Kelly S. Hale

Kelly S. Hale
Draper Laboratory | Draper · User Experience

About

66
Publications
8,792
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1,256
Citations

Publications

Publications (66)
Article
The Army Future Command’s Synthetic Training Environment (STE) is positioned to push innovation in training technologies to provide distributed, digital training experiences where and when needed. This paper supports the future training vision in providing an empirical evaluation of how various display technologies influence spatial knowledge withi...
Book
This book offers a broad perspective on the field of cognitive engineering and neuroergonomics. It covers emerging practices and future trends towards the harmonious integration of human operators with computational systems. The book reports on novel theoretical findings on mental workload and stress, activity theory, human reliability, error and r...
Article
Augmented-reality (AR) can be used to supplement current analog technology (e.g. traditional Sand Table EXercises; STEX) used in training spatial knowledge and tactical decision making in the U.S. military. By utilizing an Augmented REality Sand table (ARES), an effectiveness evaluation was executed in order to scientifically evaluate performance o...
Article
Full-text available
Failure to fully consider human factors issues at all stages of system development can increase costs and delay system deployment. The System for Human Factors Assessment and Readiness Evaluation (SHARE) is a conceptual framework that includes a method for standardizing human factors readiness assessment. SHARE utilizes a Human Factors Readiness Le...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Transportation Security Officers (TSOs) are at the forefront of our nation’s security, and are tasked with screening every bag boarding a commercial aircraft within the United States. TSOs undergo extensive classroom and simulation-based visual search training to learn how to identify threats within X-ray imagery. Integration of eye tracking techno...
Chapter
Introduction Virtual environment (VE) training technologies provide what many perceive as the panacea in training solutions. Such environments immerse trainees in a realistic context, affording the opportunity to “learn by doing,” “train like we fight,” and “involve me and I understand” (Stanney, Hale, and Cohn, 2012). While simulators and VE train...
Article
Full-text available
Visual search is a complex task that involves many neural pathways to identify relevant areas of interest within a scene. Humans remain a critical component in visual search tasks, as they can effectively perceive anomalies within complex scenes. However, this task can be challenging, particularly under time pressure. In order to improve visual sea...
Article
X-ray images provide information about the inner structure of the object and depict density, whereas photographs created by light reflection provide information about an object's surface. Thus, X-ray screeners rely on a very different set of perceptual cues and strategies to recognize objects and potential threats. Also, the X-ray detection task is...
Conference Paper
While human factors has been recognized as a key component in research and development efforts, there is a lack of systematic guidance as to how to insert human factors evaluation outcomes into system development processes. The current effort proposes a systematic scale comparable to existing Technology Readiness Level scales to objectively quantif...
Conference Paper
The ever increasing complexity of knowledge, skills and abilities (KSAs) demanded of Department of Defense (DoD) personnel has created the need to develop tools to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of training. This is especially true for the F-35, the first 5th-generation aircraft to use an HMD as the primary instrument display. Additional...
Conference Paper
Resilience is the human ability to adapt in the face of tragedy, trauma, adversity, hardship, and ongoing life stressors. To date, experimental reports on this subject have focused on long-term trajectories (weeks to months) of resilience, with little or no focus on whether significant changes to resilience could be achieved by short-term intervent...
Article
While much has been made of the potential uses for virtual environment (VE) technologies as training aids, there are few guidelines and strategies to inform system development from the user’s perspective. Assumptions are that a human factors-based evaluation will ensure optimal performance, transferring training from virtual to real worlds; however...
Article
Full-text available
Visual search is a complex task that involves many neural pathways to identify relevant areas of interest within a scene. Humans remain a critical component in visual search tasks, as they can effectively perceive anomalies within complex scenes. However, this task can be challenging, particularly under time pressure. In order to improve visual sea...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Augmented reality (AR) is defined as “a live direct or an indirect view of a physical, real-world environment whose elements are augmented by computer-generated sensory input, such as sound, graphics or GPS data.” It is not uncommon to come face-to-face with smart devices that are equipped with multiple embedded sensory inputs such as mega pixel ca...
Chapter
IntroductionCognitive State AssessorsHuman–System AugmentationRobust ControllersApplication DomainsConclusions AcknowledgmentsReferences
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Effective training is a vital foundation for transportation security officers required to learn strategies for identifying anomalies within X-ray images that may indicate a potential threat. Past research has shown that adaptive training is a powerful tool to increase detection performance, however, adaptive training strategies in this domain have...
Article
This paper describes a proposed scale of Human Factors Readiness Levels (HFRL) that provides a method for standardizing Human Factors (HF) readiness assessment. This scale can be used by HF decision makers in the acquisition, project management, or implementation phases in conjunction with Technological Readiness Levels, and includes HF-specific le...
Conference Paper
Real-time adaptation is challenging in both operational and training environments, as the system must be able to identify what, why, and when mitigation is needed, and how best to mitigate to optimize the human-system interaction. Training systems have additional complexities, as the sole goal is not to optimize performance as in operational enviro...
Conference Paper
Gaining competitive advantage requires acquiring or developing a capability that allows an organization or individual to outperform its competitors. In today's technology-driven environment, where human capabilities are struggling to keep up with technology offerings, techniques for augmenting human performance are becoming the critical gap that is...
Conference Paper
The purpose of this study was to assess at a preliminary level, the test/retest reliability of the math processing mini-game of CogGauge: a cognitive assessment tool for spaceflight. The focus of this assessment was on the stability of test scores and calculation of reliable change on test/retest scores obtained on a mathematical processing task. A...
Conference Paper
Certified Flight Instructors (CFIs) in general aviation are tasked with training student pilots the knowledge and skills related to piloting an aircraft. This requires CFIs to have indepth knowledge about common student errors including early indicators of non-optimal performance in flight, an understanding of probable root cause(s) of non-optimal...
Article
The System for Tactile Reception of Advanced Patterns (STRAP) is capable of displaying complex information through tactile actuators on a user's torso. Non-verbal communication requirements from a Military Operations in Urban Terrain (MOUT) task and tactile design guidelines resulted greater than 60 distinct tactile symbols for communication and a...
Conference Paper
Unmanned aerial systems (UAS) have high mishap rates as compared to general aviation. Among other factors, UAS operator error has been associated with instrumentation/sensory feedback systems and channelized attention. Multimodal displays, and in particular exteroceptive tactile cueing may be a useful means of compensating for UAS operator's sensor...
Article
Full-text available
The Autodiagnostic Adaptive Precision Trainer for Decision Making (ADAPT-DM) is a framework for adaptive training of decision making skills. The training challenge is that decision making behavior is mostly unobservable with traditional behavioral measures, which generally only give access to outcome performance. This article describes the ADAPT-DM...
Conference Paper
The System for Tactile Reception of Advanced Patterns (STRAP) is capable of displaying complex information through tactile actuators on a user's torso. Non-verbal communication requirements from a Military Operations in Urban Terrain (MOUT) task and tactile design guidelines resulted greater than 60 distinct tactile symbols for communication and a...
Article
Augmented cognition is a form of human-systems interaction in which a tight coupling between user and computer is achieved via physiological and neurophysiological sensing of a user's cognitive state. This interactive paradigm seeks to revolutionize the manner in which humans engage with computers by leveraging this knowledge of cognitive state to...
Conference Paper
Augmented cognition could serve as an innovative rehabilitation approach for mild traumatic brain injuries, where issues with cognition, behavior, and affective responses are monitored in real-time and mitigation strategies are triggered to resolve performance or behavior issues. Such mitigations could guide individuals in addressing the current si...
Conference Paper
Predicting the effect of system design decisions on operator performance is challenging, particularly when a system is in the early stages of development. Tools such as the Improved Performance Research Integration Tool (IMPRINT) have been used successfully to predict operator performance by identifying task/design combinations leading to potential...
Conference Paper
Intelligence analysts are faced with the demanding task of identifying patterns in large volumes of complex, textual sources and predicting possible outcomes based on perceived patterns. To address this need, the Advanced Neurophysiology for Intelligence Text Analysis (ANITA) system is being developed to provide a real-time analysis system using EE...
Article
Virtual training systems use multimodal technology to provide realistic training scenarios. To determine the benefits of adopting multimodal training strategies, it is essential to identify the critical knowledge, skills and attitudes that are being targeted in training and relate these to the multimodal human sensory systems that should be stimula...
Chapter
Intelligence analysts are bombarded with enormous volumes of imagery that they must visually filter to identify relevant areas of interest. Interpretation of such data is subject to error due to (1) large data volumes, implying the need for faster and more effective processing, and (2) misinterpretation, implying the need for enhanced analyst/syste...
Article
Haptic interaction has been successfully incorporated into a variety of virtual environment (VE) systems, yet designing multimodal VE training systems remains challenging as each cue incorporated during training should maximise learning and training transfer. This study examined the impact of incorporating two independent, spatialised tactile cues...
Article
An experiment was conducted to explore the feasibility of using physiological indicators (i.e. eye-tracking and electroencephalography [EEG]) to drive identification of relevant areas of interest during imagery analysis. Results indicate that ocular fixations are longer when a target is believed to be present. Furthermore, the accuracy of correct i...
Article
This paper describes the Training Effectiveness Evaluation with neurophysiological metrics: Fidelity Assessment of VE Training Systems (TEE-FAST) framework, which offers a comprehensive assessment of physical, functional and psychological fidelity of VE training systems. TEE-FAST evaluates at the cue level how information is presented to users and...
Article
This paper presents pilot study results on the learnability and effectiveness of the System for Tactile Reception of Advanced Patterns (STRAP) that is capable of displaying complex information through tactile actuators on the user's torso. Information requirements from dismounted soldier communications and tactile design guidelines resulted in 56 d...
Article
Task Analyses serve multiple purposes in system design, yet even with the resource intensive nature of such processes, further insight is still needed for the design of multi-modal systems. A Sensory Task Analysis (STA) allows a very granular level task decomposition into sensory information and interaction capability requirements that allows the d...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The ability to track salient targets is common to contemporary work environments ranging from airport security to imagery analysis. A neurotechnology platform was implemented for real-time EEG to monitor operator state during review of complex satellite imagery. Consistent, quantifiable stimulus-locked ERP signatures for targets/non-targets were id...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
As a Human Computer Interaction (HCI) designer, it is important to understand the cognitive workload level (mental demand) of an operator while performing a task. A particular concern about operator workload stems from the increased potential for errors when cognitive workload gets too high. The Office of Naval Research Disruptive Technologies Oppo...
Article
A primary goal of the usability evaluation process is to create interfaces that can be seamlessly integrated into current processes and create an enjoyable experience for the user. Given this, it is critical to capture user input to effectively drive product development and redesign. While many methods are available to usability practitioners, this...
Conference Paper
Many approaches have attempted to address a truly symbiotic relationship between human and machine but, thus far, a critical shortcoming has been the computer’s inability to account for human information processing (HIP) limitations. The field of Augmented Cognition (AugCog) capitalizes on recent advances in the areas of neuroscience, cognitive sci...
Conference Paper
This paper introduces the Multimodal Information Design Support (MIDS) system, which is an empirically validated software tool aimed at optimizing information display design. Operators in information-intense environments, such as control rooms, are constantly faced with the challenge of processing vast amounts of disparate information, which may ca...
Article
Full-text available
In augmented cognition (AugCog), mitigation strategies are used as real-time intervention techniques that are triggered by the outcome of cognitive state assessment and context to significantly improve human-systems performance. Yet, no common ground has been established regarding best practices and what aspects to consider during implementation. T...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A prototype Revolutionary Accelerated Processing Image Detection (RAPID) system has been developed that seeks to significantly improve Imagery Analysts' data throughput and accuracy by incorporating innovative electroencephalogram (EEG) and eye tracking neurophysiologic technology to enhance an analyst's ability to identify areas of interest within...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Intelligence analysts are bombarded with enormous volumes of imagery, which they must visually filter through to identify relevant areas of interest. Interpretation of such data is subject to error due to (1) large data volumes, implying the need for faster and more effective processing, and (2) misinterpretation, implying the need for enhanced ana...
Article
Situation awareness is a critical component to many complex military tasks, where operators must be aware of the situation around them as it unfolds in real-time. Warfighters involved in military operations in urban terrain (MOUT) operate in a dynamic, highly stressful environment, where specific knowledge, such as spatial awareness of potential en...
Article
To examine the effect of stereo vision on performance, presence and oculomotor disturbances within a virtual environment (VE), two groups of 23 participants (good stereo acuity/low stereo acuity) were evaluated. Groups were matched in terms of gender, age and VE design factors (the latter were accounted for to ensure a similar VE experience between...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
While neurophysiological assessment can indicate a need for mitigation, this information alone reveals little with regard to what the right mitigation strategy would be for a given overload condition or how it should be configured (e.g. target modality or salience of a cue). To effectively incorporate mitigation strategies that optimize information...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A key aspect within net-centric warfare is situational awareness (SA), where operators consolidate data into an understanding of 'the big picture' that dynamically updates as the situation changes. While many measures of SA exist, including explicit, implicit, and subjective measures, none of these metrics support the dynamic, real-time assessment...
Article
Operators in military C4ISR environments are required to rapidly assess and respond to critical events accurately while monitoring ongoing operations. In order to assist in designing complex display systems to support C4ISR operators, it is critical to understand when and why information displayed exceeds human capacity. Common metrics for evaluati...
Article
An empirical study was completed to investigate the effects of audition on spatial knowledge acquisition and workload within a virtual training environment. Four levels of audio were investigated including no audio, non-spatialized audio, and two forms of spatialized audio. While all training conditions led to significant decreases in workload, men...
Article
Full-text available
There are a number of studies that suggest that virtual environment (VE) systems can facilitate transfer of training (Darken & Peterson, 2002; Péruch, Belingard, & Thinus-Blanc, 2000; Rose et al., 2001). Yet this benefit is not universal, as Brooks et al. (2002) found that VE training was not beneficial for a recognition task. Thus, VE training may...
Article
As technology advances, systems are increasingly able to provide more information than a human operator can process accurately. Thus, a challenge for designers is to create interfaces that allow operators to process the optimal amount of data. It is herein proposed that this may be accomplished by creating multimodal display systems that augment or...
Article
We survey the haptics literature and identify conditions under which haptic interaction displays can enhance human perception and performance. Integrating haptic interactions in multimodal systems requires understanding user's sensory, perceptual, and cognitive abilities and limitations. Haptic design guidelines can aid developers of multimodal int...
Article
The training transfer study focused on a group of student navigators at HS-l0 (San Diego, California) preparing for their first operational rotary wing tactical overland flight, aimed at developing and utilizing terrain association skills. In order to assess the training transfer effectiveness of the VEHELO, a set of outcome and process metrics for...
Article
As the technology that supports interactive systems advances, the possibility of leveraging a multitude of sensory systems becomes possible. By using multiple sensory processors, substantial gains in the information management capacity of the human-computer integral should be realized, and those with sensory losses can be better accommodated. The q...
Article
For those interested in using head-coupled PC-based immersive virtual environment (VE) technology to train, entertain, or inform, it is essential to understand the effects this technology has on its users. This study investigated potential adverse effects, including the sickness associated with exposure and extreme responses (emesis, flashbacks). P...
Article
This volume provides balanced coverage of the spectrum of issues related to virtual environment (VE) technology, from fundamental science and technology to VE applications. Authors from academia, industry, and government laboratories from Europe, Asia, and the US discuss topics on concepts, system requirements (including hardware and software), des...
Article
Virtual environment (VE) technology offers a viable training option for developing knowledge, skills and attitudes (KSA) within domains that have limited live training opportunities due to personnel safety and cost (e.g., live fire exercises). However, to ensure these VE training systems provide effective training and transfer, designers of such sy...

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