Kelly M Babchishin

Kelly M Babchishin
Carleton University

Ph.D.

About

73
Publications
125,048
Reads
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3,000
Citations
Introduction
I am an assistant professor at Carleton University (Department of Psychology) and an adjunct scientist with the Royal’s Institute of Mental Health Research Institute (IMHR). After completing my Ph.D. (Carleton University), I had the opportunity to complete a Banting fellowship (Canadian Institutes of Health Research) with IMHR (Dr. Seto) and the Karolinska Institute (KI) in Sweden (Dr. Långström). Prior to starting at Carleton, I was in government (PBC, Public Safety Canada) as a researcher.
Additional affiliations
February 2017 - present
Public Safety Canada
Position
  • Consultant
January 2017 - present
University of Ottawa
Position
  • Researcher
October 2013 - February 2017
University of Ottawa
Position
  • Fellow
Education
September 2009 - October 2013
Carleton University
Field of study
  • Forensic Psychology
September 2007 - August 2009
Carleton University
Field of study
  • Forensic Psychology
September 2003 - April 2007
University of Ottawa
Field of study
  • Psychology and criminology

Publications

Publications (73)
Article
Full-text available
Intrafamilial child sexual abuse is a serious social and health problem, yet explanations of sexual offending against children that emphasize antisocial tendencies and atypical sexual interests do not adequately explain intrafamilial offending. In this meta-analysis, we tested other explanations of intrafamilial child sexual abuse by examining 78 i...
Article
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Background: Sexual crime is an important public health concern. The possible causes of sexual aggression, however, remain insufficiently known. Methods: We examined familial aggregation and the contribution of genetic and environmental factors to sexual crime by linking longitudinal, nationwide Swedish crime and multigenerational family registers....
Article
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Women commit sexual offenses, but the proportion of sexual offenders who are female is subject to debates. Based on 17 samples from 12 countries, the current meta-analysis found that a small proportion of sexual offenses reported to police are committed by females (fixed-effect meta-analytical average = 2.2%). In contrast, victimization surveys ind...
Article
Full-text available
The current meta-analysis compared the characteristics of online child pornography-only offenders, typical (offline) sex offenders against children, and offenders with both child pornography and contact sex offences against children (mixed). Based on 30 unique samples (comparison ns ranging from 98 to 2,702), the meta-analysis found key differences...
Article
Correlations are the simplest and most commonly understood effect size statistic in psychology. The purpose of the current paper was to use a large sample of real-world data (109 correlations with 60,415 participants) to illustrate the base rate dependence of correlations when applied to dichotomous or ordinal data. Specifically, we examined the in...
Article
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Objective: Risk of sexual reoffending of adult men who committed sexual offenses can be understood as involving a network of causally connected dynamic risk factors. This study examined to what degree findings from previous network analyses, estimated using data from the Dynamic Supervision Project (N = 803; van den Berg et al., 2020), could be rep...
Article
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A Five-Level Risk and Needs system has been proposed as a common language for standardizing the meaning of risk levels across risk/need tools used in corrections. Study 1 examined whether the Five-Levels could be applied to BARR-2002R (N = 2,390), an actuarial tool for general recidivism. Study 2 examined the construct validity of BARR-2002R risk l...
Article
Full-text available
Multidimensional item response theory (MIRT) was used to study the construct validity of the Static-2002R, an actuarial scale for the assessment of reoffending among adult men who sexually offended. Using a sample of 2,569 individuals with a history of sexual crime, exploratory factor analysis (EFA) extracted three factors: Persistence/Paraphilia,...
Article
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Objective measures of sexual interest are important for research on human sexuality. There has been a resurgence in research examining pupil dilation as a potential index of sexual orientation. We carried out a meta-analytic review of studies published between 1965 and 2020 (Mdn year = 2016) measuring pupil responses to visual stimuli of adult men...
Article
We applied offending trajectory analyses to 387 men adjudicated for child sexual exploitation material (CSEM) offenses. After an average of 20 years, we found two trajectories of sexual offending and violent offending: one that peaked in late adolescence and was associated with higher rates of crimes, and one that peaked in the 30s and was associat...
Preprint
Full-text available
A Five-Level Risk and Needs system has been proposed as a common language for standardizing the meaning of risk levels across risk/need tools used in corrections. Study 1 examined whether the Five-Levels could be applied to BARR-2002R (N = 2,390), an actuarial tool for general recidivism. Study 2 examined the construct validity of BARR-2002R risk l...
Article
In an online survey of 274 self-identified child-attracted persons (CAPs), we examined the attraction ratings given to sets of 9 physical and 12 psychological features of children, and asked CAPs to identify additional features that were not listed. We also examined the relationships between these attraction ratings and attraction to children dimen...
Article
Full-text available
This meta-analysis examined whether theoretically and clinically relevant differences exist between male adolescents who have sexually offended against intrafamilial victims (AIV) and male adolescents who have sexually offended against extrafamilial victims (AEV). A total of 26 independent samples (8 published and 18 unpublished) that compared a to...
Article
Objectives: Few studies have examined how much individuals change on intermediate targets of risk to reoffend. Even fewer studies have examined the extent to which change on such measures predict reoffending. Establishing the validity of intermediate measures requires a multistep approach that (a) assesses the reliability of the change, (b) assess...
Article
The current study examined the relationship between mental illness and recidivism in a sample of 409 men adjudicated for sexual offences who scored higher than average on an established risk assessment tool (Static-99R). Participants were from all provincial correctional systems (except Prince Edward Island) and all regions of the Correctional Serv...
Article
Full-text available
Few studies of pedophilia or hebephilia have included questions about romantic attraction. We conducted an anonymous online survey of 306 men who self-reported as sexually attracted to children. The majority (72%) of participants reported they had fallen in love with a child in their lifetime. Participants reported greater feelings of attachment to...
Article
STABLE-2007 is a measure of risk-relevant propensities for adult males convicted of a sexual offense. This meta-analysis evaluated the ability of STABLE-2007 and its items to discriminate between recidivists and nonrecidivists, and the extent to which STABLE-2007 improves prediction over and above Static-99R. Based on 21 studies (12 unique samples,...
Article
Full-text available
We examined the associations between childhood sexual abuse (CSA), childhood physical abuse (CPA), sexual domain variables, antisocial tendencies, and sexually coercive behaviour in a non-forensic sample of 173 heterosexual men. CSA was associated with paraphilic interests and experiences, a more extensive sexual life history, and early antisocial...
Article
Full-text available
From an evolutionary perspective, incestuous behavior is puzzling. The goal of this study was to assess the tenability of the Westermarck hypothesis (1891,1921) – that people who live in close physical proximity with one another during childhood will develop a sexual indifference or aversion toward one another – and the mediating role of disgust as...
Article
Although prior research suggests associations between parental characteristics and later sexual offending in offspring, possible links between early pregnancy-related factors and sexual offending remain unclear. Early risk markers unique to sexual offending, however, may be more prominent among sexual offenders with atypical sexual interests, such...
Article
Full-text available
Viewing time tasks using still pictures to assess age and gender sexual interests have been well validated and are commonly used. The use of film clips in a viewing time task would open up interesting possibilities for the study of sexual interest toward sexual targets or activities that are not easily captured in still pictures. We examined the va...
Article
The downloading and possession of Child Sexual Exploitation Materials (CSEM; also referred to as child pornography and indecent images of children) is a commonly convicted type of Internet sexual offenses. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge on CSEM offenders. We first provide a summary of the key motivations of CSEM offenders, ch...
Article
Full-text available
The current study examined the extent to which 1136 men were able to inhibit their sexual arousal on a phallometric assessment, when instructed to do so. Although the observed changes between the two conditions (i.e., Normal and Suppression) were small to moderate in magnitude, the change was not more than what would be expected by measurement erro...
Article
There is an important theoretical distinction between biological and sociolegal incest offenders, but this is not always recognized in clinical or empirical work. The purpose of the current meta-analysis was to examine the extent to which biological and sociolegal incest offenders differ on a number of theoretically or clinically relevant domains....
Article
Full-text available
Due to unobtrusiveness and ease of implementation, viewing time (VT) measures of sexual interest in children have sparked increasing research interest in forensic contexts over the last two decades. The current study presents two meta-analyses of VT measures adapted to assess pedophilic interest to determine their discrimination between sexual offe...
Article
Full-text available
The pervasiveness of risk assessment in correctional decision-making necessitates a better understanding of the nature of risk scales and the methods used to assess their accuracy. Risk is a continuous dimension, which means that risk assessment is a prognostic task as opposed to a diagnostic task. Risk scales can also be considered criterion-refer...
Article
Risk assessment is one of the most common tasks in the criminal justice system, yet most professionals in this field receive little to no formal training in statistical techniques for predicting dichotomous outcomes, such as recidivism. The purpose of this special issue was to help fill this gap in training and resources. We wanted to make some of...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Prior studies suggest parental and perinatal risk factors are associated with later offending. It remains uncertain, however, if such risk factors are similarly related to sexual offending. Method: We linked socio-demographic, family relations, and perinatal (obtained at birth) data from the nationwide Swedish registers from 1973 to...
Article
This article describes principles for developing risk category labels for criterion referenced prediction measures, and demonstrates their utility by creating new risk categories for the Static-99R and Static-2002R sexual offender risk assessment tools. Currently, risk assessments in corrections and forensic mental health are typically summarized i...
Article
Full-text available
The most commonly used risk assessment tools for predicting sexual violence focus almost exclusively on static, historical factors (e.g., characteristics of prior offences). Consequently, they are assumed to be unable to directly inform the selection of treatment targets or evaluate change. In this article, we argue that this limitation can be miti...
Chapter
Most replication studies of actuarial risk scales for sex offenders focus on relative predictive accuracy (e.g., ROC), with little attention paid to the stability of absolute recidivism estimates. This chapter discusses sexual recidivism base rates and factors that may affect recidivism rates, with a particular focus on factors external to actuaria...
Article
Full-text available
The current study examined the discriminative and convergent validity of three Implicit Association Test (IAT) measures designed to assess sexual interest in girls, in boys or in children. Sex offenders against children (n�29) did not differ from non-sex offenders (n�28) on these IAT measures. The IAT measures were related to a physiological measur...
Research
Full-text available
Collated handouts from our 2013 symposium on incest offending at the annual meeting of the Association for the Treatment of Sexual Abusers (Chicago, IL)
Research
Full-text available
Collated handout of 2013 presentations for incest offending symposium at the annual conference of the Association for the Treatment of Sexual Abusers
Article
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Empirical actuarial risk tools are routinely used to assess the recidivism risk of adult sexual offenders. Compared to other forms of risk assessment, one advantage of actuarial risk tools is that they provide recidivism rate estimates. Previous research, however, suggests that there is considerable variability in the recidivism rates associated wi...
Article
Full-text available
Given that sexual offenders are more likely to reoffend with a nonsexual offense than a sexual offense, it is useful to have risk scales that predict general recidivism among sexual offenders. In the current study, we examined the extent to which two commonly used risk scales for sexual offenders (Static-99R and Static-2002R) predict violent and ge...
Article
Research and theoretical models have consistently identified sexual interest in children as a key factor involved in child sexual offending. However, there is only moderate agreement in the diagnosis of pedophilia and different assessment methods identify different offenders as pedophiles. The current study examined the discriminative and convergen...
Article
Full-text available
Comprehensive risk assessment can benefit from combining static and dynamic scales. The purpose of this study was to validate the Risk Matrix 2000, examine incremental validity of the STABLE-2007 and develop structured rules for combining the two scales. In a routine sample of Canadian sex offenders (n = 710), the Risk Matrix 2000/Sex, /Violence an...
Article
Full-text available
Although widely used in North America, actuarial risk assessment tools have been criticized for their inability to capture the causal dynamics leading to criminal recidivism. In this article, we present a conceptual framework for linking static, historical risk factors to the psychological vulnerabilities that are targeted in offender treatment. To...
Article
Shapewear has the goal of toning and shaping one’s body. A recently televised comedic performance may have cast doubt on the effectiveness of shapewear. The aim of the current study was to examine the efficacy of a popular shapewear brand (Spanx) compared to a generic brand. Effectiveness of two shapewear products was examined by attempting to fit...
Article
Full-text available
The current study presents a quantitative review of the discriminative and convergent validity of Implicit Association Test (IAT) measures adapted to assess sexual interest in children. IAT measures were able to distinguish sex offenders against children (SOC) from non-SOC (M weighted d from random-effects = 0.63, 95 % CI [0.42-0.83], N = 707, k =...
Article
Full-text available
This study tested 3 decision rules for combining actuarial risk instruments for sex offenders into an overall evaluation of risk. Based on a 9-year follow-up of 940 adult male sex offenders, we found that Rapid Risk Assessment for Sex Offender Recidivism (RRASOR), Static-99R, and Static-2002R predicted sexual, violent, and general recidivism and pr...
Article
Full-text available
Background. The Risk Matrix 2000 is a static actuarial tool designed for adult male sex offenders. It consists of three scales (Sex, Violence, and Combined) intended to assess risk for sexual, non-sexual violent, and any violent recidivism, respectively. Methods. This meta-analysis identified 16 unique samples (from 14 studies) that examined the ex...
Article
Full-text available
Given the widespread use of empirical actuarial risk tools in corrections and forensic mental health, it is important that evaluators and decision makers understand how scores relate to recidivism risk. In the current study, we found strong evidence for a relative risk interpretation of Static-99R scores using 8 samples from Canada, United Kingdom,...
Article
Full-text available
Given the widespread use of empirical actuarial risk tools in corrections and forensic mental health, it is important that evaluators and decision makers understand how scores relate to recidivism risk. In the current study, we found strong evidence for a relative risk interpretation of Static-99R scores using 8 samples from Canada, United Kingdom,...
Article
Full-text available
Attitudes supportive of sexual offending figure prominently in theories of sexual offending, as well as in contemporary assessment and treatment practices with sex offenders. Based on 46 samples (n = 13,782), this meta-analysis found that attitudes supportive of sexual offending had a small, yet reasonably consistent, relationship with sexual recid...
Article
Full-text available
Aim/Background. Actuarial risk tools are commonly used in corrections and forensic mental health settings. Given their widespread use, it is important that evaluators and decision-makers understand how scores on these tools relate to recidivism risk. Relative risk is one useful metric for communicating an offender's risk of reoffending. Methods. In...
Article
Full-text available
Criterion-referenced measures, such as those used in the assessment of crime and violence, prioritize predictive accuracy (discrimination) at the expense of construct validity. In this article, we compared the discrimination and incremental validity of three commonly used criterion-referenced measures for sex offenders (RRASOR [Rapid Risk Assessmen...
Article
Full-text available
The current study compared 38 lower risk (based on actuarial risk assessments) men convicted of contact sexual offenses against children, 38 child pornography offenders, and 70 solicitation offenders (also known as luring or traveler offenders). Solicitation and child pornography offenders were better educated than contact offenders but did not dif...
Article
Rape-supportive cognition is both theoretically and empirically related to rape. Several types of rape-supportive cognition (cognitive distortions) have been identified in the literature, suggesting that rapists’ rape-supportive cognition may be multidimensional. The Bumby RAPE Scale is one measure of rape-supportive cognition. The authors conducte...
Article
We examined the extent to which sexual offenders against children (SOC) differ from men who do not offend against children (non-SOC) on social anxiety. In Study 1, 30 SOC and 31 nonsex offenders (NSO) were compared on a self-report measure of social anxiety (Social Avoidance and Distress Scale; SADS; Watson & Friend, 1969). SOC and NSO had virtuall...
Article
Full-text available
There has been considerable research on relative predictive accuracy (i.e., discrimination) in offender risk assessment (e.g., are high risk offenders more likely to reoffend than low risk offenders), but virtually no research on the accuracy or stability of absolute recidivism estimates (i.e., calibration). The current study aimed to fill this gap...
Article
Full-text available
There is much concern about the extent to which risk assessment tools designed to predict recidivism are equally valid for both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal offenders. The current study compared Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal male sex offenders on items and total scores of the original and revised Static-99 and Static-2002 scales. The study include...
Article
Full-text available
There is much concern about the extent to which risk assessment tools designed to predict recidivism are equally valid for both Aboriginal and non- Aboriginal offenders. The current study compared Aboriginal and non- Aboriginal male sex offenders on items and total scores of the original and revised Static-99 and Static-2002 scales. The study inclu...
Chapter
Full-text available
According to the Internet World Stats website, there are over 1.8 billion internet users worldwide (Internet World Stats, 2010). Although the technology itself is morally-benign, and whilst it can be assumed that the vast majority of online behavior is positive (or at least does not victimize others), online technologies can be used to facilitate c...
Article
Full-text available
Actuarial risk assessment scales and their associated recidivism estimates are generally developed on samples of offenders whose average age is well below 50 years. Criminal behavior of all types declines with age; consequently, actuarial scales tend to overestimate recidivism for older offenders. The current study aimed to develop a revised scorin...
Article
Full-text available
Although Aboriginal offenders are overrepresented in Canadian prisons, there is limited research examining the extent to which commonly used risk factors and risk scales are applicable to Aboriginals. Aboriginal (n = 88) and non-Aboriginal (n = 509) sex offenders on community supervision were compared on the dynamic risk factors of STABLE-2007. Dat...