Kenneth F. Backman

Kenneth F. Backman
Clemson University | CU · Department of Parks, Recreation and Tourism Management

Doctor of Philosophy

About

101
Publications
43,662
Reads
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3,034
Citations
Additional affiliations
January 1996 - September 2015
Clemson University
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)

Publications

Publications (101)
Chapter
This chapter proposes a new conceptual model to understand the construction of online destination images. This will lead to a more accurate and realistic portrayal of how destination images are created, and allow destination managers (and other stakeholders) to better understand the images promoted, and how these comport with the actual experience...
Article
Recreational boating is one of the major water-based recreation activities in the United States. Multiple public natural lakes and rivers are used for boating, but these waterways are a limited natural resource. The building of dams and their associated reservoirs have increased opportunities for boating, but even these areas at times remain quite...
Article
The relationship between protected forested areas and neighboring residents in developing countries has been one of conflict. Tourism has both direct and indirect benefits to residents neighboring protected areas, and it can be one of the most innovative ways to resolve human-wildlife conflicts and achieve long-term conservation goals. However, the...
Article
Full-text available
With the development and evaluation of information technology, virtual reality technology provides opportunities to offer an immersive and interactive experience for supplementing traditional classroom lecture and creating innovative online learning in education curricula and professional training. Given that the arena of 3D entertainment-oriented...
Article
Understanding which variables predict behavioral intentions to revisit/repurchase tourist facilities is an important issue in the tourism industry, but not many studies have investigated relationships among service quality, transaction-specific satisfactions, and overall satisfactions in predicting repurchase intention. This study examined the rela...
Article
Planned events have become an important feature in most destinations. Specifically, sustainable events have gained prominence in the recent past. Event organizers, participants, and event sponsors have become increasingly aware of the need to conduct sustainable events whereby the community, the environment, and economic benefits are all significan...
Article
With the rapid development of creative industries in the global economy, creative tourism is viewed as a development tool for stimulating national economies and highlighting industries, regions, and cities, making a significant contribution in changing the tourist experience. The theory of planned behaviour (TPB) is empirically well-supported as a...
Article
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The relationship between livelihoods and forest use is one of the main challenges facing wildlife and habitat conservation in developing countries. Poor residents in forest-adjacent areas are typically perceived to be the main forest users, with use often deemed illegal. However, there is still a limited understanding of livelihood constraints of t...
Article
The relationship between livelihoods and forest use is one of the main challenges facing wildlife and habitat conservation in developing countries. Poor residents in forest-adjacent areas are typically perceived to be the main forest users, with use often deemed illegal. However, there is still a limited understanding of livelihood constraints of t...
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This paper explores the perceived forms, and drivers of forest dependence at Volcanoes National Park. Using focus group interviews, we explored the perceptions of forest adjacent residents with direct access to conservation incentives, residents with no direct access to conservation incentives, and senior park managers. The paper reveals dominant f...
Article
Event management has burst on the academic and applied fields in the last 30 years as an independent entity, although the event product has existed for approximately as long as mankind has existed. Certainly, from recorded time, events have taken a major role in history as part of celebration, religion, community, and even revolution events that ha...
Article
The study aimed to provide a better understanding of financial leakages in a sample of classified hotels in Jordan in terms of its reasons, its channels, and potential ways to reduce it from hotel managers’ perspective. Eighteen semistructured interviews were conducted with hotel managers. The results showed a high level of awareness regarding fina...
Article
The growth and popularity of festivals and events has led to a need for examination of volunteer program management. An increase in music festivals in the United States in the last decade has resulted in managers recruiting and managing volunteers to operate music festivals. This research examines relationships between moderating variables and fact...
Article
Interest in the use of local food in tourism and hospitality is growing in both industry and academic circles. Most research on local food has focused on its potential to enhance local community development, while relatively little research has examined the way tourists perceive local foods in developing countries. This study applies image theory t...
Article
Although Tanzania is well known for the quality of its natural and cultural resources, its food tourism linkages has largely remained unknown and unexplored. In recent years, the use of local foods in tourism has grown considerably and has become one of the most dynamic and creative segments of the tourism industry in the world. Most studies on foo...
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This study aims to assess the effect of sustainability practices on financial leakages in the hotel industry in Jordan. A self-administered survey was distributed to hotel managers in all 213 classified hotels in Amman, Aqaba, Petra, and the Dead Sea area. Of these, 163 questionnaires were returned with a response rate of 76.5%. Confirmatory Factor...
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Tourism revenue sharing (TRS) has become a popular strategy for integrated wildlife conservation and rural development in Africa. In Rwanda, 5% of tourism revenue is invested annually in communities adjacent to protected areas. However, the conservation impact of the TRS strategy has been challenged. Previous studies have revealed structural constr...
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Tourism is one of Kenya's key industries, contributing about one fifth of the country's gross domestic product. Tourism and natural environment are closely linked, with successful tourism hinging on considerations for biophysical environment. Carefully planned tourism may prevent problems of air and water pollution, habitat destruction and other ec...
Article
The proliferation of the Internet and other technological innovations has transformed the structure of the tourism industry as well as affected how tourism destinations are perceived and consumed. The 3D virtual world provides opportunities for destination marketing organizations to communicate with targeted markets by offering a rich environment f...
Article
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Cultural tourism programmes (CTPs) provide opportunities for rural communities to supplement their income. While these programmes are intended to empower local people and reduce poverty, the mechanisms used for choosing the targeted ‘communities' remain largely unexamined. This paper analyses the planning, structure and implementation of CTPs as a...
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Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the influence of Islamic beliefs and practices on leisure and travel behavior of Muslims in Clemson, South Carolina. With the increase of Muslims in the USA, from both conversion and immigration, it is important to examine the effects of their religion on leisure and travel behavior. Design/methodo...
Article
Volunteers at music festivals play a critical role in festival operation and success. As the music festival industry continues to grow, the ability for these large productions to effectively execute a large volunteer program is augmented. Volunteers from the 2013 Austin City Limits Music Festival were surveyed in regards to their self-image congrue...
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationships between tourists’ motivation, experience, perceived value and revisit intentions to creative tourism destinations. The ever-growing concept of creativity has been introduced into the tourism field. Creative tourism has been viewed as a strategy to regenerate destinations physic...
Article
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This paper explores the perceived relationship between household poverty and forest dependence among the poorest residents neighboring Volcanoes National Park in Rwanda. Using the sustainable livelihoods framework, this paper examines the influence of household poverty on forest dependence. The findings reveal that food and health security risks ar...
Article
Like other developing African countries, Rwanda has embraced nature-based tourism for its economic potential. However, tourism can cause irreversible harm, especially in fragile but popular tourist destinations such as Volcanoes National Park (VPN) in Rwanda, which is home to endangered species. Instead of focusing greater attention on this risk, p...
Article
Land-use-change conflicts have shaped the conservation and tourism activities and human livelihood debate in the Usangu Plains over the last 10 years. This has led Ruaha National Park to become the largest national park in Tanzania and the second largest in Africa. The need to understand the rationale behind the expansion of Ruaha National Park and...
Article
The immersive nature of 3D virtual worlds presents significant opportunities for tourism businesses as an optimal marketing platform to provide travel information and interact with potential tourists as well as a useful management tool to develop brand awareness and gain competitive advantage in the global market. Several travel and tourism organiz...
Article
Selon le bureau de recensement, 50 pour cent de la population adulte américaine fait du travail bénévole. Comme les bénévoles font partie intégrante de la population active, les responsables des services auxquels ils sont affectés cherchent à connaître leur motivation pour le travail. S’appuyant sur une approche fonctionnaliste du bénévolat, la pré...
Article
The virtual world of Second Life presents an opportunity to be an optimal educational platform by providing real-world simulations, social interactions, and collaborative spaces. Educators in travel and tourism fields have also begun to explore the potential of virtual learning in Second Life and take advantage of its effective virtual environment...
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Over the last decade, tourism in Tanzania has recorded significant growth, with the industry's contribution to the country's steadily growing GDP. However, poverty and unemployment rate in the country is still very high, which raises questions regarding local community participation in decision making. Participation in the decision-making process i...
Article
The virtual world of Second Life provides opportunities for companies in communicating marketing messages to targeted markets and capturing the attention of potential customers. Second Life has also been used by the travel and tourism industry as a collaborative and commercial tool for communicating with travelers in marketing tourism destinations...
Article
This research examines how an instructional intervention helped undergraduate college students develop intercultural competence in the context of a regular travel and tourism undergraduate university course. The rationale for this instructional intervention is based on the need for intercultural-competent individuals in the travel and tourism indus...
Article
Tourism is being utilized as a key economic development tool of the 21st century. Serious concern over the benefit of tourism for the poor has contributed to discussion on community involvement and community participation in contemporary literature. In particular, sustainable development has become a way to address the long-term viability of income...
Article
Purpose – The virtual world environment presents new business opportunities for building destination images that allow customers to make an informed decision and initiate travel arrangements. The purpose of this study is to investigate the applicability of flow theory and the concept of involvement in understanding the impacts of virtual experience...
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____________________________________________________________ Private consumption benefits arise when the cost an individual is willing to pay to attend a sporting event is greater than the actual cost incurred by the individual. The amount of money the individual is willing to pay above actual expenditures is a benefit or welfare gain to the indivi...
Article
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What Is Happening With Sustainable Community Tourism? What is the good of tourism development if the people who are the intended beneficiaries receive little or no benefit after the project occurs? The less developed countries of the world are focusing more and more on tourism to bring in foreign currency and to build growth in GDP but can regions...
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Good governance is a prerequisite in achieving sustainability objectives, especially in an industry such as tourism which is gaining support as a tool for poverty alleviation in developing countries. Good governance is described as a state's capacity to develop efficient and effective public management processes, and entails participatory, transpar...
Article
Tourism, often referred to as the world's largest industry, impacts the residents of local communities. Festivals and events are often used as tools of tourism development by local governments. However, prior to developing a new festival, the first step is to conduct an assessment of how locals perceive the current level of social and cultural impa...
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The purpose of this research was to examine transfer of meaningful learning in a free-choice learning setting. Specifically, this research looked at the effect of interpretive message design on visitors' ability to transfer leaning from a heritage tourism site. This was an important perspective to gain, since learning transfer has not been explored...
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Pro-poor tourism recognizes the potential for entrepreneurial expansion through tourism in developing countries. However, defining the entrepreneurial market and recognizing the social and cultural construction of income earning possibilities has only been loosely approached in tourism literature. By taking an in-depth look at the strengths and wea...
Article
Destinations throughout the USA and world compete against each other for the opportunity to host professional and amateur sporting events. The primary motivation for these destinations is the anticipated economic impact generated by sport tourists' expenditures while attending sporting events. Although the economic impact of sporting events has bee...
Article
Three-dimensional (3D) virtual world environment will gain more attention and become more pervasive as a new pedagogical tool in education curriculum and business training. The purpose of this study is to investigate flow theory in understanding the impacts of virtual experiences of Second Life on students' attitudes toward virtual learning. The un...
Article
Abstract Patterns of 1980–1990 migration differ markedly from those of the 1970s but they have received little conceptual or empirical analysis because of limited data and because their diversity has resisted theoretical generalization. An expanded human ecological perspective incorporating international dimensions is hypothesized to explain differ...
Article
This research examines the two promotional strategies most commonly used by destination marketers: traditional advertising and Web sites.While research concerning both advertising and the Internet is abundant, studies comparing tourism marketing strategies, especially those that target the Millennial generation, are limited. In this study a print a...
Conference Paper
As a virtual revolution in emerging media environments, it is believed that the 3D virtual world environment of Second Life will gain more attention and become more pervasive as a new marketing tool in business and tourism industries. The purpose of this study is to investigate flow theory in understanding the impacts of virtual experiences of Seco...
Article
Sustainable communities address social, economic, and environmental issues in an integrated manner to ensure a healthy and viable community atmosphere where quality of life is a key consideration (Cartwright, 2000). Understanding the community attributes that influence quality of life has become a major interest area among sociologists, recreation...
Article
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This study examined visitor mindfulness at a cultural festival. Mindfulness is considered a state of being that requires individuals to engage in active information processing, enabling them to be adaptive and responsive to information in their surroundings. Mindfulness is believed to result in more learning, high satisfaction, greater understandin...
Article
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Language is perceived as a barrier in study abroad programs as it may limit students' opportunities to interact with the local culture. The purpose of this research is to understand the effect of the language barrier on intercultural communication between study abroad students and the host population, and other factors that enhance the students' en...
Article
Prospects for opening joint ventures in Cuba by U.S. hotel operators remain dim, despite inevitable changes in the island's government. Expatriate Cubans remain adamantly opposed to the current regime, thus providing a political headwind. Beyond that, a question arises of why Cuba's tourist interests would want to invite more leakage of tourism rev...
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This research explores two of the basic tools used by tourism marketers: advertising and publicity. Message stimulus is the independent variable and consists of two parts: message presentation (i.e., publicity or advertising) and message sequencing (i.e., publicity only, publicity then advertising, advertising only, or advertising then publicity)....
Article
Post-1980 internal migration patterns were unanticipated, and prevailing explanations of them fail to account for the effects of new international relationships. A human ecological theory is developed which suggests an explanation based on the sphere of sustenance activities in ecosystems and relative dominance in these activities. Larger net migra...
Article
Tourism has considerable appeal to communities in search of economic development. As noted by Tooman (1997), tourism is often seen as attainable for most communities with minimal public investment in infrastructure and marketing, while the private sector is expected to provide hotels, restaurants and other tourist facilities. The extent to which a...
Article
The purpose of this research is to examine the persuasive effects of message presentation (i.e., advertising or publicity) on the effectiveness of marketing a tourist destination. This research attempts to test whether there is a difference between advertising and publicity on message acceptance and message response. Four dependent variables are st...
Article
A limitation of many event impact studies is the failure to look beyond short-term economic effects of visitor spending. Using interview techniques, a broader understanding of the impacts of an event on a host community can be realized. The purpose of this study was to estimate the economic impacts of spectator spending at a large, annual sport eve...
Article
Full-text available
The intent of this study of Virginia hunterslnon- hunters was to test the efficacy of panel research for assessing the temporal stability of hunting participation and constraints. Findings suggest that participationlnon- participation patterns were stable across time periods for the population, yet dynamic at the individual level. Although the stru...
Article
Full-text available
The intent of this panel study of Virginia hunters/non-hunters (N = 497) was to assess the temporal stability of. hunting participation; perceived constraint factor structure and intensity; and the interrelationship of participation and constraints. Findings suggest that participation/non-participation patterns were stable across time periods for t...
Article
In 1999, replication of a 1981 study was conducted as exactly as possible as the 1981 study, involving the same number of respondents (n = 109), universities, recreation management classes, classroom-administered questionnaire, and data analysis. Cognitive states of privacy were measured using a 20-item scale, rated on a 7-point importance continuu...
Article
Customers of leisure services have increased their expectations of experience providers in recentyears. As the competition among service providers has increased for customers, service providers have begun to focus efforts on assessing the quality of the experiences they provide for their guests. Using the findings from their investigations, leisure...
Article
Tourism in most states today is a vital economic force. To meet the growing desires of the traveling public who wish to better understand the environment and how to respect it, entrepreneurs in the private and public sectors need to rise. Thus, the purpose of this study was to help nature-based tourism businesses improve the quality of services tha...
Article
Tourism has become the primary industry of the Low Country of South Carolina. In response, the economic, social, and cultural fabric of the area has changed to accommodate this industry. Using interviews and observations, this study examined issues concerning host-guest interactions from a political ecological perspective. Overall, especially for t...
Article
Nature-based travellers are usually assumed to be a homogeneous group of travellers, but several studies have begun to identify certain different segments in this market. The purpose of the current study was to identify differences and similarities in the senior nature-based traveller market, and to assess whether there is more than one segment wit...
Article
Each year masses of children leave their rural schools without the skills they will need to survive in today's competitive job market. Youth in rural areas may suffer deficits in education, cognitive skills and work experience for a multitude of reasons. Lack of parental encouragement, poverty, neglect, and abuse are only some of the factors puttin...
Article
Nature-based tourism, science tourism, and ecotourism are some of the emerging and growing trends in special-interest tourism. This study utilized a southeastern sample of the United States who had an interest in travel and the environment. A modified Dillman total design method survey was used to collect the data. The study demonstrated that widel...
Article
The purpose of this study was to determine if psychographic research, which attempts to look at the life-style characteristics of tourists, can be used to differentiate segments of the nature-based travel market. Furthermore, it attempted to determine whether differ ences exist between members of the resulting segments with respect to their travel...
Article
A great majority of festivals and special events are dependent upon financial backing from corporate sponsors. A festival or event manager typically secures sponsorship dollars by presenting the organization with some type of a proposal. One logical step corporations use in evaluating a sponsorship proposal is to see if sponsoring the event is cons...
Article
Festivals, special events, and exhibitions are the cultural resources of an area that make possible the successful hosting of visitors. A large number of organizations and communities throughout North America organize and promote special events to create a positive image of the place and bring in money to the local community. Although there has bee...
Article
Issues of social equity are presumed to grow in importance as conditions in urban America deteriorate. Broadening differences between “haves and have nots” will direct public decision makers to provide further justification for service allocation patterns. This study examines the reliability, validity, and stability of equity preference indices for...