Kenneth G. Hubbard

Kenneth G. Hubbard
University of Nebraska at Lincoln | NU · School of Natural Resources

PhD

About

222
Publications
57,263
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
8,533
Citations
Citations since 2017
0 Research Items
3562 Citations
20172018201920202021202220230100200300400500600
20172018201920202021202220230100200300400500600
20172018201920202021202220230100200300400500600
20172018201920202021202220230100200300400500600
Additional affiliations
July 2015 - present
University of Nebraska at Lincoln
Position
  • Professor Emeritus
January 1981 - present
University of Nebraska at Lincoln
Education
September 1979 - May 1982
Utah State University
Field of study
  • Soil Science and Biometeorlogy
September 1971 - May 1973
September 1967 - May 1971
Chadron State College
Field of study
  • Physics and Mathematics

Publications

Publications (222)
Article
Meso-scale in-situ meteorological observations are essential for better understanding and forecasting the weather and climate and to aid in decision-making by a myriad of stakeholder communities. They include, for example, state environmental and emergency management agencies, the commercial sector, media, agriculture, and the general public. Over...
Chapter
Full-text available
With increasing evidence of climate change, future decision-making among crop modelers and agronomists will require the inclusion of high-resolution climate predictions from regional climate models as input into agricultural system simulation models to assess the impacts of projected ambient CO2 increases, temperature and general climatic change on...
Article
Full-text available
Northeast China (NEC) is one of the major agricultural production areas in China, producing about 30% of China’s total maize output. In the past five decades, maize yields in NEC increased rapidly. However, farmer yields still have potential to be increased. Therefore, it is important to quantify the impacts of agronomic factors, including soil phy...
Article
Full-text available
Closing the gap between current and potential yields is one means of increasing agricultural production to feed the globally increasing population. Therefore, investigation of the geographic patterns, trends and causes of crop yield gaps is essential to identifying where yields might be increased and quantifying the contributions of yield-limiting...
Article
Full-text available
Since late 1970s, climate warming has been widely recognized. In the Midwest, farmers cannot rely on the normal calendar anymore, and it has become critically necessary to evaluate the most recent climate trends relative to growing season in order to conduct adaptation efforts for agriculture. Based on the homogenized historical monthly temperature...
Article
Full-text available
The character of a winter can be defined by many of its features, including temperature averages and extremes, snowfall totals, snow depth, and the duration between onset and cessation of winter-weather conditions. The accumulated winter season severity index incorporates these elements into one site-specific value that defines the severity of a pa...
Chapter
With increasing evidence of climate change, future decision-making among crop modelers and agronomists will require the inclusion of high-resolution climate predictions from regional climate models as input into agricultural system simulation models to assess the impacts of projected ambient CO2 increases, temperature and general climatic change on...
Article
Full-text available
Serially complete climate datasets with no missing data are necessary for a diverse group of users working in many economic sectors. In this article we describe the procedures used to create a Serially Complete Data set (SCD) for the U.S. We include the selection criterion applied to potential SCD stations, the various procedural steps and the deta...
Article
Full-text available
To adequately assess the effects of global warming it is necessary to address trends and impacts at the local level. This study examines phenological changes in the start-of-season (SOS) derived from satellite observations from 1982–2008 in the US High Plains region. The surface climate-based SOS was also evaluated. The averaged profiles of SOS fro...
Article
Full-text available
Climate data are increasingly scrutinized for accuracy because of the need for reliable input for climate-related decision making and assessments of climate change. Over the last 30 years, vast improvements to U.S. instrumentation, data collection, and station siting have created more accurate data. This study explores the spatial accuracy of daily...
Article
Full-text available
The Central Great Plains Climate Education Partnership conducted focus groups throughout Kansas to gain a better understanding of farmer perceptions and attitudes towards climate change education. Results indicate concern about climatic changes, even if producers are unsure that "human caused climate change" is occurring. Participants indicated the...
Article
Land cover changes (LCCs) play an important role in the climate system. Research over recent decades highlights the impacts of these changes on atmospheric temperature, humidity, cloud cover, circulation, and precipitation. These impacts range from the local- and regional-scale to sub-continental and global-scale. It has been found that the impacts...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Real-time assessments of crop development, soil water status, and crop water stress can facilitate irrigators to save irrigation water and energy, improve crop water use efficiency, and increase farm profitability. CornSoyWater will be a web-based real-time irrigation decision support tool. It simulates crop phenological stages, crop daily water us...
Article
Full-text available
Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) soil moisture data products are proven to be useful across various regions around the world. However, numerous studies have suggested that validation and bias-correction at the local scale is important to use them with confidence for numerical weather prediction, land surface en...
Article
Full-text available
Northeast China (NEC) accounts for about 30% of the nation's maize production in China. In the past three decades, maize yields in NEC have increased under changes in climate, cultivar selection, and crop management. It is important to investigate the contribution of these changing factors to the historical yield increases to improve our understand...
Article
Full-text available
Droughts are natural hazards with varying patterns in space, time, and intensity. Their dynamic character challenges our ability in planning, predicting, monitoring, and providing relief to affected areas. Because of the spatial and temporal variability and multiple impacts of droughts, we need to improve the tools and data available for mapping an...
Article
The corresponding author sincerely regrets that errors appeared in a few misplaced signs (minus, plus e total four) and incorrect values after decimals (total two) in Tables 2 and 4. The corrected values for pairwise comparisons for above paper are shown below. Table 2. Differences in growing season mean maximum temperatures (GT max) of irrigated a...
Chapter
To adequately assess the effects of global warming it is necessary to address trends and impacts at the local level. This study examines phenological changes in the start-of-season (SOS) derived from satellite observations from 1982–2008 in the US High Plains region. The surface climate-based SOS was also evaluated. The averaged profiles of SOS fro...
Article
a b s t r a c t This study investigates potential impacts of widespread adoption of irrigation on long-term tempera-tures over the High Plains aquifer (HPA) region of the Great Plains. It is well known that availability of soil moisture can modify near surface energy partitioning (latent vs. sensible) and temperature. This study provides an assessm...
Article
Full-text available
Crop coefficient (K-c)-based estimation of crop evapotranspiration is one of the most commonly used methods for irrigation water management. However, uncertainties of the generalized dual crop coefficient (K-c) method of the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations Irrigation and Drainage Paper No. 56 can contribute to crop evapotra...
Article
Full-text available
Phenological patterns in birds appear to be temperature-dependent in part, and global temperatures are undergoing change. Many studies of bird phenology are conducted at broad temporal but local spatial scales, making it difficult to assess how temperature affects bird migration across landscapes. Recently, networks of "citizen science" volunteers...
Article
Phenological patterns in birds appear to be temperature-dependent in part, and global temperatures are undergoing change. Many studies of bird phenology are conducted at broad temporal but local spatial scales, making it difficult to assess how temperature affects bird migration across landscapes. Recently, networks of “citizen science” volunteers...
Article
Remote sensing and crop growth models have enhanced our ability to understand soil water balance in irrigated agri-culture. However, limited efforts have been made to adopt data assimilation methodologies in these linked models that use stochastic parameter estimation with genetic algorithm (GA) to improve irrigation scheduling. In this study, an i...
Article
Full-text available
Northeast China (NEC) is not only one of the major agricultural production areas in China, but it is also the most susceptible to climate variability. This led us to investigate the impact of climate change on maize potential yield and yield gaps in this region, where maize accounts for about 30% of the nation's production. The APSIM-Maize model wa...
Article
Soil moisture varies notably over different spatio-temporal scales and affects land-surface atmospheric interactions. However, globally, there is nearly a total absence in long-term observed soil moisture (SM) data. This study has used SM data from Nebraska and investigated relationships and potential predictability of SM at depths of 10, 25, 50, a...
Data
Over the last decade there has been a shift toward soil temperatures warming earlier, allowing farmers to plant sooner. Year to year climate variability is an unavoidable issue for agriculture in Nebraska. Since agricultural practices rely heavily on climatic conditions, it is risky to make certain agricultural management decisions based on the cal...
Article
Surface meteorological data from more than 200 stations in a variety of observing networks and various stand-alone projects were obtained for the MMS Beaufort and Chukchi Seas Modeling Study (Phase II). Many of these datasets were obtained for Phase I of this project; however some stations are new because of the domain expansion in Phase II. All av...
Article
Evapotranspiration (ET) impacts local and regional hydrologic organization on various spatial and temporal scales. Due to the importance of the Ogallala (High Plains) Aquifer, accurate estimation of ET in the Great Plains is vital for efficient water resource management. One of the areas with the largest saturated thickness in this region (the Sand...
Article
The American Association of State Climatologists (AASC) has developed curricular recommendations for the education of future applied and service climatologists. The AASC was founded in 1976. Membership of the AASC includes state climatologists and others who work in state climate offices; climate researchers in academia and educators; applied clima...
Article
Full-text available
Water consumed through evapotranspiration (ET) impacts local and regional hydrologic regimes on various spatial and temporal scales. Estimating ET in the Great Plains is a prerequisite for effective regional water resource management of the Ogallala (High Plains) Aquifer, which supplies vital water resources in the form of irrigation for extensive...
Conference Paper
Background/Question/Methods Important lifecycle stages in birds such as migratory arrival and clutch initiation appear in part to be temperature-dependent, and temperatures are changing in some places. Most bird phenology studies are conducted at broad temporal scales, but at local spatial scales, making it difficult to assess the effects of temp...
Article
Ethanol production from corn (Zea mays L.) has become a new avenue for economic vitality in the state of Nebraska. Although economic, technological and political analyses have previously been performed, this study aims to analyze a suite of environmental variables specific to corn production in Nebraska. The overall objective of this research is to...
Article
Full-text available
There are various methods available for estimating magnitude and trends of evapotranspiration. Bowen ratio energy balance system and eddy correlation techniques offer powerful alternatives for measuring land surface evapotranspiration. In spite of the elegance, high accuracy, and theoretical attractions of these techniques for measuring evapotransp...
Article
Temperature and rainfall are important climatological parameters, and knowledge of their temporal and spatial patterns is useful for researchers working in many disciplines. In this study, spatial interpolation techniques were implemented in a Geographic Information System (GIS) to study the spatial variability of climate variables (maximum air tem...
Article
Full-text available
The amount of soil water at the beginning of the growing season has a large impact on crop yields in rainfed agriculture, especially in semi-arid regions and in years with below-average rainfall in more humid climates. Robust algorithms are needed to estimate soil water storage before planting to aid crop management decisions. The main objectives o...
Article
Full-text available
Despite tremendous efforts to improve weather and climate predictions and to inform farmers about the use of such weather products, farmers’ attitudes toward forecast use remain poor and farmer use of forecasts has not increased. This paper describes features of a new conceptual model for facilitating farmers’ use of weather products and offers pre...
Article
Full-text available
Analyzing the dynamic hydrologic conditions of the Sandhills is critical for water and range management and sustainability of the sandhills ecosystem as well as for dune stability. There are complex models available to quantify both surface and subsurface hydrological processes. However, we present in this study an application of a relatively simpl...
Article
Full-text available
Soil moisture is a key state variable from both climate and hydrologic cycle assessment perspectives. Recently, automated measurements of soil moisture with sensors deployed at sites in a real-time monitoring network have provided valuable new data to monitor the soil water resource. However, to assure the quality of the data, quality control QC to...
Article
Full-text available
The air temperature radiation shield is a key component in air temperature measurement in weather station networks; however, it is widely recognized that significant errors in the measured air temperature exist due to insufficient airflow past the air temperature sensor housed inside the shield. During the last several decades, the U.S. National We...
Article
Full-text available
Human activities have modified the environment for thousands of years. Significant population increase, migration, and accelerated socioeconomic activities have intensified these environmental changes over the last several centuries. The climate impacts of these changes have been found in local, regional, and global trends in modern atmospheric tem...
Article
Full-text available
Temporal variability in the occurrence of the most extreme snowfall years, both those with abundant snowfall amounts and those lacking snowfall, was examined using a set of 440 quality-controlled, homogenous U.S. snowfall records. The frequencies with which winter-centered annual snowfall totals exceeded the 90th and 10th percentile thresholds at i...
Article
The High Plains Regional Climate Center (HPRCC) at the University of Nebraska is one of NOAA's six regional climate centers in the U.S. Primary objectives of the HPRCC are to conduct applied climate research, engage in climate education and outreach, and increase the use and availability of climate information by developing value-added products. Sc...
Article
Water is one of the most valuable and vulnerable resources. The varying precipitation regimes together with the varying land use and land cover types over the state of Nebraska necessitate continuous monitoring and modeling of soil water, particularly in the root zone. Underlying the irrigated lands is the High Plains Aquifer, one of the largest in...
Article
Full-text available
Soil moisture is a key state variable from both climate and hydrologic cycle assessment perspectives. Recently, automated measurements of soil moisture with sensors deployed at sites in a real-time monitoring network have provided valuable new data to monitor the soil water resource. However, to assure the quality of the data, quality control QC to...
Article
Soil water is an important parameter in the hydrological balance and is essential for understanding land–surface interactions. While spatial coverage of soil water observations is poor across most of the United States, impedance probes have been used to measure soil water throughout Nebraska in the Automated Weather Data Network (AWDN) since 1999....
Article
Snowfall data are subject to quality issues that affect their usefulness for detection of climate trends. A new analysis of lake-effect snowfall trends utilizes a restricted set of stations identified as suitable for trends analysis based on a careful quality assessment of long-term observation stations in the lake-effect snowbelts of the Laurentia...
Article
Full-text available
In the Great Plains, soil water is one of the most critical factors related to sustainable production on cropland and rangeland, while the need for better water management grows in the face of increasing water demand during dry years. Soil water is also an important factor related to flood modeling and quantification of the boundary conditions in a...
Article
A quality assessment of daily manual snowfall data has been undertaken for all U.S. long-term stations and their suitability for climate research. The assessment utilized expert judgment on the quality of each station. Through this process, the authors have identified a set of stations believed to be suitable for analysis of trends. Since the 1920s...
Article
Full-text available
This paper examines the role of soil moisture in quantifying drought through the development of a drought index using observed and modeled soil moisture. In Nebraska, rainfall is received primarily during the crop-growing season and the supply of moisture from the Gulf of Mexico determines if the impending crop year is either normal or anomalous an...
Article
The inverse distance weighting (IDW) and spatial regression test (SRT) methods provide data estimates for a station of interest based on the measurements at neighbouring stations. This paper evaluates the performance of the two approaches across the USA in estimating maximum and minimum daily temperature where the estimates are compared to actual m...
Article
Full-text available
Land use change can significantly affect root zone soil moisture, surface energy balance, and near-surface atmospheric temperature and moisture content. During the second half of the twentieth century, portions of the North American Great Plains have experienced extensive introduction of irrigated agriculture. It is expected that land use change fr...
Article
Instrumental daily maximum and minimum temperatures are reported and archived from various surface thermometers along with different average algorithms in historical and current U.S. surface climate networks. An instrumental bias in daily maximum and minimum temperatures caused by surface temperature sensors due to the different sampling rates, ave...
Article
This simulation-based study is an effort to develop design requirements for a hypothetical network of instruments to measure average atmospheric variability over a relatively simple terrain. A dataset of air and soil temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and soil moisture from the vicinity of Lincoln, Nebraska, was used to simulate atmospheri...
Article
Full-text available
This paper documents various unresolved issues in using surface temperature trends as a metric for assessing global and regional climate change. A series of examples ranging from errors caused by temperature measurements at a monitoring station to the undocumented biases in the regionally and globally averaged time series are provided. The issues a...
Data
1] This paper documents various unresolved issues in using surface temperature trends as a metric for assessing global and regional climate change. A series of examples ranging from errors caused by temperature measurements at a monitoring station to the undocumented biases in the regionally and globally averaged time series are provided. The issue...
Article
Full-text available
1] This paper documents various unresolved issues in using surface temperature trends as a metric for assessing global and regional climate change. A series of examples ranging from errors caused by temperature measurements at a monitoring station to the undocumented biases in the regionally and globally averaged time series are provided. The issue...
Article
This paper presents an assessment of the relationship between near-surface soil moisture (SM) and SM at other depths in the root zone under three different land uses: irrigated corn, rainfed corn and grass. This research addresses the question whether or not near-surface SM can be used reliably to predict plant available root zone SM and SM at othe...
Article
Full-text available
1] This study assesses near surface lapse rates and temperatures over the past decade at two heights from the Oklahoma Mesonet. A statistically significant change in lapse rate was detected of À0.21 ± 0.09°C (10 m) À1 per decade. The trend of nighttime lapse rate was about three times larger than the magnitude of trend of the daytime lapse rate. Th...
Article
Climate change and variability involved many aspects of the climate system and the assessment of anthropogenically-forced climate change has considerably focused on surface temperature as a primary variable. In this study, authors addressed the temporal and spatial variation of heat content in surface air and moist enthalpy in the US High Plains re...
Article
Full-text available
1] India has one of the most intensive and spatially extensive irrigation systems in the world developed during the1960s under the agricultural Green Revolution (GR). Irrigated landscapes can alter the regional surface energy balance and its associated temperature, humidity, and climate features. The main objective of this study is to determine the...