Kenneth L. Kraemer

Kenneth L. Kraemer
University of California, Irvine | UCI · Paul Merage School of Business

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300
Publications
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25,448
Citations

Publications

Publications (300)
Chapter
As the offshoring of knowledge work has accelerated, theoretical models to explain the phenomenon have not kept up. Most theoretical models assume a static transactional relationship from various factors to a binary offshoring decision. Such models do not take into account the mix of sourcing choices at the level of a firm, nor do they consider dyn...
Article
Full-text available
While the semiconductor industry is still dominated by large vertically integrated firms, fabless firms, which outsource their manufacturing, are gaining market share. Fabless firms are considered to have an advantage in product innovation, as they can focus their innovation efforts on chip design and can benefit from investments in process innovat...
Article
We analyze the discovery of giant magneto-resistance (GMR) and its development and commercialization by the global disk drive industry to answer the question of "Who captures the benefits from innovation in a global innovation system?" We assess the returns to the scientists, firms, and countries associated with GMR. We find that the French and Ger...
Article
An analysis of the private and social costs of wind versus natural gas finds that wind energy is competitive when all costs are considered. The wind energy industry also provides tens of thousands of well-paying jobs in the U.S. State and federal support appear to be warranted. At the federal level, a production tax credit with a multi-year phase-d...
Article
Full-text available
In today's global electronics industry, lead firms and suppliers of key components capture greater value than contract manufacturers. Using data from the Taiwanese Stock Exchange from 2002 to 2009, this research aims to examine if the pattern of value capture in the global electronics industry holds for Taiwan. We also test the impacts of research...
Article
Full-text available
Previous research has found that information technology (IT) investment is associated with significant productivity gains for developed countries but not for developing countries. Yet developing countries have continued to increase their investment in IT rapidly. Given this apparent disconnect, there is a need for new research to study whether the...
Article
Multinational corporations seeking access to China's burgeoning consumer markets and human resources are establishing R&D centers in the country and developing ways to thread a path through its complex innovation policies.
Article
Full-text available
This research asks who captures the greatest value in the global electronics industry by testing the concept of the “smiling curve”, which predicts that the greatest value is captured by upstream and downstream firms, and the lowest value is captured in the middle of the value chain. We test the concept using the Electronic Business 300 data-set fo...
Article
The impact of ICT on public administration as illustrated in the previous chapters appears to be less than was anticipated by the 1998 book. This does not mean that the cumulative impact is trivial. Over time the effects could be significant. There has been a great deal of change since 1998, but not in areas anticipated. This is a surprise, and thi...
Article
The supply chains of the mobile phone industry span national and firm boundaries. To analyze how value is distributed among the participants, a framework based on theories of firm strategy is applied, and a novel methodology is used to measure value capture in three phone models introduced from 2004 to 2008. The research shows that carriers capture...
Article
Full-text available
As the offshoring of knowledge work has accelerated, theoretical models to explain the phenomenon have not kept up. Most theoretical models assume a static transactional relationship from various factors to a binary offshoring decision. Such models do not take into account the mix of sourcing choices at the level of a firm, nor do they consider dyn...
Chapter
In this chapter, Jason Dedrick and Kenneth L. Kraemer analyze a transformation in the personal computer (PC) industry. In the traditional structure of the PC industry, PCs were marketed through a variety of channels from direct sales forces, to corporate resellers and electronic superstores. The connection between the PC manufacturer and the final...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This study applies concepts about computerization movements (CMs) to a case study of the diffusion of innovation in the developing world and thereby to draw lessons for undertaking similar technology projects. We identify the key characteristics of a computerization movement in the scholarly literature and then review the One Laptop Per Child (OLPC...
Article
This paper studies the cross-country diffusion of personal computers (PCs) and the Internet, and examines how the diffusive interactions across these technologies affect the evolution of the global digital divide. We adopt a generalized diffusion model that incorporates the impact of one technology's installed base on the diffusion of the other tec...
Article
Prior research at the firm level finds information technology (IT) to be a net substitute for both labor and non-IT capital inputs. However, it is unclear whether these results hold, given recent IT innovations and continued price declines. In this study we extend prior research to examine whether these input relationships have evolved over time. F...
Article
Drawing on transaction cost economics, this paper looks at the relationship of IT use to the outsourcing of manufacturing using survey data from US manufacturers. We find that greater use of interorganizational systems (IOS) is associated with greater outsourcing, but we do not find any main effects between internal IT and outsourcing. A negative i...
Article
This article analyzes the distribution of financial value from innovation in the global supply chains of iPods and notebook computers. We find that Apple has captured a great deal of value from the innovation embodied in the iPod, while notebook makers capture a more modest share of the value from PC innovation. In order to understand these differe...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose – We treat offshoring as a managerial innovation. Should it still be considered an innovation? The purpose of this paper is to use innovation theory, especially, Rogers' diffusion of innovation theory (DOI) to examine this question. Design/methodology/approach – The paper examines the case of electronic data systems (EDS), a very large Info...
Article
Full-text available
At the World Economic Forum in Davos, Switzerland, January 2005, Nicholas Negroponte unveiled the idea of One Laptop Per Child (OLPC), a $100 PC that would transform education for the world's disadvantaged schoolchildren by giving them the means to teach themselves and each other. He estimated that up to 150 million of these laptops could be shippe...
Article
Full-text available
In today's global electronics industry, innovation is carried out by various value chain participants, including brand-name manufacturers (sometimes called lead firms), contract manufacturers and component suppliers, but there is little understanding of who benefits most from innovation in such networks. This research examines empirically the relat...
Article
A framework for analysis based on financial measures of value capture is developed and is used to study one iPod model to provide the answer as to which country captures value in a global innovation network. The Apple iPod is manufactured offshore and has a global list of suppliers, but the greatest benefits from this innovation goes to Apple, an A...
Article
Zusammenfassung In nur zehn Jahren hat Google einen bemerkenswerten Erfolg durch Werbung im Rahmen der Onlinesuche erlangt. Googles Suchmaschine ist dominant und seine IT-Infrastruktur ist das mächtigste Rechnersystem der Welt. Es wird auf mehr als einer Million Computern betrieben und bedient weltweit mehr als einer Milliarde Nutzern. Google verdi...
Chapter
Offshoring and outsourcing of manufacturing and knowledge work is a highly visible and controversial issue in the public debate over the impacts of globalization. In their efforts to expand markets and optimize production for competitive advantage, firms distribute their activities around the world through their own offshore subsidiaries, by outsou...
Chapter
Given that the force of offshoring is one of the most important economic changes in the early 2000s it is vital to understand what propels it further. The landscape of offshoring is such that firms in the wealthy nations (onshore) have already off-shored, sometimes extensively. As researchers, we need to ask not whether the firm will offshore, but...
Article
Globalization skeptics argue that the benefits of globalization, such as lower consumer prices, are outweighed by job losses, lower earnings for U.S. workers, and a potential loss of technology to foreign rivals. To shed light on the jobs issue, we analyze the iPod, which is manufactured offshore using mostly foreign-made components. In terms of he...
Article
This article examines the theoretical ideal of information technology as an instrument of administrative reform and examines the extent to which that ideal has been achieved in the United States. It takes a look at the findings from research about the use and impacts of information technology from the time of the mainframe computer through the PC r...
Article
August 2006 marked the 25th anniversary of the release of the original IBM PC, the product that defined the standards around which a vast new industry formed. Unlike the vertically integrated mainframe industry, the PC industry consisted of a global network of independent suppliers of systems, components, peripherals and software (Grove, 1996; Dedr...
Article
Full-text available
The issue of developed and developing country using a seemingly unrelated regression (SUR) model that focuses on factors that can be addressed by policy choices of both governments and international organizations are discussed. Investment in new technologies requires the availability of capital, either from external sources or from internal sources...
Article
Full-text available
In only ten years, Google has achieved remarkable success from online search-based advertising. Its search engine is dominant, and its IT infrastructure is the most powerful computing system in the world running on over one million computers and serving more than one billion users globally. Google makes money by using its search engine to deliver o...
Article
Full-text available
The practical use of information technology devices in domestic and residential contexts often results in radical changes from their envisioned raison d'être. This study focuses on the context of household safety and security, and presents results from the analysis of the usage of video cameras in the public areas of an urban neighbourhood in Tecám...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents a discussion of design considerations for community web portals as social networking systems. We analyse and compare the social interaction approach, design considerations and socio-technical requirements with regards to community portal technology employed in two master-planned urban developments in Australia and Mexico. We foc...
Chapter
This article examines the theoretical ideal of information technology as an instrument of administrative reform and examines the extent to which that ideal has been achieved in the United States. It takes a look at the findings from research about the use and impacts of information technology from the time of the mainframe computer through the PC r...
Chapter
Full-text available
Following worldwide tendencies, the patterns of usage of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in Mexico are being influenced by increasing affordability. In this work we present the results of a study on the use and adoption of ICTs to support daily life in residential communities conducted in Tecamac, Mexico. There, neighbors were prov...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The use of personal computers and Internet at home is becoming more and more common in some developing countries such as Mexico, where affordable prices and credit plans have contributed to this trend. Undoubtedly, the presence of information technology in the households has effects in the life of families and their communities; however how benefi...
Article
Full-text available
Although research has made significant strides in recent years in evaluating the performance impacts from information technology (IT), a dearth of easily accessible objective measures, particularly at the process level, continues to limit IT research. Suggestions that researchers use perceptual measures instead are met with claims that the biased n...
Article
In this article we employ a number of bibliometric techniques to capture Rob Kling's intellectual impact and influences over the course of his varied career. We analyze his many publications in terms of type, topic, impact, and rate of co-authorship. ...
Article
Full-text available
Investment in information technology (IT) is an important driver of economic growth and productivity in the United States and other developed countries, but as yet it is not shown to be a significant driver in developing countries. Previous research suggests that IT investment and complementary assets are insufficient for developing countries to re...
Chapter
Introduction Globalization has become the subject of heated debate in recent years, a debate that is being intensified by the spread of low-cost information and communications technologies (ICTs), particularly the Internet. There is excitement about the Internet's potential for linking people and organizations across great distances and national bo...
Article
Full-text available
The article focuses on the study which evaluates the determinants of post-adoption stages of innovation diffusion using enterprise digital transformation in Europe. The authors discuss the innovation characteristics of the technology-enabled innovation including relative advantage, compatibility, cost and security concern and its contextual factors...
Article
Full-text available
This paper extends our previous studies on the assimilation of Internet-based e-business innovations by firms in an international setting. Drawing upon theories on the process and contexts of technology diffusion, we develop an integrative model to examine three assimilation stages: initiation -> adoption -> routinization. The model features techno...
Article
As firms seek to improve coordination through the use of electronic Intel-organizational systems (IOS), open standards are becoming increasingly important. To better understand the process of standards diffusion, we investigate firms' migration from proprietary or less-open IOS (i.e., electronic data interchange or EDI) to open-standard IOS (i.e.,...
Article
China is now the world's largest computer hardware producer and, as a study of notebook PC companies reveals, is beginning to pull knowledge work along with production to its key manufacturing centers. This trend has major implications for employment and competition in large-scale industries both in the US and abroad.
Article
The factors leading to variations in e-business use among U.S. firms are identified. Building on diffusion of innovation theory, an integrated model is developed that explains the relative influence of eight known determinants. Diversity and volume of e-business use are empirically investigated using a sample of 294 firms. The analysis demonstrates...
Article
This article examines the theoretical ideal of information technology as an instru- ment of administrative reform and examines the extent to which that ideal has been achieved in the UnitedStates.� Ittakesalookatthefindingsfromresearchaboutthe� use and impacts of information technology from the time of the mainframe computer through the PC revoluti...
Article
The Internet and e-commerce are recent examples of ongoing information technology innovations credited with driving the productivity revival of the past decade. Established firms such as Dell, Cisco, General Electric, IBM, and Wal-Mart, along with firms “born on the Internet,” such as Amazon and eBay, have shown the potential of IT and e-commerce t...
Article
E-commerce in the United States has been shaped by the economic, social, and policy environment in which it developed, and in particular by the unique business patterns of the US high-tech industry sector. Many key e-commerce technologies and business processes were developed in the United States and the so-called Silicon Valley model – venture cap...
Article
In recent years globalization has become the subject of fervent debate, intensified by the spread of low-cost information and communications technologies (ICTs), particularly the Internet. On the one hand, crossborder flows of capital, labor, and information may be leading to convergence in how economic activities are organized, reducing the role o...
Book
Are the Internet and e-commerce truly revolutionizing business practice? This book, first published in 2006, explodes the transformation myth by demonstrating that the Internet and e-commerce are in fact being adapted by firms to reinforce their existing relationships with customers, suppliers, and business partners. Detailed case studies of eight...
Article
Empirical research has revealed differences in the economic impact of information technology (IT) across industries. However, the source of these differences is unclear. In this study we analyze the role of the competitive environment in moderating the productive impact of information technology and regular capital. We focus on two important featur...
Article
This paper studies the country-level digital divide across successive generations of IT, providing detailed insights into the magnitude and changing nature of the divide. We examine a panel of 40 countries from 1985-2001, based on data from three distinct generations of IT: mainframes, personal computers, and the Internet. Using two measures of IT...
Article
Full-text available
This article develops and tests a model examining the relationship between firm globalization, scope of e-commerce use, and firm performance, using data from a large-scale cross-country survey of firms from three industries. We find that globalization leads to both greater scope of e-commerce use and improved performance, measured as efficiency, co...
Article
A conceptual model of various factors that could explain the differences among countries in the adoption of e-commerce is presented. Firms' technology adoption decisions and output growth depend upon the efficiency of the capital markets, which diversify the risks of adopting new technologies and thus encourage early adoption of e-commerce. Countri...
Article
Prior empirical research indicates differences in IT business value across industries, but the source of these differences is unclear. In this study we examine the role of the competitive environment in moderating IT business value. We identify two dimensions of the competitive environment that are likely to shape IT business value, have a strong b...
Article
Full-text available
The adoption of information technology has had major impacts on firm and industry organization. The personal computer industry has evolved from a value chain with well-defined roles for firms in different industry segments to a flexible global value network through which PC firms outsource many of their activities to increasingly capable suppliers....
Article
rounded in the innovation diffusion literature and the resource-based theory, this paper develops an inte- grative research model for assessing the diffusion and consequence of e-business at the firm level. Unlike the typical focus on adoption as found in the literature, we focus on postadoption stages, that is, actual usage and value creation. The...
Article
Abstract This paper studies the country-level Digital Divide across successive generations of IT, providing detailed insights into the magnitude,and changing,nature of the Divide. We examine,a panel of 40 countries from 1985-2001, based on data from three distinct generations of IT: mainframes, personal computers, and the Internet. Using two measur...
Article
Despite the importance to researchers, managers, and policy makers of how information technology (IT) contributes to organizational performance, there is uncertainty and debate about what we know and don’t know. A review of the literature reveals that studies examining the association between information technology and organizational performance ar...
Article
Full-text available
Grounded in the technology-organization-environment (TOE) framework, we develop a research model for assessing the value of e-business at the firm level. Based on this framework, we formulate six hypotheses and identify six factors (technology readiness, firm size, global scope, financial resources, competition intensity, and regulatory environment...
Article
Full-text available
In this study, we developed a conceptual model for studying the adoption of electronic business (e-business or EB) at the firm level, incorporating six adoption facilitators and inhibitors, based on the technology-organization-environment theoretical framework. Survey data from 3100 businesses and 7500 consumers in eight European countries were use...
Article
Full-text available
We analyze new data on the production and use of IT around the world to assess the impact of changes in IT production in the 1990's on economic development. We provide empirical evidence on a fundamental question: Besides the direct effect on GDP, does an emphasis on IT production have a spillover effect on the level of IT diffusion? We show that t...
Article
For many years, there has been considerable debate about whether the IT revolution was paying off in higher productivity. Studies in the 1980s found no connection between IT investment and productivity in the U.S. economy, a situation referred to as the productivity paradox . Since then, a decade of studies at the firm and country level has consist...
Article
In this study, we developed a conceptual model for electronic business (e-business or EB) adoption incorporating six adoption facilitators and inhibitors, based on the technology-organization-environment framework. Survey data from 3,100 businesses and 7,500 consumers in eight European countries were used to test the model. We conducted confirmator...
Article
For many years, there has been considerable debate about whether the IT revolution was paying off in higher productivity. Studies in the 1980s found no connection between IT investment and productivity in the U.S. economy, a situation referred to as the productivity paradox. Since then, a decade of studies at the firm and country level has consiste...
Article
Full-text available
Although business executives remain skeptical about the extent of payoffs from investment in information technology (IT), strategic alignment or the alignment of information systems strategy with business strategy continues to be ranked as one of the most important issues facing corporations. In this paper, we report on the results of a process-lev...
Article
While executives continue to rate strategic alignment – denoting the fit between information technology (IT) and the business strategy – as a key IT management issue, the rise in business uncertainty in the late 1990s may have given executives cause to question whether attempts to increase strategic alignment limit their ability to maintain strateg...
Chapter
Although business executives remain skeptical about the extent of payoffs from investment in information technology (IT), strategic alignment or the alignment of information systems strategy with business strategy continues to be ranked as one of the most important issues facing corporations. In this paper, we report on the results of a process-lev...
Chapter
Full-text available
Although business executives remain skeptical about the extent of payoffs from investment in information technology (IT), strategic alignment or the alignment of information systems strategy with business strategy continues to be ranked as one of the most important issues facing corporations. In this paper, we report on the results of a process-lev...
Article
In this study we developed a set of constructs to measure e-commerce capability in Internet-enhanced organizations. The e-commerce capability metrics consist of four dimensions - information, transaction, customization, and supplier connection. These measures were empirically validated for reliability, content and construct validity. Then we examin...
Article
This study explores the role information technology (IT) plays in organizational downsizing by studying two medium-sized American cities over a period of 10 years (1985-1995). Data were collected through 73 interviews, a questionnaire, and numerous documents. Four main findings emerged from the case studies. First, IT was found to facilitate organi...
Article
Information systems are strategic to the extent that they support a firm's business strategy. Cisco Systems has used the Internet and its own information systems to support its strategy in several ways: (1) to create a business ecology around its technology standards; (2) to coordinate a virtual organization that allows it to concentrate on product...
Article
China transformed its economy by shifting from technological nationalism to a more pragmatic strategy of developing national capabilities in conjunction with multinational corporations. Consistent with this transformation, China has revamped its industrial and technology policies to become a major producer of computer hardware and a major market fo...