Kenneth E. Leonard

Kenneth E. Leonard
University at Buffalo, The State University of New York | SUNY Buffalo · Research Institute on Addictions

PhD

About

276
Publications
26,422
Reads
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11,979
Citations
Citations since 2016
43 Research Items
4168 Citations
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20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500600
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500600
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500600
Additional affiliations
January 2000 - December 2012
September 1981 - February 1986
Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic
Position
  • PostDoc Position
January 1979 - December 1983
Kent State University
Education
June 1976 - September 1981
Kent State University
Field of study
  • Clinical Psychology

Publications

Publications (276)
Article
Full-text available
Men's heavy drinking has been established as a risk factor for their perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV); however, the role of women's drinking in their perpetration of IPV is less clear. The current study examined the relative strength of husbands' and wives' alcohol use and alcohol dependence symptoms on the occurrence and frequency o...
Article
Full-text available
We examined the role of anger, hostility, and aggression, in addition to depression and stress, in predicting persistent smoking during pregnancy in a low-income sample. The sample consisted of 270 pregnant women (189 smokers, 81 nonsmokers) recruited into a prospective study of prenatal cigarette exposure in the first trimester. Persistent pregnan...
Article
Alcohol problems are one of the most well-established risk factors for physical intimate partner violence. Nonetheless, most individuals who drink heavily do so without ever aggressing against a partner. Laboratory research identifies hostility as an important moderator of the association between alcohol and general aggression, and correlational re...
Article
The short-term consequences of drinking events may be positive or negative. Most studies have considered only one outcome, but people may experience different alcohol outcomes on different occasions, depending on the circumstances. The present study sought to identify predictors of drinking events that resulted in couple intimacy, conflict, or neit...
Article
Full-text available
(1) Background: Gender differences between men’s and women’s parenting roles are well-documented as the “second shift”. We examined the main effects and interaction of work distress and parenting distress with energy (i.e., vigor) in a sample of 310 dual-income, different-sex couples with kids married for approximately nine years. (2) Methods: We u...
Article
Objective: Alcohol use is an established risk factor for intimate partner aggression (IPA); however, few studies have considered whether couple drinking episodes increase the short-term likelihood of IPA episodes. The present ecological momentary assessment study considered the temporal effects of alcohol consumption on IPA perpetration and victim...
Article
Background: Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a highly prevalent public health problem that contributes to opioid- and benzodiazepine-related morbidity and mortality. Even though co-utilization of these substances is particularly harmful, data are sparse on opioid or benzodiazepine prescribing patterns among individuals with AUD. Objective: To estim...
Preprint
BACKGROUND Large gaps exist in research on alcohol use and intimate partner aggression (IPA) among sexual minority women (SMW; e.g., lesbian, bisexual). Dyadic research with SMW and their partners can illuminate how couple-level factors operate in conjunction with individual-level factors to shape well-being in this understudied and vulnerable popu...
Article
Background Large gaps exist in research on alcohol use and intimate partner aggression (IPA) among sexual minority women (SMW; eg, lesbian, bisexual). Dyadic research with SMW and their partners can illuminate how couple-level factors operate in conjunction with individual-level factors to shape well-being in this understudied and vulnerable popula...
Article
Schizotypy and its associated features—negative schizotypy, disorganization, and positive schizotypy—are correlated with increased cannabis use. Yet, it is unclear whether cannabis users with schizotypy are at greater risk of developing cannabis problems. Individuals with elevated schizotypy may be particularly vulnerable to cannabis problems. It i...
Article
Background: Heavy alcohol consumption and frequent alcohol use are associated with many adverse social and physical consequences. The different motivations underlying why people drink predict different patterns of alcohol consumption. A drinking buddy (i.e. a friend with whom a person drinks alcohol) influences a person’s drinking via social learni...
Article
Objectives The types of opioids abused in the United States have changed from prescription opioids to heroin to fentanyl. However, the types of opioids abused may differ by demographic factors, especially among middle-aged adults. We examined national trends in opioid overdose mortality rates among middle-aged adults by race/ethnicity and sex. Met...
Article
Full-text available
The partner influence hypothesis postulates one partner's alcohol use influences the other partner’s alcohol use over time. While several studies have examined the partner influence hypothesis, the magnitude and gender-specific nature of partner influences on alcohol use are unclear and have yet to be examined meta-analytically. We addressed this b...
Article
Intimate relationship functioning depends upon the ability to accommodate one's partner and to inhibit retaliatory and aggressive impulses when disagreements arise. However, accommodation and inhibition may be difficult when self‐control strength is weak or depleted by prior exertion of self‐control. The present study considered whether state self‐...
Article
Full-text available
We examined associations between early childhood (first 3 years of life) risk and protective factors and resilience against adolescent substance use in a prospective sample of alcoholic and non-alcoholic families. We defined resilience as low or no substance use in the context of adversity (having a father with alcohol problems). The sample include...
Article
In this research, we integrate attachment theory and dyadic methodology to examine how attachment anxiety and avoidance might interact with marital conflict to influence alcohol consumption, drinking motives, and alcohol-related problems in a sample of 280 married and cohabiting couples over 3 years. Both husband and wife attachment anxiety were re...
Article
Exposure to marital conflict has been identified as a risk factor for teen dating violence (TDV). Given the high rates of marital conflict observed in families affected by paternal alcoholism, children of alcoholic fathers may be at increased risk for TDV. Positive parenting behaviors are protective against TDV in general, but whether they can atte...
Article
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the most common injuries among Veterans of Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF). TBI can negatively affect Veterans' close relationships, undermining an important source of support to aid recovery and rehabilitation. Given the complex symptom profile of TBI, the present research a...
Article
Objective: Although research has documented harms associated with drinking within intimate relationships, there is evidence that some drinking patterns-characterized by congruent or shared partner drinking-may be associated with positive relationship functioning. The present dyadic daily diary study allowed us to consider whether congruent drinkin...
Article
Excessive alcohol consumption is related to adverse physical and social consequences. Research shows an individual's own drinking motives (reasons for drinking alcohol) are linked to his or her specific drinking outcomes in a theoretically expected manner. Romantic couples often engage in a "drinking partnership," where partners reciprocally influe...
Article
Although marijuana use has been linked to negative consequences for intimate relationships, an emerging literature suggests that under some circumstances it may have positive consequences. Couples who use substances together report better relationship functioning over time and may experience positive short-term outcomes. Using a sample of 183 heter...
Article
Diagnosis of mental illness (MI) inconsistently predicts aggressive behavior although co-occurrence of substance use appears to increase the frequency of aggression in MI populations. We propose that alcohol use should moderate the relationship between mental disorders marked by deficits in self-control and aggression and victimization. In the pres...
Article
Full-text available
The question of how individual differences related to self-regulation interact with alcohol use patterns to predict intimate partner aggression (IPA) is examined. We hypothesized that excessive drinking will be related to partner aggression among those who have low self-regulation. In addition, we explored the extent to which differences in self-re...
Poster
We examined relational victimization as an explanatory pathway from perfectionism to anxiety in a high-risk sample of youth. Findings from path analysis indicated that adolescents’ perfectionistic concerns was associated with greater self-reported and mother- reported anxiety via greater relational victimization. These findings support the Perfecti...
Article
Objective: Although patterns of marijuana use are positively associated with intimate partner aggression, there is little evidence that episodes of marijuana use contribute to the occurrence of episodes of relationship conflict and aggression. The present ecological momentary assessment study considered the temporal relationship between marijuana...
Article
Intimate couples with discrepant use of alcohol and other drugs experience poorer relationship functioning relative to couples with concordant use or nonuse. Within a sample of marijuana-using couples, we hypothesized that greater discrepancy in marijuana use frequency between partners would be associated with lower relationship satisfaction and pe...
Article
Objective: Determine correlates of opiate misuse based on urine drug test (UDT) among patients on chronic opiate therapy (COT) for chronic noncancer pain. Design: A cross-sectional study. Setting: Urban, academic clinic. Participants: UDT performed in 206 patients on COT for at least 3 months duration within a one-year period. Patients were...
Article
Full-text available
Family processes in early life have been implicated in adolescent involvement in teen dating violence, yet the developmental pathways through which this occurs are not well understood. In this study, etiological pathways from parental psychopathology and marital conflict in infancy to involvement in dating violence in late adolescence were examined...
Article
Alcohol problems have variable outcomes for marital relationships depending on whether drinking patterns are concordant or discordant among the members of the dyad; however, it is unclear what impact these variations in drinking patterns have on children. The current study was designed to explore several gaps and limitations in the parent heavy dri...
Article
Full-text available
Opioid dependence and overdose is on the rise. One indicator is the increasing trends of prescription buprenorphine use among patient on chronic pain medication. In addition to the New York State Department of Health's prescription drug monitoring programs and training programs for providers and first responders to detect and treat a narcotic overd...
Article
Background: Research suggests enhancement, conformity, social, coping-with-anxiety, and coping-with-depression drinking motives are linked to specific drinking outcomes in a theoretically-expected manner. Social learning theory suggests people who spend more time together emulate each other's behaviour to acquire reinforcing outcomes. The present...
Article
Intimate partner aggression among community couples has been conceptualized as representing an occasional, situationally provoked response to a conflict. Yet, relatively few studies have considered the situational factors that contribute to the occurrence of an aggressive episode. The present study used thematic analysis to understand how episodes...
Article
Clinical studies show higher levels of cannabinoid CB1 receptors (CB1R) in the brain of schizophrenic patients while preclinical studies report a significant functional interaction between dopamine D2 receptors and CB1Rs as well as an upregulation of CB1Rs after antipsychotic treatment. These findings prompted us to study the effects of chronic ora...
Article
Pathways from maternal tobacco, marijuana, stress, and anger in pregnancy to infant reactivity and regulation (RR) at 9 months of infant age were examined in a low-income, diverse sample beginning in the first trimester of pregnancy, with fetal growth and postnatal stress/anger as potential mediators, and infant sex as a moderator. Participants wer...
Article
Background: Approximately one in five adults engage in heavy episodic drinking (HED), a behavior with serious health and social consequences. Environmental, intrapersonal, and interpersonal factors contribute to and perpetuate HED. Prior research supports the partner influence hypothesis where partners influence each other's HED. Objectives: We...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Studying the effect on functioning of the emergency department of disasters with a potential impact on staff members themselves usually involves table top and simulated patient exercises. Computerized virtual reality simulations have the potential to configure a variety of scenarios to determine likely staff responses and how to addres...
Article
Full-text available
A developmental cascade model for adolescent substance use beginning in infancy was examined in a sample of children with alcoholic and nonalcoholic parents. The model examined the role of parents' alcohol diagnoses, depression and antisocial behavior in a cascading process of risk via 3 major hypothesized pathways: first, via parental warmth/sensi...
Article
Self-reported marijuana use has been associated with poor relationship functioning and decreased stability over time. The present study examined the behavioral interactions of couples with concordant and discordant patterns of marijuana use during conflict, using individual self-reports and observation by independent coders. Heavy drinking communit...
Article
Research over the past 30 years has demonstrated that excessive alcohol use meets all of the epidemiological criteria for causality. While neither a necessary nor a sufficient cause, excessive alcohol use does contribute to the occurrence of partner violence and that contribution is approximately equal to other contributing causes such as gender ro...
Article
Impulsivity is negatively associated with relationship satisfaction, but whether relationship functioning is harmed or helped when both partners are high in impulsivity is unclear. The influence of impulsivity might be exacerbated (the Volatility Hypothesis) or reversed (the Compatibility Hypothesis). Alternatively, discrepancies in impulsivity mig...
Article
Objective: Partner-specific perfectionistic concerns (PC) include concern over mistakes, self-criticism, and socially-prescribed perfectionism as it pertains to one's partner. The social disconnection model proposes that PC influences well-being indirectly through interpersonal problems. Thus, we hypothesized that social negativity (expressed ange...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Introduction. Although there is considerable research that married couples are at low risk for alcohol problems, there is very little research addressing the processes underlying this association. One possible explanation is that marriage provides a stable source of social support. Thus, an emotionally satisfying marriage reduces the impact of …
Article
Full-text available
Survey and experimental analog studies suggest that alcohol consumption contributes to perpetration of sexual aggression. However, few studies have considered the temporal association between naturally occurring episodes of drinking and subsequent sexual aggression. This daily report study was designed to examine whether alcohol consumption increas...
Article
Hyperactive intracellular calcium ion (Ca) signaling in peripheral cells has been a reliable finding in bipolar disorder. Some established mood stabilizing medications, such as lithium and carbamazepine, have been found to normalize elevated intracellular Ca concentrations ([Ca]i) in platelets and lymphocytes from bipolar disorder patients, and som...
Article
Research and theory suggest that romantic couple members are motivated to drink to cope with interpersonal distress. Additionally, this behavior and its consequences appear to be differentially associated with insecure attachment styles. However, no research has directly examined drinking to cope that is specific to relationship problems, or with r...
Article
One of the primary limitations of many psychiatric medications is weight gain, the mechanism of which remains to be fully elucidated. We conducted a 2-week double-blind placebo-controlled study on weight gain with olanzapine, which is frequently but unpredictably associated with this side effect, to address the possible mechanisms of weight gain in...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Agreement within couples regarding the occurrence of aggression is surprisingly low. Survey research often collapses across partners' reports to create a pooled estimate of aggression in the relationship. This method ignores possible differences in partners' perceptions of the event, potentially weakening researchers' ability to detect...
Article
Research examining dyadic patterns of intimate partner violence (IPV) often focuses on static conceptions based on whether either the husband or wife has exhibited any violence. This study examined the dyadic patterns of IPV empirically and traced how these groups change over time. Couples (N=634) were assessed with respect to IPV and relationship...
Article
An emerging literature suggests that temporary deficits in the ability to inhibit impulsive urges may be proximally associated with intimate partner aggression. The current study examined the experience of alcohol use and the depletion of self-control in the prediction of relationship functioning. Daily diary data collected from 118 heterosexual co...
Article
Objective: Alcohol aggression expectancies have been found to be associated with increases in aggressive behavior. However, research has not consistently examined evaluations of such behavior. This is unfortunate as both expectancies and evaluations may play a role in whether such behavior will occur. Given this, the current study cross-sectionall...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Few studies have examined predictors of ever having used electronic cigarettes (or e-cigarettes) among older adolescents. This study examined correlates of ever having used e-cigarettes among adolescent children of alcoholic fathers. Methods: Participants were 136 adolescents (50.7% male, 89.4% European American) from an ongoing lo...
Article
Full-text available
Research on the association between marijuana use and intimate partner violence (IPV) has generated inconsistent findings, and has been primarily based on cross-sectional data. We examined whether husbands' and wives' marijuana use predicted both husbands' and wives' IPV perpetration over the first 9 years of marriage (Wave 1, n = 634 couples). We...
Article
Background Increased baseline ([Ca2+]B) and agonist-stimulated ([Ca2+]s) free intracellular calcium ion concentrations ([Ca2+]i) are well-replicated findings in bipolar disorder, but whether this finding is specific to that condition and if so, whether it is a marker of the mood disorder or a feature seen in other disorders such as psychosis has re...
Article
Objective: Although couples' alcohol use has been associated with intimate partner aggression and poorer marital functioning, few studies have examined the proximal effects of alcohol on couple interactions. The current experimental study examined the effects of alcohol, administered independently to male and female intimate partners, on positive...
Article
Deficits in several aspects of executive cognitive functioning (ECF) have been consistently associated with alcohol use disorders. Most of this research, however, has been conducted in alcohol dependent patient samples. A handful of recent studies, primarily in college students, have also reported similar deficits, but little is known about the eff...
Conference Paper
Substance abuse is associated with greater risk for intimate partner violence (IPV). The extent to which alcohol or drug use may influence different sub-types of IPV remains unclear. We investigated this issue using data from a community sample of newly married couples, limiting the sample to couples who reported IPV at the time of marriage (n = 32...
Article
This study examined concordant and discrepant alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana use among couples to determine whether they predicted marital separation or divorce over 9 years. The study recruited 634 couples as they applied for their marriage licenses; we assessed them at that time and reassessed them with mailed questionnaires at their first, seco...
Article
Research on intimate partner violence (IPV) is highly sensitive and may put some participants at increased psychological, emotional, and physical risk. Still, we know little about the risks posed by most social science methods and have minimal guidance regarding appropriate practices for carrying out various forms of research. This study collected...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: This article examines the association between fathers' alcohol problems and children's effortful control during the transition from middle childhood to early adolescence (fourth to sixth grade). Additionally, we examined the role of two potential moderators of this association, fathers' antisocial behavior and child gender. Method: Th...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Support for quitting is associated with smoking cessation, but few studies have examined the influence of more general social support on smoking outcomes. The current research examines perceptions of the partner's willingness and ability to provide general social support (i.e., perceived partner responsiveness) as a longitudinal pred...
Article
This study builds on research identifying deficits in behavioral self-regulation as risk factors for intimate partner violence (IPV). It also builds on alcohol administration research identifying these deficits as moderators of the association between acute alcohol consumption and aggression in laboratory paradigms. Participants analyzed were 97 me...