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The review outlines the role of miRNAs in these natural animal models of environmental stress and adaptation that encompasses understanding the common elements of torpor/hibernation, anoxia/hypoxia tolerance, and freeze tolerance, as well as the lessons that can be applied to medical applications including in organ preservation/transplantation, inflammation, ageing, metabolic disorders such as obesity, mitochondrial dysfunction (mitoMirs) and the roles of temperature (CryomiRs) and oxygen-sensitive miRNAs (OxymiRs) in human health and disease. The review also covers differential regulation of conserved and novel miRNAs involved at cell, tissue, and stress specific levels across multiple species and their key roles in survival. Ultimately, the species-specific comparison and conserved miRNA responses seen in evolutionarily disparate animals can help us to understand the complex miRNA network involved in regulating and reorganizing metabolism to achieve diverse outcomes in human health and disease.
The freshwater crayfish, Orconectes virilis is one such example of an invertebrate that resides in shallow lakes and streams and is capable of surviving in low oxygen stress due to an array of biochemical and molecular adaptations. Under low availability of oxygen, these crustaceans regulate and balances energy expenses to maintain a state of low metabolic rate. They ultimately switch to anaerobic metabolism, as energy production via mitochondria in oxygen-dependent manner is halted. Studies from our lab in both anoxic vertebrate and invertebrate organisms have shown reversible post-translational modifications as well as control of regulation of translation and transcription facilitates metabolic depression [5, 6], but control over cell cycle has not yet been characterized for anoxia tolerant crayfish. This study focussed on the cell cycle and its regulators to provide an insight into its progression in response to anoxia in the freshwater crayfish, O. virilis.
The present study explores the Rb-E2F pathway in multiple tissues of thirteen-lined ground squirrel under euthermic and hibernating conditions to establish its role in cell cycle arrest and reduced transcription state via transcription suppression via E2F1.