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Kelly M. Hoffman

Kelly M. Hoffman
Future Laboratories

Ph.D.

About

16
Publications
7,339
Reads
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1,361
Citations
Additional affiliations
August 2018 - April 2019
Future Laboratories
Position
  • Research Associate
August 2010 - May 2016
University of Virginia
Position
  • PhD Student
August 2008 - June 2010
Princeton University
Position
  • Researcher
Education
August 2010 - December 2012
University of Virginia
Field of study
  • Social Psychology
August 2010 - May 2016
University of Virginia
Field of study
  • Social Psychology
August 2004 - May 2008
Bucknell University
Field of study
  • Psychology; English

Publications

Publications (16)
Article
Psychology has been accused of 'psychologizing' racism. Here, we summarize the argument that Psychology routinely neglects structural racism and historical legacies of racism. We then discuss two cases-healthcare and police use of force-in which studying individual bias could benefit from incorporating a focus on structures and history. We close by...
Preprint
Implicit prejudice are social preferences that exist outside of conscious awareness or conscious control. We summarize evidence for three mechanisms that influence the expression of implicit prejudice: associative change, contextual change, and change in control over implicit prejudice. We then review the evidence (or lack thereof) for five open is...
Article
White American adults assume Blacks feel less pain than do Whites, but only if they believe Blacks have faced greater economic hardship than Whites. The current study investigates when in development children first recognize racial group differences in economic hardship, and examines whether perceptions of hardship inform children's racial bias in...
Article
Black Americans are systematically undertreated for pain relative to white Americans. We examine whether this racial bias is related to false beliefs about biological differences between blacks and whites (e.g., "black people's skin is thicker than white people's skin"). Study 1 documented these beliefs among white laypersons and revealed that part...
Article
Full-text available
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0048546.].
Article
The present work examines whether people assume that those who have faced hardship feel less pain than those who have not, and whether this belief contributes to the perception that Blacks feel less pain than Whites. In Experiments 1 and 2, participants received information about a Black and/or White target person’s life hardship and then rated the...
Article
In the days of slavery, White people assumed that Black people felt less pain than did White people. This belief was used to justify slavery; it was also used to justify the inhumane treatment of Black men and women in medical research. Today, White Americans continue to believe that Black people feel less pain than do White people although this be...
Article
Previous research indicates that American adults, both Black and White, assume a priori that Black people feel less pain than do White people (Trawalter, Hoffman, & Waytz, 2012, PLoS One, 7[11], 1–8). The present work investigates when in development this bias emerges. Five-, 7-, and 10-year-olds first rated the amount of pain they themselves would...
Article
Full-text available
The present research provides the first systematic empirical investigation into superhumanization, the attribution of supernatural, extrasensory, and magical mental and physical qualities to humans. Five studies test and support the hypothesis that White Americans superhumanize Black people relative to White people. Studies 1-2b demonstrate this ph...
Article
Implicit prejudices are social preferences that exist outside of conscious awareness or conscious control. In this review, we summarize evidence for three mechanisms that influence the expression of implicit prejudice: associative change, contextual change, and change in control over implicit prejudice. We then review the evidence (or lack thereof)...
Article
Full-text available
Research on inattentional blindness demonstrates that when attending to 1 set of stimuli, people often fail to consciously perceive a task-irrelevant object. In this experiment, we tested for selective inattentional blindness to racial outgroup members. We reasoned that some racial groups would be perceived as more relevant than others, depending o...
Article
Full-text available
The present work provides evidence that people assume a priori that Blacks feel less pain than do Whites. It also demonstrates that this bias is rooted in perceptions of status and the privilege (or hardship) status confers, not race per se. Archival data from the National Football League injury reports reveal that, relative to injured White player...
Data
Zero-order correlations between self-ratings and ratings of others’ pain. (DOCX)
Data
Unadjusted means and standard deviations for self-ratings and ratings of others’ pain. (DOCX)
Article
The present research implemented three studies in order to ascertain whether or not women are likely to approach a man to initiate/signal romantic interest and to determine which opening lines used by women are perceived as most effective, and most direct by men and women. Based on societal changes in women’s roles and changes in women’s attitudes...

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