Kenneth Mitton

Kenneth Mitton
Oakland University · Eye Research Institute

BSc, PhD (Biochemistry)

About

60
Publications
13,619
Reads
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1,707
Citations
Additional affiliations
August 2001 - present
Oakland University
Position
  • Associate Professor of Biomedical Sciences
Description
  • Control of Gene Expression Lab (Mitton Lab) Director of ERI Molecular and Cell Biology Support Module Director of Operations, Live Ocular Imaging and ERG, Pediatric Retinal Research Lab Vice Chair OU-IACUC Vice President OU-AAUP
August 1997 - present
University of Michigan
Position
  • PostDoc Position
July 1995 - July 1997
National Institutes of Health
Position
  • Visiting Fellow

Publications

Publications (60)
Data
Full-text available
Neural retina leucine zipper (NRL) is an essential transcription factor for cell fate specification and functional maintenance of rod photoreceptors in the mammalian retina. In the Nrl�/� mouse retina, photoreceptor precursors fail to produce rods and generate functional cone photoreceptors that predominantly express S-opsin. Previous global expres...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: The histone-deacetylase inhibitor activity of valproic acid (VPA) was discovered after VPA's adoption as an anticonvulsant. This generated speculation for VPA's potential to increase the expression of neuroprotective genes. Clinical trials for retinitis pigmentosa (RP) are currently active, testing VPA's potential to reduce photoreceptor...
Article
Purpose: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is directly associated with abnormal expression of retinal vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in premature neonates. This study was to investigate whether the systemic administration of retinoic acid (RA) regulates retinal VEGF expression and prevents retinal neovascularization and retinopathy in th...
Article
Purpose: Inhibition of VEGF is widely used in patients to control neovascularization and decrease vascular permeability. To date, the effect of VEGF inhibition has not been evaluated in the developing retina such as that seen in premature infants. The goal of this study was to address the effect of anti-VEGF treatment on retinal development of a m...
Article
Full-text available
During retinal development, post-mitotic neural progenitor cells must activate thousands of genes to complete synaptogenesis and terminal maturation. While many of these genes are known, others remain beyond the sensitivity of expression microarray analysis. Some of these elusive gene activation events can be detected by mapping changes in RNA poly...
Article
Full-text available
While Inherited Retinal Diseases (IRDs) are typically considered rare diseases, Familial Exudative Vitreo-Retinopathy (FEVR) and Norrie Disease (ND) are more rare than retinitis pigmentosa. We wanted to determine if multigenic protein-altering variants are common in FEVR subjects within a set of FEVR-related genes. The potential occurrence of prote...
Article
Purpose: There are reports that a b-isoform of vascular endothelial growth factor-A 165 (VEGFA165b) is predominant in normal human vitreous, switching to the a-isoform (VEGFA165a) in the vitreous of some diseased eyes. Although these isoforms appear to have a different ability to activate the VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2) in various endothelial cells,...
Preprint
Purpose Studies show that the b-isoform of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-A-165 (VEGFA 165 b) is predominant in normal human vitreous, switching to the a-isoform (VEGFA 165 a) in the vitreous of eyes with active diabetic retinopathy or ROP. The potential of this isoform-switching to impact the retinal vasculature is not clear, particularly in p...
Preprint
Purpose Bipolar cells can perish during inner retinal ischemia resulting from disruption of the inner retinal microvasculature. Can surviving inner retinal neurons recover and integrate into the functional network after ischemic damage? Using the mouse oxygen induced retinopathy (OIR) model, we applied focal-ERG to determine if B-wave recovery occu...
Article
Full-text available
The data presented in this article are related to the research paper entitled “Norrin treatment improves ganglion cell survival in an oxygen-induced model of retinal ischemia” (Dailey et al., 2017) [1] This article describes treatment with the human Norrin protein, an atypical Wnt-protein, to improve the survival of retinal ganglion cells in a muri...
Article
Treatment of a mouse model of oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) with recombinant human Norrin (Norrie Disease Protein, gene: NDP) accelerates regrowth of the microvasculature into central ischemic regions of the neural retina, which are generated after treatment with 75% oxygen. While this reduces the average duration and severity of ischemia overal...
Article
Investigating molecular mechanisms involved in the formation of carotid atherosclerotic plaques has been challenging. Isolating high-quality RNA from plaque tissue can be difficult because of acellularity, calcification, and degradation. It is essential that the mRNA isolated from this tissue preserves and reflects the actual relative gene expressi...
Article
Full-text available
Neural retina leucine zipper (NRL) is an essential transcription factor for cell fate specification and functional maintenance of rod photoreceptors in the mammalian retina. In the Nrl−/− mouse retina, photoreceptor precursors fail to produce rods and generate functional cone photoreceptors that predominantly express S-opsin. Previous global expres...
Article
Full-text available
NRL (Neural Retina Leucine zipper) is an essential transcription factor for cell fate specification and functional maintenance of rod photoreceptors in the mammalian retina. In the Nrl-/- mouse retina, photoreceptor precursors fail to produce rods and generate functional cone photoreceptors that predominantly express S-opsin. Previous global expres...
Article
Full-text available
Eukaryotic DNA is organized as a nucleoprotein polymer termed chromatin with nucleosomes serving as its repetitive architectural units. Cellular differentiation is a dynamic process driven by activation and repression of specific sets of genes, partitioning the genome into transcriptionally active and inactive chromatin domains. Chromatin architect...
Article
Full-text available
FIZ1 (Flt-3 Interacting Zinc-finger) is a broadly expressed protein of unknown function. We reported previously that in the mammalian retina, FIZ1 interacts with NRL (Neural-Retina Leucine-zipper), an essential transcriptional activator of rod photoreceptor-specific genes. The concentration of FIZ1 in the retina increases during photoreceptor termi...
Article
Full-text available
To characterize gene expression patterns in guinea pig ocular tissues and identify orthologs of human genes from NEIBank expressed sequence tags. RNA was extracted from dissected eye tissues of 2.5-month-old guinea pigs to make three unamplified and unnormalized cDNA libraries in the pCMVSport-6 vector for the lens, retina, and eye minus lens and r...
Article
Full-text available
FIZ1 (Flt-3 Interacting Zinc-finger) interacts and co-purifies with the rod-specific transcription factor NRL (Neural Retina Leucine zipper). We hypothesize that FIZ1 is part of an interface between cell-specific factors, like NRL, and more ubiquitous regulatory networks that vary the absolute expression levels of some rod-specific genes (i.e. Rhod...
Chapter
This chapter discusses the effect of alcohol on eye diseases. Although alcoholics and people using three drinks of alcoholic beverages per day have increased risk of cataract and aging diseases of the eye, moderate consumption of alcohol appears to reduce risk of these diseases. The risk of cataracts shows a J-shaped response to consumption of alco...
Article
Full-text available
The basic motif-leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factor NRL controls the expression of rhodopsin and other phototransduction genes and is a key mediator of photoreceptor differentiation. To delineate the molecular mechanisms underlying transcriptional initiation of rod-specific genes, we characterized different regions of the NRL protein using y...
Article
Full-text available
NR2E3, a photoreceptor-specific orphan nuclear receptor, is believed to play a pivotal role in the differentiation of photoreceptors. Mutations in the human NR2E3 gene and its mouse ortholog are associated with enhanced S-cones and retinal degeneration. In order to gain insights into the NR2E3 function, we performed temporal and spatial expression...
Article
Full-text available
NRL (neural retina leucine zipper) is a basic motif leucine zipper transcription factor of the Maf-subfamily. Multiple phosphorylated isoforms of NRL are detected specifically in rod photoreceptors. NRL regulates the expression of several rod-specific genes, including rhodopsin and cGMP phosphodiesterase beta-subunit, in synergy with other transcri...
Chapter
Most of us take vision for granted. If we encounter difficulty seeing, we react, looking around the head of the person sitting in front of us at the theatre, or straining to see the white line on the highway as we drive in fog or snowstorm. Such experiences can remind us just how important our vision is.
Article
Scanning electron microscopy of the lenses from transgenic mice (TG(72)) containing the HIV-1 protease linked to the lens alphaA-crystallin promoter showed structural changes around postnatal day 16. Frank opacification of the lens was observed at day 24. To relate the biochemical and biophysical changes that occur during the process of cataract de...
Article
Full-text available
Photoreceptor-specific expression of rhodopsin is mediated by multiple cis-acting elements in the proximal promoter region. NRL (neural retina leucine zipper) and CRX (cone rod homeobox) proteins bind to the adjacent NRE and Ret-4 sites, respectively, within this region. Although NRL and CRX are each individually able to induce rhodopsin promoter a...
Article
Full-text available
Photoreceptor-specific expression of rhodopsin is mediated by multiple cis-acting elements in the proximal promoter region. NRL (neural retina leucine zipper) and CRX (cone rod homeobox) proteins bind to the adjacent NRE and Ret-4 sites, respectively, within this region. Although NRL and CRX are each individually able to induce rhodopsin promoter a...
Article
The concentration of taurine and the amino acids, glutathione, cysteine, ascorbate and ATP were determined in the lenses of rats made diabetic with streptozotocin. In the clear lenses, prior to vacuole formation after 1 or 2 weeks of diabetes, the increase in concentration of sorbitol and the total decrease of all these osmolytes were not significa...
Article
Full-text available
The percent solubility at 34 degrees C (skin temperature) of radioactive tocopherol succinate was determined for a number of edible oils, and a semisynthetic oil, Myritol 318 (Henkel, Kankakee, IL, a medium chain triglyceride prepared from fractionated coconut oil). Its solubility in Myritol 318 was approximately 50% better than any of the other oi...
Article
Full-text available
Human trabecular meshwork (HTM) cells were mechanically stretched in vitro as a potential model for the distension of this tissue that can occur in vivo in response to increased pressure gradients. Cell morphology and certain components of the signal transduction pathways, including the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and c-Jun N-terminal p...
Article
A decrease in phase separation temperature, prior to nuclear cataract, has been correlated with elevated free amino acid content. Hence, we determined how selenite-induced stress alters free amino acid pools in the rat lens, following a single subcutaneous dose of sodium selenite (30 nmol g-1 body weight) in 10- to 14-day-old Sprague Dawley rats. O...
Article
Human trabecular meshwork (HTM) is distended and stretched with increases in intraocular pressure. During this stretching, there is a rearrangement of actin filaments. The HTM cells express alpha B-crystallin, a small heat shock protein that may have a role in the stabilization and regulation of the cytoskeleton in mammalian cells. The levels of al...
Article
Glutathione (GSH) loss precedes vacuole formation in the diabetic rat lens, but the cause of this loss is not known. Cysteine availability is a rate limiting factor to glutathione biosynthesis in rat and human lenses but its concentration is not known; therefore free cysteine was measured prior to lens hydration in the diabetic rat lens. GSH can re...
Article
Full-text available
Transgenic mice, homozygous for HIV-1 protease expression in the eye lens, display degradation of some lens crystallins and cytoskeletal proteins prior to cataract formation on postnatal days 23-25. Alterations to the internal lens hydration state also occur; therefore, the status of the aquaporin protein MIP26 was examined over postnatal days 16-2...
Article
Purpose: Since the protein content of aqueous humor (AH) can vary, we investigated the effect of changing serum levels on human trabecular meshwork (HTM) cells. Methods: Cultured HTM cells were shifted from 20% to 0% fetal bovine serum. After 24 hours, the levels of the most prominent proteins phosphorylated on tyrosine (P-Y) residues, ccB-crystall...
Article
Purpose: Methylthiazolidine carboxylic acid (MTCA), a prodrug for cysteine, may increase glutathione synthesis. Lenses from rats treated with selenite have decreased total glutathione (GSH). Hence, MTCA may inhibit formation of the selenite cataract Methods: Preweanling Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with a single subcutaneous dose of 30 nmol so...
Article
Purpose. Mice, homozygous for lens-specific HIV-1 protease expression, display degradation of some lens crystallins and cytoskeletal proteins upon cataract formation on post-natal days 23-25. Alterations to the internal lens hydration state also occur, therefore the status of aquaporin-0 (AQP-0) was examined over post-natal days 16-25 to determine...
Article
Selenite treatment of the preweanling rat stabilized the transparency of the lens nucleus to decreasing temperature. Hence, we compared properties of the cortex and nucleus from lenses of selenite-treated and age-matched control rats. A subcutaneous dose of 30 nmol Na2SeO3/g body weight was administered to 10- to 13-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats. Uni...
Article
Full-text available
Lenses from selenite-treated animals develop reversible "cold cataract" at a lower temperature than is required for lenses from age-matched control animals. This unexplained, stabilized phase transition is readily observed in intact lenses 36 to 48 hours after treatment and occurs in lenses before the appearance of the irreversible nuclear opacity...
Article
Full-text available
The HPLC-EC method has good specificity for the analysis of glutathione, tocopherol, and ascorbate. The same HPLC system can be used for all three analysis with changes of mobile phase and the electrode cell to match the procedure required. The same C18 reversed-phase column has been used with a refillable guard column for 3 years with no noticeabl...
Article
Full-text available
The effect of cytochalasin D (CD), an actin monomer stabilizer, has been studied on cataract development on rat lenses, cataractogenesis was induced by incubating the rat lenses in medium 199 containing 10-5M CD.; by the end of 24 h, lenses first developed a visible opacity, The increased lactate dehysrogenase (LDH) activity in the culture medium,...
Article
Full-text available
Radioactive tocopherol acetate was diluted with either (1) unlabelled tocopherol acetate or (2) Delios S (Henkel, a medium chain triglyceride prepared from fractionated coconut oil), a cosmetic base. These preparations were applied topically to a 2 cm diameter circle of skin. After 24 hours the percent of label which was still removable by swabbing...
Article
Full-text available
The skin of the skh-1 mouse after ultraviolet B (280-320 nm, UVB) irradiation shows the pathological changes typical of sunburn damage: spongiosis (edematous spaces) around some cells, necrosis of keratinocytes, giving rise to sunburn cells, inflammatory infiltration of polymorphonuclear leucocytes, etc. In our previous study, these were accompanie...
Article
A possible contribution to cell toxicity in the diabetic lens due to early ATP loss is not well characterized prior to the appearance of vacuoles in the lens. Changes in lens ATP levels at longer periods of hyperglycaemia (6-8 weeks) have been reported. We used [31P]NMR analysis of lens extracts at three time periods, comparing diabetic to concurre...
Article
The fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe utilizes acetate at subinhibitory concentrations in the presence of D-glucose. The nonionized form of acetate is preferentially utilized, oxidized to 14CO2, and assimilated into lipids and proteins. Acetyl CoA synthetase activity greatly increases in the yeast cells grown in media containing acetate. Howe...
Article
Normal and streptozotocin diabetic female Wistar rats were given vitamin E in the diet as the tocopherol, acetate, or succinate form (2,850 IU/kg food). At the end of 6 weeks, the rats were examined for weight gain or loss, general body condition, and cataracts. At sacrifice, blood was collected for measurement of serum glucose, and gamma-crystalli...
Article
As a model system rat lenses (Wistar) were isolated and cultured intact in medium M199 or M199 with 55 mM glucose. Glucose-stressed lenses developed opacities within 20 hours while control lenses remained clear. The comparative functionality of lenses was examined by two different video/computer-based imaging systems: one based on image analyses of...
Article
Alcohol dehydrogenases from various animal and plant sources were purified by a common procedure which employed DEAE, Sephadex-G100 and affinity chromatographies. The procedure achieves an 80-130 fold purification for animal enzymes. However, only a 5-15 fold purification for plant enzymes was attained because of the instability of these enzymes. P...

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