Kenneth Carpenter

Kenneth Carpenter
University of Colorado Boulder | CUB · Museum of Natural HIstory

Ph.D.

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195
Publications
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Introduction
Skills and Expertise

Publications

Publications (195)
Article
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The Tidwell Member, a lithostratigraphic unit on the Colorado Plateau, has variously been referred to the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation or the Upper Jurassic Summerville Formation. Its authorship has been ascribed to U.S. Geological Survey geologists Robert B. O'Sullivan or Fred Peterson. Because Peterson and O'Sullivan have different type sect...
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Vertebrate burrows from the Mesozoic of North America have been scarcely known. We report two different burrows (burrows A and B) produced by small animals in the Lower Cretaceous (Albian-Cenomanian) Mussentuchit Member of the Cedar Mountain Formation, Utah, USA .The burrow-bearing bed of the Mussentuchit Member consists of poorly-drained paleosols...
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The validity of the chondrichthyan species Petalodus ohioensis Safford 1853, has long been in doubt due to the poor quality of the published figures and the unknown whereabouts of the holotype. That situation changed with the discovery of casts of the holotype in the collections of the Yale Peabody Museum of Natural History. The quality of the cast...
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An oval recycling flume with live-beds (moveable) of medium and very coarse grained sands were used to explore the process of bone burial as a precursor to fossilization. Two-dimentional computation fluid dynamics was used to visualize and interpret the flow turbulence around bones. Results show that a water mass approaching and passing a static bo...
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Laboratory water flumes are artificial troughs of moving water widely used in hydraulic studies of fluvial systems to investigate real-world problems at smaller, more manageable scales. Water flumes have also been used to understand bone transportation sorting and bone orientation found in the fossil record using actual bones. To date, these studie...
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Popular article on Maraapunisaurus fragillimus
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Popular article about the depths of dinosaur tracks
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The Garden Park National Natural Landmark in central Colorado U.S.A. was established for 40 acres (0.16 sq. km) by the U.S. National Park Service in 1973 in recognition of its historical and paleontological significance. It was here that rather complete dinosaur skeletons were first discovered in great abundance and diversity in the late 1800s, spa...
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Only a crude line drawing of the holotype tooth of the shark Petalodus ohioensis Safford, 1853 has ever been published, and the location of that specimen has long been unknown. The discovery of a cast of the holotype in the collections of the Yale Peabody Museum of Natural History demonstrates that P. alleghaniensis Leidy, 1856, is a junior subject...
Article
The discovery in 1877 of what proved to be an extensive multi-taxa bonebed from the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation helped kick-start the first Jurassic “Dinosaur Rush.” Located north of Cañon City, Colorado, the site, known today as Cope’s Nipple within the Garden Park National Natural Landmark, was worked by Oramel and Ira Lucas from 1877 to 18...
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The Garden Park National Natural Landmark (GPNNL) is north of Cañon City, Colorado, and encompasses all of the major historical dinosaur quarries of the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation in this area. The formation there can be divided into the lower redefined Ralston Creek Member and an upper unnamed member. The Morrison Formation is bracketed bel...
Article
Full-text available
The discovery in 1877 of what proved to be an extensive multi-taxa bonebed from the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation helped kick-start the first Jurassic “Dinosaur Rush.” Located north of Cañon City, Colorado, the site, known today as Cope’s Nipple within the Garden Park National Natural Landmark, was worked by Oramel and Ira Lucas from 1877 to 18...
Article
Full-text available
The Garden Park National Natural Landmark (GPNNL) is north of Cañon City, Colorado, and encompasses all of the major historical dinosaur quarries of the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation in this area. The formation there can be divided into the lower redefined Ralston Creek Member and an upper unnamed member. The Morrison Formation is bracketed bel...
Article
Full-text available
Only a crude line drawing of the holotype tooth of the shark Petalodus ohioensis Safford, 1853 has ever been published, and the location of that specimen has long been unknown. The discovery of a cast of the holotype in the collections of the Yale Peabody Museum of Natural History demonstrates that P. alleghaniensis Leidy, 1856, is a junior subject...
Article
Full-text available
A partial dentary collected by Arthur Lakes in 1878 belong to the actinopterygian (ray-finned fish) genus Pachyrhizodus. Morphologically, the specimen compares most favorably to. P. leptopsis Cope, 1874, though P. leptopsis comes from Santonian and older beds. The importance of the specimen is that it is the first record of this genus of fish from...
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A rare specimen of soft tissue preservation of a lizard from the Parachute Creek Member of the Eocene Green River Formation, Uinta Basin, Utah, is described. The preservation is unusual in that it is a mineralized body lacking the skeleton. This, and other small boneless vertebrate specimens also from the Parachute Creek, indicate occasional demine...
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In 1878, Oramel Lucas shipped to E.D. Cope of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, a huge 1.5-m-tall neural spine from the dorsal vertebra of a sauropod (from the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation) that Cope named and illustrated as Amphicoelis fragillimus.The holotype was lost and all that is known of the specimen is from Cope's origin...
Article
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In 1878, Oramel Lucas shipped to E.D. Cope of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, a huge 1.5-m-tall neural spine from the dorsal vertebra of a sauropod (from the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation) that Cope named and illustrated as Amphicoelis fragillimus.The holotype was lost and all that is known of the specimen is from Cope's origin...
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Bipedal ornithischian dinosaurs from the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation are rare, forming only about 15% of the dinosaur specimens. Nevertheless, one of them was among the first dinosaurs named from what was then the ‘’Atlantosaurus Beds’’ of Colorado. Collecting and restudy for 140 years has increased the diversity from the initial 1877 discove...
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The quarry museum at Dinosaur National Monument, which straddles the border between the American states of Colorado and Utah, is the classic geoconservation site where visitors can see real dinosaur bones embedded in rock and protected from the weather by a concrete and glass structure. The site was found by the Carnegie Museum in August 1909 and b...
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Several shark teeth have been collected from limestones in the marine-nonmarine transitional zone of the lower Cutler beds in the Shafer Basin near Moab, Utah. The shark teeth include the Pennsylvanian petalodontiform Petalodus ohioensis, which is the first described from the state, and the Permo-Carboniferous cladodontomorph Cladodus sp. The Petal...
Article
Several shark teeth have been collected from limestones in the marine-nonmarine transitional zone of the lower Cutler beds in the Shafer Basin near Moab, Utah. The shark teeth include the Pennsylvanian pet­alodontiform Petalodus ohioensis, which is the first described from the state, and the Permo-Carboniferous cladodontomorph Cladodus sp. The Peta...
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The abundance of dinosaur eggs in Upper Cretaceous strata of Henan Province, China led to the collection and export of countless such fossils. One of these specimens, recently repatriated to China, is a partial clutch of large dinosaur eggs (Macroelongatoolithus) with a closely associated small theropod skeleton. Here we identify the specimen as an...
Article
The abundance of dinosaur eggs in Upper Cretaceous strata of Henan Province, China led to the collection and export of countless such fossils. One of these specimens, recently repatriated to China, is a partial clutch of large dinosaur eggs (Macroelongatoolithus) with a closely associated small theropod skeleton. Here we identify the specimen as an...
Data
Supplementary Figures, Supplementary Tables, Supplementary Notes and Supplementary References
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The polacanthid ankylosaur Gastonia burgei, from the Lower Cretaceous Cedar Mountain Formation, Utah, USA, is described in detail for the first time and compared with material from a stratigraphically higher monospecific Gastonia bone bed. Taphonomy and sedimentology of the bone bed place the site within the lower part of the Ruby Ranch Member and...
Article
Large ulcerative pits on the external surface of ankylosaur (Dinosauria) osteoderms have been recognized for many years. They have been ascribed without supporting evidence to damage by predator teeth or to disease. The discovery of numerous examples of pitted osteoderms in a monospecific ankylosaur (Gastonia n.sp.) bone bed in eastern Utah (USA) p...
Article
We describe a small ilium, with fibrous texture characteristic of juvenile bone, from the lower Cenomanian of central Utah, U.S.A. The ilium was recovered from the upper part of the Mussentuchit Member of the Cedar Mountain Formation. The ilium most closely resembles that of immature ceratopsid ilia referred to Agujaceratops mariscalensis from the...
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The plated dinosaur Stegosaurus longispinus came from the Morrison Formation (Upper Jurassic) near Alcova, Wyoming, USA. Only the femur and plaster casts of the posterior pair of long dermal tail spines survived destructive water damage in the 1920s. This surviving material and archival photographs showing the bones in the quarry and as exhibited a...
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Minmi is the only known genus of ankylosaurian dinosaur from Australia. Seven specimens are known, all from the Lower Cretaceous of Queensland. Only two of these have been described in any detail: the holotype specimen Minmi paravertebra from the Bungil Formation near Roma, and a near complete skeleton from the Allaru Mudstone on Marathon Station n...
Data
Appendices for Cranial osteology of Minmi sp
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The braincase from the Upper Jurassic (lower Tithonian) Morrison Formation of the Carnegie Quarry at Dinosaur National Monument (Utah), which was assigned to the ankylopollexian iguanodontian ornithopod dinosaur Uteodon aphanoecetes (Carpenter and Wilson, 2008) is actually that of the dryosaurid iguanodontian Dryosaurus cf. D. altus (Marsh, 1878)....
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The holotype of Camptonotus amplus Marsh, 1879, the right pes YPM VP.1879 from the Morrison Formation (Upper Jurassic) of Wyoming, USA, has long been referred to the Morrison ornithopod dinosaur Camptosaurus Marsh, 1885. However, the pointed proximal end of Mt I did not reach the tarsus, but was attached by ligaments to the mid-shaft of Mt II as in...
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Rich, T.H., Kear, B.P., Sinclair, R., Chinnery, B., Carpenter, K., McHugh, M.L. & Vickers-Rich, P., 2014. Serendipaceratops arthurcclarkei Rich & Vickers-Rich, 200392. Rich, T.H. & Vickers-Rich, P., 2003. Protoceratopsian? ulnae from Australia. Records of the Queen Victoria Museum 113, 1–12.View all references is an Australian Early Cretaceous cera...
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We describe a new species of the basal mammaliaform Docodon, D. apoxys, sp. nov., represented by three nearly complete dentaries from the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation of central Colorado. This species differs from other known species of Docodon in the relative heights of the principal molar cusps and in the size of the distal molars. In additi...
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Discovery of a pelvis attributed to the Late Jurassic armor-plated dinosaur Gargoyleosaurus sheds new light on the origin of the peculiar non-vertical, broad, flaring pelvis of ankylosaurs. It further substantiates separation of the two ankylosaurs from the Morrison Formation of the western United States, Gargoyleosaurus and Mymoorapelta. Although...
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The taphonomy of Dinosaur National Monument is presented based in part on the extensive archival material of Earl Douglass. This material includes unpublished manuscripts, diaries, notes, photographs, and quarry maps, and is supplemented with the petrography of matrix still encasing the original collections, as well as numerous site visits. A new q...
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The Eulert pliosaurid remains (FHSM VP-321) housed at the Sternberg Museum of Natural History (Kansas, U.S.A.) include one of the world's best examples of a Cretaceous pliosaurid plesiosaur skull. The specimen's original assignment to Brachauchenius lucasi was based solely upon the skull (dorsal surface) and left lower jaw (lateral view) because th...
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Controversy surrounds the feeding behavior of the large theropod Tyrannosaurus: Was it an obligate scavenger, a predator, or an opportunist that scavenged as well as hunted? Evidence for an obligate scavenging lifestyle is examined: Enlarged olfactory lobes, allegedly for carrion detection, are shown to also occur in extant non-scavenging predators...
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A partial skeleton of a hadrosaur believed to be Brachylophosaurus canadensis shows evidence of a failed attack by a large theropod, possibly Daspletosaurus sp. The injury consists of damage to the neural spines of the last sacral vertebra and first two caudal vertebrae. Remodeled bone, even at the site of the traumatic amputation of the caudal neu...
Chapter
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  The dinosaur Stegosaurus is characterized by osteoderms of alternating plates and terminal paired spikes. Previous studies have described the histological features and possible functions of these osteoderms. However, ontogenetic changes are poorly documented. In this study, the ontogenetic changes of the osteoderms are examined using eight differ...
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Nodosaurid ankylosaur remains from the Upper Cretaceous of Mexico are summarized. The specimens are from the El Gallo Formation of Baja California, the Pen and Aguja Formations of northwestern Coahuila, and the Cerro del Pueblo Formation of southeast Coahuila, Mexico. These specimens show differences from other known nodosaurids, including an ulna...
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Nodosaurid ankylosaur remains from the Upper Cretaceous of Mexico are summarized. The specimens are from the El Gallo Formation of Baja California, the Pen and Aguja Formations of northwestern Coahuila, and the Cerro del Pueblo Formation of southeast Coahuila, Mexico. These specimens show differences from other known nodosaurids, including an ulna...
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A new specimen of the ankylosaurid dinosaur Saichania chulsanensis from the Barun Goyot Formation at Khulsan in southern Mongolia is used to redescribe the taxon. The 2.8 m long skeleton was found articulated, with much of the body armor preserved in situ. The pelvis, hind limbs and tail are described for the first time. Biomechanical analysis sugg...
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The armor-plated dinosaur Ankylosaurus magniventris is redescribed based on specimens from the Hell Creek Formation of northeastern Montana, USA., Lance Formation of Wyoming, USA., and from the Scollard Formation of south-central Alberta, Canada. Except for brief descriptions, most of these specimens have not been described in detail. Ankylosaurus...
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Previously life reconstructions of ankylosaurid dinosaurs are incorrect in that they show uniformly shaped keeled plates arranged in neat longitudinal and transverse rows, and large spines projecting laterally from the flanks of the body. Articulated armor of Euoplocephalus tutus (previously described as the types "Scolosaurus cutleri" Nopsca and "...
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Ontogenetic and individual variation in a population of the large theropod Allosaurus cf. A. fragilis was examined using the Björk superimposition method on the premaxillae, maxillae, lachrymal, postorbital, and jugal. This method allows utilization of incomplete specimens without having to estimate (fabricate) missing data. In addition, it visuall...
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The plated thyreophoran or stegosaurian dinosaur Stegosaurus armatus was named in 1877 by Marsh for fragmentary remains from the Morrison Formation (Upper Jurassic) of Colorado, USA. Subsequent discoveries from the same formation in Wyoming and Colorado (USA) have been assigned to separate stegosaurian genera and species, but most of these are no l...
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D. 2010. Function and evolution of ankylosaur der− mal armor. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 55 (2): 213–228. Ankylosaurs have spike−, plate−, and club−shaped osteoderms probably used as defensive and/or offensive weapons. Pre− vious studies have proposed the evolution and function of small ankylosaur osteoderms, but histological variations in their...
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Underwater locomotion by plesiosaurs has long been a controversial problem with many hypotheses suggested. Almost without exception these models were based on limited analyses and limited data that failed to adequately examine joint morphology, joint kinematics or test the hypotheses. Our analysis demonstrates that the sea lion-and rowingmodels are...
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The purpose of this application, under Article 75.5 of the Code, is to conserve the usage of the name Allosaurus Marsh, 1877 by replacement of the fragmentary and nondiagnostic holotype of Allosaurus fragilis Marsh, 1877 with a diagnostic skull and skeleton from the same quarry. The name of the genus Allosaurus, whose type species is A. fragilis, i...