The ventral pallidum (VP) receives orexin projections from lateral hypothalamus neurons (LH), and orexin terminals are especially dense in the posterior half of VP, which is also the location of an opioid hedonic hotspot. The VP ho...
Article
Affective neuroscience aims to understand how affect (pleasure or displeasure) is created by brains. Progress is aided by recognizing that affect has both objective and subjective features. Those dual aspects reflect that affective reactions are generated by neural mechanisms, selected in evolution based on their real (objective) consequences for g...
Article
Background: Learned cues for pleasant reward often elicit desire, which, in addicts, may become compulsive. According to the dominant view in addiction neuroscience and reinforcement modeling, such desires are the simple products of learning, coming from a past association with reward outcome. Results: We demonstrate that cravings are more than...
Article
Compulsive overconsumption of reward characterizes dis-orders ranging from binge eating to drug addiction. Here, we provide evidence that enkephalin surges in an anterome-dial quadrant of dorsal neostriatum contribute to generating intense consumption of palatable food. In ventral striatum, mu opioid circuitry contributes an important component of...
Article
Conditioned stimuli (CSs) come to act as motivational magnets following repeated association with unconditioned stimuli (UCSs) such as sucrose rewards. By traditional views, the more reliably predictive a Pavlovian CS-UCS association, the more the CS becomes attractive. However, in some cases, less predictability might equal more motivation. Here w...
Article
Background: Corticolimbic circuits, including direct projections from prefrontal cortex to nucleus accumbens (NAc), permit top-down control of intense motivations generated by subcortical circuits. In rats, localized disruptions of glutamate signaling within medial shell of NAc generate desire or dread, anatomically organized along a rostrocaudal...
Article
A new understanding of how the brain generates pleasure could lead to better treatment of addiction and depression—and even to a new science of happiness
Article
Reward contains separable psychological components of learning, incentive motivation and pleasure. Most computational models have focused only on the learning component of reward, but the motivational component is equally important in reward circuitry, and even more directly controls behavior. Modeling the motivational component requires recognitio...
Article
Pavlovian cues that have been paired with reward can gain incentive salience. Drug addicts find drug cues motivationally attractive and binge eaters are attracted by food cues. But the level of incentive salience elicited by a cue re-encounter still varies across time and brain states. In an animal model, cues become attractive and 'wanted' in an '...
Chapter
Full-text available
Incentive salience is a motivational magnet property attributed to reward-predicting conditioned stimuli (cues). This property makes the cue and its associated unconditioned reward ‘wanted’ at that moment, and pulls an individual’s behavior towards those stimuli. The incentive-sensitization theory of addiction posits that permanent changes in brain...
Article
This article focuses on the substantial progress in understanding the psychology and neurobiology of sensory pleasure that has been made over the last decade. The link between pleasure and happiness has a long history in psychology. The growing evidence for the importance of affect in psychology and neuroscience shows a scientific account that invo...
Article
Full-text available
Amygdala-related circuitry helps translate learned Pavlovian associations into appetitive and aversive motivation, especially upon subsequent encounters with cues. We asked whether μ-opioid stimulation via microinjections of the specific agonist D-Ala(2), N-MePhe(4), Gly-ol)-enkephalin (DAMGO) in central nucleus of amygdala (CeA), or the adjacent b...
Article
As part of a festschrift issue for Philip Teitelbaum, I offer here the thesis that Teitelbaum deserves to be viewed as an important forefather to the contemporary field of affective neuroscience (which studies motivation, emotion and affect in the brain). Teitelbaum's groundbreaking analyses of motivation deficits induced by lateral hypothalamic da...
Article
Full-text available
How is happiness generated via brain function in lucky individuals who have the good fortune to be happy? Conceptually, well-being or happiness has long been viewed as requiring at least two crucial ingredients: positive affect or pleasure (hedonia) and a sense of meaningfulness or engagement in life (eudaimonia). Science has recently made progress...
Article
Full-text available
The medial shell of nucleus accumbens (NAc) and its mesolimbic dopamine inputs mediate forms of fearful as well as of incentive motivation. For example, either appetitive and/or actively fearful behaviors are generated in a keyboard pattern by localized glutamate disruptions in NAc (via microinjection of the AMPA receptor antagonist DNQX) at differ...
Article
Full-text available
Multiple signals for reward-hedonic impact, motivation, and learned associative prediction-are funneled through brain mesocorticolimbic circuits involving the nucleus accumbens and ventral pallidum. Here, we show how the hedonic "liking" and motivation "wanting" signals for a sweet reward are distinctly modulated and tracked in this circuit separat...
Article
This chapter focuses on and provides a general overview of the incentive-sensitization theory of addiction. Through the years, it has been gradually recognized that drugs can cause complex changes in the brains of susceptible individuals, and that these changes contribute to the transition to addiction. Multiple symptoms of addiction are caused by...
Article
Glutamatergic inputs to the nucleus accumbens (NAc) modulate both appetitive and fearful motivation. It has been suggested that pathological disturbances of glutamate signaling in NAc contribute to motivation disorders, ranging from excessive desire in drug addiction to paranoia in schizophrenia. Metabotropic glutamate receptors are of special inte...
Article
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This article joins with others in the same issue to celebrate the career of Robert B. Zajonc who was a broad, as well as deeply talented, psychologist. Beyond his well-known focus in social psychology, the work of Zajonc also involved, at one time or another, forays into nearly every other subfield of psychology. This article focuses specifically o...
Article
Full-text available
Ever since William James, psychologists of emotion have tended to view affective states as intrinsically conscious. We argue that nonconscious affect also exists, and focus specifically on the possibility of unconscious "liking". We present evidence that positive and negative affective reactions can be elicited subliminally, while a person is compl...
Data
Muscimol and DNQX-induced changes in hedonic and aversive reactions. Hedonic (A) and aversive (B) reactions induced at 15 and 60 minutes post-microinjection, in saline, muscimol, DMSO/saline and DNQX drug conditions. Overall rostral rats (left) showed little overall changes in either behavior, whereas caudal rats (right) showed hedonic suppression...