Kenneth R. Paap

Kenneth R. Paap
San Francisco State University | SFSU · Department of Psychology

PhD

About

90
Publications
36,458
Reads
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5,035
Citations
Citations since 2017
19 Research Items
2224 Citations
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20172018201920202021202220230100200300400
20172018201920202021202220230100200300400
20172018201920202021202220230100200300400
Additional affiliations
August 2008 - present
San Francisco State University
Position
  • Professor
August 1975 - June 2004
New Mexico State University
Position
  • Professor, Psychology Department Head, Associate Dean

Publications

Publications (90)
Article
Full-text available
Language sciences have long maintained a close and supposedly necessary coupling between the infinite productivity of the human language faculty and recursive grammars. Because of the formal equivalence between recursion and nonrecursive iteration; recursion, in the technical sense, is never a necessary component of a generative grammar. Contrary t...
Presentation
When bilinguals are conversing in one language, the other language is coactivated. This point of consensus diverges to controversy regarding whether general inhibitory control is recruited to resolve the competition and if so, is this ubiquitous practice sufficient to enhance general executive functioning (EF) and transfer to nonverbal task interfe...
Article
Full-text available
Grundy, Bialystok, and colleagues have reported that at short response-stimulus intervals bilinguals have smaller sequential congruency effects in flanker tasks compared to monolinguals. They interpret these differences to mean that bilinguals are more efficient at disengaging attentional control. Ten empirical studies are presented that show no di...
Article
Full-text available
Five recent meta-analyses of the bilingual advantage in executive functioning hypothesis have converged on the outcome that the mean effect size is very small and that the incidence of statistically significant bilingual advantages is very low (about 15% of all comparisons). Those analyses that used the PET-PEESE method to correct for publication b...
Article
Full-text available
The adaptive control hypothesis developed by Green and Abutalebi is the most influential theory of bilingual language control. The focus of this article is on the predictions that other researchers have derived based on the three different modes of interactional context described by the hypothesis. Foremost, that dual-language contexts should enhan...
Poster
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Longitudinal cohort studies should be sensitive to the protective effects of bilingualism, if indeed, bilingualism does build cognitive reserve. The five studies using a prospective cohort design following individuals without dementia at baseline have all found no significant effects of bilingualism on the onset or incidence of dementia. Ironically...
Poster
Full-text available
There is increasing evidence that digital multitasking using various forms of media & technology (e.g., television, social media, smartphones) can have a range of positive and negative effects on task performance and learning. While the cognitive processes such as visuo-spatial reasoning and task switching that accompany these effects are starting...
Article
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A book review of Bilingualism, executive function, and beyond: Questions and insights.
Article
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Are Autism Quotient (AQ) scores related to executive functioning (EF)? We sampled 200 students of normal intelligence and examined the relationship between AQ scores and: (a) 5 self-ratings of EF, (b) 5 performance-based measures of EF, and (c) 5 types of activities or experiences that are assumed to recruit EF and sometimes enhance EF. Our finding...
Article
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Background: Two-hundred one college undergraduates completed four nonverbal interference tasks (Simon, spatial Stroop, vertical Stroop, and flanker) and trait scales of self-control and impulsivity. Regression analyses tested 11 predictors of the composite interference scores derived from three of the four tasks and each task separately. The purpo...
Article
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The purpose of the study was to investigate cross-language effects in verbal fluency tasks where participants name in English as many exemplars of a target as they can in one minute. A series of multiple regression models were used that employed predictors such as self-rated proficiency in English, self-rated proficiency in a language other than En...
Article
Full-text available
The bilingual advantage hypothesis is difficult to test for many reasons and one is the complexity of the executive functioning (EF) construct. The newest wave of meta‐anlayses on the bilingual advantage has minimized the apples and oranges problem by separately analysing results targeting inhibition, updating of working memory, and switching. This...
Article
Full-text available
A large sample (N = 141) of college students participated in both a conjunctive visual search task and an ambiguous figures task that have been used as tests of selective attention. Tests for effects of bilingualism on attentional control were conducted by both partitioning the participants into bilinguals and monolinguals and by treating bilingual...
Poster
Full-text available
Predictions ➢ If the revised hypothesis that bilingualism enhances selective attention is true, then bilingual advantages should occur in both the visual search and ambiguous figures tasks. ➢ If the results are consistent with recent meta-analyses of executive functioning, bilingualism should not enhance performance in the color-shape switching and...
Poster
Full-text available
An exploratory approach to future research directions in autism, cognitive control, and behavior
Presentation
Five databases were searched for documents satisfying this Boolean expression: bilingual AND ((Stroop OR Simon OR flanker OR ANT) OR (congruent AND incongruent)). Our intent was to find all studies that compared bilinguals to monolinguals on an RT difference score between the congruent and incongruent trials of a nonverbal interference task. The fu...
Poster
Full-text available
Bilingualism, Self-Control, and Impulsivity do not Predict Flanker, Simon, or Stroop-Like Interference: Gender Does
Presentation
More than 110 university students (60% bilinguals) completed four computer-controlled tasks reputed to measure different types of inhibitory control (flanker, Simon, spatial-Stroop, vertical Stroop), the self-control scale developed by Tangney, Baumeister, & Boone (2004), and three of the UPPS impulsive-behavior subscales (premeditation, urgency, p...
Article
Full-text available
Participants completed three cued-switching tasks, responded to two category-fluency probes, two letter-fluency probes, and two probes to alternate between two targets. Correlations across the three cued-switching tasks were significant for both switching costs and mixing costs. The bilingual advantage hypothesis was tested both by forming language...
Presentation
More than 200 SFSU students completed 3 standard switching tasks. We replicated Friedman, et al.’s report of significant correlations between the switching costs derived from each task. This substantial level of convergent validity felicitously contrasts with the dismal levels reported for common measures of inhibitory control and monitoring. There...
Article
Full-text available
This commentary on Garcia-Pentón, Fernández García, Costello, Duñabetia, and Carreiras [2015. The neuroanatomy of bilingualism: How to turn a hazy view into the full picture. Language, Cognition and Neuroscience] suggests that their review may have understated the inconsistencies among studies comparing the neuroanatomy of bilinguals to monolingual...
Article
Full-text available
The hypothesis that managing two languages enhances general executive functioning is examined. More than 80% of the tests for bilingual advantages conducted after 2011 yield null results and those resulting in significant bilingual advantages tend to have small sample sizes. Some published studies reporting significant bilingual advantages arguably...
Poster
Full-text available
Bilingual advantages in executive functioning (EF) compared to monolinguals are generally believed to be constrained to certain types of bilinguals and/or bilingual experiences (Bialystok, Craik, & Luk, 2012; Kroll & Bialystok, 2014). Recently, Verreyt, Woumans, Vandelanotte, Szmalec, & Duyck (2014) reported advantages of high-switch over low-switc...
Poster
Full-text available
When studies include both behavioral and neuroscience data, strong conclusions are sometimes made even when the behavioral evidence is weak- this practice could prove detrimental to cumulative progress. We suggest that in at least one controversial research domain (bilingual advantages in executive functioning (EF)), that the behavioral variables a...
Article
Full-text available
In this special issue on the brain mechanisms that lead to cognitive benefits of bilingualism we discussed six reasons why it will be very difficult to discover those mechanisms. Many of these problems apply to the article by Fernandez, Acosta, Douglass, Doshi, and Tartar that also appears in the special issue. These concerns include the following:...
Article
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The hypothesis that coordinating two or more languages leads to an enhancement in executive functioning has been intensely studied for the past decade with very mixed results. The purpose of this review and analysis is to consider why it has been (and will continue to be) difficult to discover the brain mechanisms underlying any cognitive benefits...
Article
Full-text available
A sample of 58 bilingual and 62 monolingual university students completed four tasks commonly used to test for bilingual advantages in executive functioning (EF): antisaccade, flanker, Simon, and color-shape switching. Across the four tasks, 13 different indices were derived that are assumed to reflect individual differences in inhibitory control,...
Article
Full-text available
Paap and Greenberg concluded that there is no coherent evidence for bilingual advantages in executive processing. More optimistic researchers believe that the advantages may be restricted to certain types of bilinguals. Recent large-scale and lifespan investigations that tested highly fluent bilinguals from communities where the same two languages...
Article
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Kroll andBialystok assert thatmanaging two languages leads to a reorganisation of the neural circuits involved in language and cognitive processing and to bilingual advantages in executive functioning. This commentary documents that bilingual advantages in inhibitory control, switching and monitoring are difficult to replicate. Kroll and Bialystok...
Article
Full-text available
The primary purpose of this study was to test for bilingual advantages in conflict resolution during sentence processing. Experiment 1 examined the time-course of a homograph-interference effect when test words were either presented immediately after the sentence-final word or after a delay. Bilinguals and monolinguals were equally adept at using t...
Article
Full-text available
In her acknowledgments Valian 2014 speculates that some of her colleagues may agree with at least some of her conclusions. I agree with most. These include that bilingualism is inconsistently correlated with superior executive function, that the overall benefits of bilingualism reported in some experiments may signify benefits unrelated to executiv...
Article
Full-text available
Three studies compared bilinguals to monolinguals on 15 indicators of executive processing (EP). Most of the indicators compare a neutral or congruent baseline to a condition that should require EP. For each of the measures there was no main effect of group and a highly significant main effect of condition. The critical marker for a bilingual advan...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The AutOMathic Blocks system has been developed to help young blind students in the acquisition of elementary math skills. Through the use of Braille labeled blocks, a plastic grid, a touchpad device and any computer, the system has been defined to aid the young student in this most important domain of education. Without these basic skills, student...
Article
Full-text available
Three experiments using the Reicher task show that performance on low-frequency words is disrupted if the incorrect alternative forms a higher frequency word. This neighborhood frequency effect occurs for both energy and pattern masks and for different sets of items. When the upcoming word is primed and its accessibility is enhanced, the neighborho...
Article
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Two experiments were designed to test discrete-threshold models of letter and word recognition against models that assume that decision criteria are applied to measures of continuous strength. Although our goal is to adjudicate this matter with respect to broad classes of models, some of the specific predictions for discrete-threshold are generated...
Article
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P. A Pexman and S. I. Lupker (1995, 1998) reported 6 failures to replicate the 3-way interaction obtained by K. R. Paap and R. W. Noel (1991) and C. M. Herdman and B. Beckett (1996). The current authors argue that Pexman and Lupker's failures to replicate can be attributed to 2 factors: (a) their memory-load task did not redirect participants' atte...
Article
P. A Pexman and S. I. Lupker (1995, 1998) reported 6 failures to replicate the 3-way interaction obtained by K. R. Paap and R. W. Noel (1991) and C. M. Herdman and B. Beckett (1996). The current authors argue that Pexman and Lupker's failures to replicate can be attributed to 2 factors: (a) their memory-load task did not redirect participants' atte...
Chapter
A menu is defined as a set of options, displayed on the screen, where the selection and execution of one, or more, of the options results in a change in the state of the interface. It is useful to consider the prototypical characteristics of a menu-driven interface. Menu panels usually consist of a list options. The options may consist of words or...
Article
Full-text available
The method of positron emission tomography (PET imaging) illustrates the circular logic popular in subtractive neuroimaging and linear reductive cognitive psychology. Both require that strictly feed-forward, modular, cognitive components exist, before the fact, to justify the inference of particular components from images (or other observables) aft...
Article
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Although predominant accounts of the word superiority effect (WSE) as produced by the Reicher–Wheeler task (Reicher, 1969; Wheeler, 1970) emphasize an orthographic code, evidence is mounting that a phonological code may have a role in the performance of other tasks. The present study tested the influence of a phonological code as a determinant of p...
Article
Full-text available
The assumptions of the activation-verification model regarding the role of word frequency in lexical access were investigated in 2 experiments. Experiment 1 demonstrated that robust frequency effects occur in a standard lexical decision task in which the target remains in view until the subject responds. In Experiment 2 the same materials were foll...
Article
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the intent of this chapter is to provide a defense of dual-route models for reading aloud / it has two major themes / one of these is our [the authors'] view of the essential characteristics of a viable dual-route theory / the thesis advanced is that a model should be considered dual-route if there are functionally independent routines that operate...
Article
Cognitive psychologists have discovered that reading represents a natural laboratory for studying almost all cognitive processes: from sensation and perception to comprehension and reasoning. This introductory-level textbook examines the psychology of reading and the important cognitive principles that pertain to it. Though grounded in the latest r...
Article
Full-text available
Dual-route models assume that pronunciations are generated along both a lexical route and a nonlexical route. The lexical route has been characterized as more automatic. Accordingly, if the naming task is paired with a concurrent task, then the nonlexical route should be more susceptible to interference than the lexical pathway. A relative slowing...
Article
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focuses on some issues concerning the sensitivity and reliability of distance estimates derived from ratings / the primary issue concerns the type of measurement scale inherent in a proximity matrix derived from ratings / began with the working hypothesis that judges are able to make very fine discriminations between pairs of concepts that are obvi...
Article
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At a symbolic level cognition can be modelled as a production system where meaning units are represented as condition-action rules. Anderson (1982, 1987) provides a good example of how learning can occur with this type of knowledge representation. At a subsymbolic level cognition can be modelled with a connectionist network where meaning units are...
Article
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When a menu-driven interface controls information in the domain of expertise of the end users, the difficulty that inexperienced users typically have in accessing the panels they seek can be reduced by making the menu organization consistent with the user's cognitive organization. A general tool for deriving a cognitive network is described and app...
Article
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An evaluation is made of the effects of the 'funneling' phenomenon, in an analysis of hierarchical menu structures' optimal search times which builds on the work of Lee and MacGregor (1985). Funneling is a reduction in the total number of options processed through the design of a system of greater choice 'depth' and correspondingly restricted choic...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper we propose a formal interface design methodology based on user knowledge. The general methodology consists of 1) obtaining distance estimates for pairs of system units (objects, actions, concepts), 2) transforming the distance estimates using scaling techniques (e.g., Pathfinder network analysis), and 3) organizing the system interfac...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This experiment was conducted to generate menus for a command language based on the cognitive structures of expert and naive users. Expert and novice menus were generated from networks derived by applying a network analysis algorithm (Pathfinder) to similarity ratings of command functions. The results of a second experiment to test the effectivenes...
Article
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Two studies were conducted to test the hypothesis that performance of cognitive tasks tends to induce outward shifts in ocular accommodation that, in turn, result in changes in perceived size. In the first study, 12 subjects participated in each of 4 conditions; rest or performance of a running-memory task each with either visual or auditory stimul...
Article
Attention is given to a technique for the derivation of pilot cognitive networks from empirical data, which has been successfully used to guide the redesign of the Control Display Unit that serves as the primary interface of the complex flight management system being developed by NASA's Advanced Concepts Flight Simulator program. The 'pathfinder' a...
Article
Full-text available
Current models of fluent reading often assume that fast and automatic word recognition involves the use of a supraletter feature corresponding to the envelope or shape of the word when it is printed in lowercase. The advantages of mixed case over pure case and of pure lowercase over pure uppercase have often been taken as evidence favoring the word...
Article
• Current models of fluent reading often assume that fast and automatic word recognition involves the use of supraletter feature corresponding to the envelope or shape of the word when it is printed in lowercase. The advantages of mixed case over pure case and of pure lowercase over pure uppercase have often been taken as evidence favoring the word...
Article
Full-text available
Developed an activation–verification model for letter and word recognition that yields predictions of 2-alternative forced-choice performance for 864 individual stimuli that are either words, orthographically regular nonwords, or orthographically irregular nonwords. The model explains why letters embedded in words are recognized more accurately tha...
Article
Full-text available
Marcel (1978) has shown that semantic priming can occur in the lexical-decision task even if the prime is masked to the point at which its presence cannot be detected. The purpose of the present experiments was to determine if primes that begin four or five spaces to the right of fixation can also produce semantic facilitation even though they are...
Article
Full-text available
Used a classification task to compare the processing demands of letter primes that were to be ignored and had no predictive utility to letter primes that were to be processed and were highly predictive. Approximately 12 undergraduates participated. When Ss deliberately attended to a letter prime, encoding produced more interference (Exp I), but eit...
Article
Full-text available
Subjects were required to search through four-letter displays for one member from the target set M, N, P, or R. The displays were words, pseudowords, or consonant strings. The results show that significant word superiority effects occur when target location is unknown, but that a location precue can eliminate these benefits of lexical context. Anal...
Article
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In 3 experiments with a total of 41 undergraduates, secondary task performance was used to evaluate the attentional demands of encoding the 1st letter in a sequential letter-match task. In Exps I and II, simple reaction times to secondary task stimuli when the primary letter-match task required letter coding were slower than when coding was not req...
Article
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Purcell, Stanovich, and Spector 119781 report that recognition of the center letter of the words APE, ARE, ACE, and AGE is superior to recognition of the same targets in the nonwords formed by the context letters V_H. Since a small set of predesignated targets was used and there was complete certainty about the location of the target letter, these...
Article
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Fixating a target for 6 min was shown to produce distance aftereffects that varied in direction and magnitude as a linear function of the convergence angle. Eye-specific direction aftereffects also were obtained in a nasal direction under conditions that produce increased perceived distance and in a temporal direction under conditions that produce...
Article
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Two initial experiments demonstrated that direction aftereffects of potentiation in the extraocular muscles (induced through sustained versional rotation to the side) generally increase as a function of the magnitude and duration of the inducing ocular rotation and can be built up under conditions of varied as well as constant fixation. The results...
Article
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Typescript. Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Wisconsin--Madison, 1975. Vita. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 135-145).
Article
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In four experiments Ss were exposed to wedge prisms or maintained an asymmetrical eye and head posture in order to induce a shift in the apparent direction of gaze. Systematic changes in the apparent orientation of a line target were obtained as inferred from an assumed algorithm relating optical input and registered direction of gaze.
Chapter
This chapter discusses the theories of speech perception. The process of speech perception requires an analysis and decoding of the acoustic information available in the sound pattern. The auditory receptor system receives a sound pattern that can be described by fluctuations in sound pressure over time. The feature detection process determines the...
Article
Full-text available
When a thin horizontal line is displaced, either left or right of straight ahead, or when a vertical line is displaced up or down, systematic changes occur in the binocular disparity associated with the target. In threeexperiments, Ss matched the orientation of displaced targets with a variable comparison line. Estimates of apparent displacement wi...