Kenneth Carpenter

Kenneth Carpenter
University of Colorado Boulder | CUB · Museum of Natural HIstory

Ph.D.

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195
Publications
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Introduction
Skills and Expertise

Publications

Publications (195)
Chapter
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Unequivocal evidence of predator-prey relationships in the vertebrate fossil record is rare owing to the vagaries of preservation and the difficulties of interpretation. Occasionally, commutative evidence may be found that strongly implies such a relationship. Several pathological, contemporaneous specimens of the large theropod Allosaurus and the...
Chapter
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Sauropod material from the Arundel Formation (Aptian-Albian boundary) of Maryland has been variously referred to Astrodon johnsoni Leidy 1865 or to Pleurocoelus nanus Marsh 1888. Most of the specimens are juvenile as demonstrated by the small size of the bones, the lack of neurocentra 1 fusion, absence of an olecranon, and underdevelopment of muscl...
Article
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To determine whether the fossils found in mounds of the Harvester ants (Pogonomyrmex occidentalis) originated from subsurface deposits and brought to the surface or collected from the surface during the construction of their tunnels, 300 ants were placed in a controlled environment. Numerous tunnels were excavated in a layered artificial mound. Bea...
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A partial rostrum of a new species of scaphognathine pterosaur, distinguished by a thin median crest along its dorsal margin and a deep embayment of the dental margin, is the first identifiable cranial fragment of a pterosaur from the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation of western North America. By contrast with pterodactyloids, cranial crests are ra...
Article
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Late Cretaceous dinosaurs have been known from the Denver Basin, Colorado, since the mid-1860s. Most of the fossils are scrappy, although several fragmentary skeletons are known. Most recently discovered specimens are the result of salvage work at construction sites in the Denver metropolitan area. Dinosaurs from the Denver Basin include Triceratop...
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Theoretical models of theropod forelimb biomechanics are often tainted with preconceived ideas. Actualistic modeling using specimens and casts, coupled with CAT-scans and dissections of extant vertebrate forelimbs, demonstrates that forelimb motion in theropods is considerably less than hypothetical models indicate. The forelimbs ofCoelophysis, cf....
Conference Paper
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The Cedar Mountain and Dakota Formations of eastern Utah preserve two distinct biostratigraphical dinosaur faunas that record the severing of a North American-European connection, and the opening of an North American-Asian connection as the North American Plate drifted westward. The older Yell ow Cat Fauna, of the Yellow Cat through to the lower Ru...
Conference Paper
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a tongue in cheek (aka smart ass) abstract
Chapter
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Several blocks of maroon sandstone contain a partial skeleton of a small ornithopod from the Morrison Formation of Garden Park, Colo-rado. The skeleton consists of several long bones, includin'gva femur, humerus, and partial tibia and fibula, a portion of the articulated vertebral column, two phalanges, a few ribs, and paired frontals with a postor...
Chapter
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Juxtacortical (surface) lesions originate from a variety of etiologies (causes) that can be either tumor or tumorlike in appearance. The resulting periostitis patt~..p is from the disease process and not the periosteum. A juxtacorticallesion is noted on an adult Camarasaurus grandis right humerus located along the distal anterior diaphysis and term...
Chapter
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A new genus of sregosaurid, from the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation, is more primitive than Stegosaurus stenops but not as primitive as Huayangosaurus. The specimen consists of a nearly complete skull and much of the skeleton, minus the forearms and hind legs. It is «, characterized by a short, broad skull; domed frontoparietal; low neural "-arc...
Chapter
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Archival records are used to recreate Marsh's thinking in making the first skeletal reconstruction of Stegosaurus. This reconstruction shows a large, elephantine animal with a paired row of plates along its back, a single row on its tail, and four pairs of spikes on the end of its tail. This eight-spiked tail has long been considered a diagnostic f...
Chapter
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The first occurrence of an iguanodontian from the Lower Cretaceous Poison Strip Member of the Cedar Mountain Formation, Utah, is described and named. This new taxon is represented by a well-preserved ilium, femora, tibiae, and vertebrae, as well as other material. The fe-mora are typical for an ornithopod, but the ilium has a short, horizontal post...
Chapter
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The holotype of the polacanthid ankylosaur Hylaeosaurus armatus includes a partial, highly damaged skull that has never been described in detail. It consists of the rear portion, which is exposed ventrally, and includes the left quadrate articulated to its paroccipital process, part of the left quadratojugal, righf~postorbital horn, and possibly th...
Article
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Ankylosaurs are relatively common in the Cedar Mountain Formation and include (1) Gastonia burgei, (2) Sauropelta sp., and (3) Animantarx ramaljonesi new genus, new species. Animantarx ramaljonesi is characterized by a highly domed cranium, very small postorbital "horns," moderately developed lateral notch in the skull roof for the lateral temporal...
Article
The origin and early evolution of many major dinosaur groups are poorly known because specimens are rare. One of these groups, the Ankylosauria, or armour-plated dinosaurs, is best known from well-preserved specimens from the Upper Cretaceous period of Asia and North America. Here we describe a well-preserved skull of an earlier, Late Jurassic anky...
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A partial skull from Felch Quarry 1, Garden Park, Colorado, is identified as that of Brachio-saurus sp. The lack of comparable parts with B. altithorax prevents positive assignment of the skull to that species. The skull shows features intermediate between Camarasaurus and B. brancai that we interpret as primitive for Brachiosaurus. These features...
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The plagiaulacid multituberculate, Zofiabaatar pulcher, and paurodontid, Foxraptor atrox, from the Morrison Formation at Pine Tree Ridge, Wyoming, are redescribed. Z. pulcher is represented by a complete left mandible with P2_4 and M1. The taxon differs from all other plagiaulacids in having a short, deep mandible formed posteriorly by a ventrally...
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Felch Quarry 1, north of Canon City, Colorado, has produced the largest number of vertebrate type specimens of any single Morrison Formation dinosaur locality. The site was first quarried in 1877, and has produced ten vertebrate holotypes, including the dinosaurs Allosaurus fragilis, Ceratosaurus nasicornis, Diplodocus longus, Haplocanthosaurus pri...
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This chapter presents comparative cranial anatomy of two North American cretaceous Plesiosaurs. The skulls of Elasmosaurus morgani and Dolichorhynchops osborni are compared as representatives of the Cretaceous plesiosaur families Elasmosauridae and Polycotylidae, respectively. Cranial features and the atlas-axis complex appear to be more stable evo...
Article
The skeleton of the enigmatic theropod Dryptosaurus aquilunguis is redescribed in light of the many new theropods named since Cope's original description in 1866. Unfortunately, the fragmentary nature of the single known skeleton makes comparison with other theropods difficult. Historically, Dryptosaurus has been placed, at one time or another, in...
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A partial skeleton of a very large coelophysoid previously described is redescribed and named Gojirasaurus quayi n. g. n. sp. The specimen consists of a tooth, dorsals, ribs, chevron, scapula, pubis, and tibia from an individual estimated to be about 5.5m long making it one of the largest known Triassic theropod. The specimen shares several apomorp...
Article
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Three distinct dinosaur faunas separated by unconfonnities representing about 10 my each are present in the Cedar Mountain Formation of east-central Utah. These biostratigraphic relationships compliment the lithostratigraphic relationships present in the Cedar Mountain Fonnation resulting in the recognition of five members to be recognized. These m...
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New specimens of Pliosauridae and Polycotylidae are described, including the new genus Plesiopleurodon from the Lower Cretaceous. The polycotylids Dolichorhynchops and Trinacromerum are separated by autapomorphies in the skull of Dolichorhynchops. Only Trinacromerum and Dolichorhynchops are known from enough specimens to be biostratigraphically use...
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A number of vertebrate fossils were recovered from the Small Stegosaurus Quarry during the excavation of a Stegosaurus stenops specimen by the Denver Museum of Natural History in 1992. Among them were bones of a large pterodactyloid pterosaur, assignable to Kepodactylus insperatus n. g. n. sp. These fossils represent one of the largest Jurassic pte...
Thesis
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The Sharon Springs Member of the Pierre Shale (lower Campanian) is a black, organically rich shale deposited in the Western lnterior Seaway during the Claggett Cyclothem. Atmospheric and water circulation patterns in the Sharon Springs Seaway were determined using bentonite distribution patterns to determine prevailing surface winds, location of gl...
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The dinosaurian fauna of the Niobrara Chalk Formation constitutes the best known assemblage from the middle Santonian-early Campanian interval of the Late Cretaceous of North America. The fauna consists of both hadrosaurid ornithopods and nodosaurid ankylosaurs.The nodosaurid specimens from the Smoky Hill Chalk Member of the Niobrara Chalk Formatio...
Chapter
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The geological and global distribution of dinosaur eggs, shell fragments, nests and baby bones, teeth and footprints is presented. The greatest number of localities are situated in Mongolia, China, France, India, and the United States. Most of these sites occur in Upper Cretaceous strata. Several skeletal reconstructions of baby and embryonic dinos...
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There is little doubt that the "new golden age of vertebrate paleontology" is due in large part to the public's fascination with dinosaurs. Most natural history museums have been slow to capitalize on this interest, but in recent years we have seen many new fossil displays and fossil exhibit renovations. As a result, the number of fossil skeletons...
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The chapters of this volume have addressed many different aspects of our current understanding of the initial dispersal(s) of hominins from Africa and the initial colonization(s) of Eurasia. In each of the contributions the authors have identified how our understanding of early hominin dispersal has changed in recent years and areas in which there...
Conference Paper
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The hypothesis that pachycephalosaur dinosaurs used their massive dome heads in head-to-head butting is reexamined. Such behavior would seem anatomicatly unlikely. Instead, flank butting is suggested by the available evidence. Two types of flank butting are recognized. One type was seen in Pachycephalosaurus, Prenocephale, and Stegoceros, all of wh...
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The theropod family Tyrannosauridae (Dinosauria) is composed of four genera and seven species. All taxa are known from nearly complete skeletons and/ or skulls, thus making it one of the best documented large theropod families. The stratigraphic and palaeobiogeographic distribution of the Tyrannosauridae extends from the lower Campanian to upper Ma...
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Individual variation for the large theropod Tyrannosaurus rex may be seen in the maxilla, dentary and ischium. The maxilla is variable in its depth, the size and shape of the maxillary and antorbital fenestrae, and the size and shape of the lacrimal and jugal processes. Even the left and right maxillae of the same skull show variation. Sexual dimor...
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Three species of nodosaurid ankylosaurs are present in the Upper Cretaceous of the Western Interior. These are Panoplosaurus mirus Lambe 1919, Edmontonia longiceps Sternberg 1928, and Edmontonia rugosidens (Gilmore 1930) The distinguishing characteristics of Panoplosaurus and Edmontonia are described. Of the two species of Edmontonia, the stratigra...
Article
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A fragmentary tyrannosaurid skull and postcranial skeleton from the Kirtland Shale of northwestern New Mexico is the most complete specimen of a carnivorous dinosaur known from these strata. The specimen is identified as Aublysodon cf. A. mirandus on the basis of its narrow frontals, V-shaped frontal-parietal suture, and nondenticulate incisiform p...
Article
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The Jordan theropod skull is shown to belong to Aublysodon mirandus,, a theropod dinosaur previously known only from isolated teeth. Although the skull is incomplete, it retains numerous primitive characters that set it apart from all other known Late Cretaceous theropods. These features include a long, low muzzle, relatively large teeth, frontals...
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The presence of nodosaurid ankylosaurs in the Lance, Hell Creek, and Laramie formations of western North America is confirmed, thereby extending the geochronological range of this family into the Maastrichtian (Lancian). The material includes a cervical spine and a skull referable to Edmontonia sp., and numerous teeth, plates and a basioccipital, w...
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A skeletal reconstruction and life restoration are presented for the Early Cretaceous nodosaurid ankylosaur Sauropelta edwardsi. This composite is based on several partial skeletons having armor preserved in situ from the Lower Cretaceous Cloverly Formation of Wyoming and Montana. Comparison of foot morphology with that of the ichnofossil Tetrapodo...
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A complete skull with lower jaws and postcrania of the eusuchian Thoracosaurus neocesariensis are described. The specimen is from the Late Cretaceous Ripley Formation of north-central Mississippi. It is the most complete specimen of Thoracosaurus known from North America and shows that Holopsisuchus (=Holops) is a junior synonym. Furthermore, only...
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Dinosaur footprint casts from a Mesavede (Campanian) coal mine near Gunnison, Colorado resemble those of the notorious mystery dinosaur, Xosauros which was probably a giant hadrosaur. Existing footprint descriptions, although obscure and hard to verify, are too important to overlook, particularly since debate over hadrosaur speeds currently focuses...