Keith Widaman

Keith Widaman
University of California, Davis | UCD · Department of Psychology

About

231
Publications
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Publications

Publications (231)
Article
The accuracy of children’s long‐term memory for distressing events is of theoretical and legal interest. In this longitudinal study, 3‐ to 5‐year‐olds and their main parental caretakers individually participated in a mildly distressing event, and one hour later the children’s memory/suggestibility was assessed (Time 1). Six to 7 years later (Time 2...
Article
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Approximately 30% of elderly adults are cognitively unimpaired at time of death despite presence of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) neuropathology at autopsy. Studying individuals who are resilient to the cognitive consequences of AD neuropathology may uncover novel therapeutic targets to treat AD. It is well-established that there are sex differences in...
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Measurement is fundamental to all research in psychology and should be accorded greater scrutiny than typically occurs. Among other claims, McNeish and Wolf (Thinking twice about sum scores. Behavior Research Methods , 52 , 2287-2305) argued that use of sum scores (a) implies that a highly constrained latent variable model underlies items comprisin...
Preprint
Background The “brain signature of cognition” concept has garnered interest as a data-driven, exploratory approach to better understand key brain regions involved in specific cognitive functions, with the potential to maximally characterize brain substrates of clinical outcomes. However, to be a robust brain phenotype, the signature approach requir...
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Indices of cumulative risk (CR) have long been used in developmental research to encode the number of risk factors a child or adolescent experiences that may impede optimal developmental outcomes. Initial contributions concentrated on indices of cumulative environmental risk; more recently, indices of cumulative genetic risk have been employed. In...
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This study focused on generality versus specificity of susceptibility of effects of eight family and child-care exposures measured between 3 and 54 months of age (e.g., sensitive parenting, child-care quality) on five child development outcomes assessed at age 4.5 years (e.g. behavior problems, preacademic skill), using data from The National Insti...
Article
Parents’ attachment orientations predict children’s memory about distressing life events, such that parents who are less secure in close relationships tend to have children who are less accurate in their memory reports. This study examined whether socially supportive interviewing would reduce differences in children’s memory performance associated...
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Objective: Late-life changes in cognition and brain integrity are both highly multivariate, time-dependent processes that are essential for understanding cognitive aging and neurodegenerative disease outcomes. The present study seeks to identify a latent variable model capable of efficiently reducing a multitude of structural brain change magnetic...
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The brain signature concept aims to characterize brain regions most strongly associated with an outcome of interest. Brain signatures derive their power from data-driven searches that select features based solely on performance metrics of prediction or classification. This approach has important potential to delineate biologically relevant brain su...
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Objective This study compared the level of education and tests from multiple cognitive domains as proxies for cognitive reserve. Method The participants were educationally, ethnically, and cognitively diverse older adults enrolled in a longitudinal aging study. We examined independent and interactive effects of education, baseline cognitive scores...
Article
Identifying genetic factors that provide resilience against the clinical consequences of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathology is likely to accelerate the development of novel therapeutics. Sex differences in AD prevalence, neuropathological presentation, and clinical progression suggest that exploring the sex‐specific genetic architecture of resilien...
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Approximately 30% of older adults exhibit the neuropathological features of Alzheimer's disease without signs of cognitive impairment. Yet, little is known about the genetic factors that allow these potentially resilient individuals to remain cognitively unimpaired in the face of substantial neuropathology. We performed a large, genome-wide associa...
Article
Integrative data analysis (IDA) involves obtaining multiple datasets, scaling the data to a common metric, and jointly analyzing the data. The first step in IDA is to scale the multisample item-level data to a common metric, which is often done with multiple group item response models (MGM). With invariance constraints tested and imposed, the estim...
Preprint
Full-text available
Approximately 30% of older adults exhibit the neuropathologic features of Alzheimer's disease (AD) without signs of cognitive impairment. Yet, little is known about the genetic factors that allow these potentially resilient individuals to remain cognitively normal in the face of substantial neuropathology. We performed a large, genome-wide associat...
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Objective To advance the science of cognitive outcome measurement for individuals with intellectual disability (ID), we established administration guidelines and evaluated the psychometric properties of the NIH-Toolbox Cognitive Battery (NIHTB-CB) for use in clinical research. Methods We assessed feasibility, test-retest reliability, and convergen...
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The fact that tyrosine increases dopamine availability that, in turn, may enhance cognitive performance has led to numerous studies on healthy young participants taking tyrosine as a food supplement. As a result of this dietary intervention, participants show performance increases in working memory and executive functions. However, the potential as...
Article
Cognitive reserve is inherently a dynamic construct; however, traditional methods of estimating reserve have focused on static proxy variables. A recently proposed psychometric approach entails modeling reserve as residual cognition not explained by demographic and brain variables. In this study, we extended this approach to longitudinal measuremen...
Article
Longitudinal measurement invariance is a major concern for developmental scholars who seek to evaluate the same underlying construct across time. Unfortunately, discontinuities in the expression of various psychological constructs, as well as essential changes in measurement that are necessitated by shifting developmental capacities and practice ef...
Article
Objective Our objectives were to characterize the inter‐relation of known dementia‐related neuropathologies in one comprehensive model and quantify the extent to which accumulation of neuropathologies accounts for the association between age and dementia. Methods We used data from 1,362 autopsied participants of three community‐based clinicopathol...
Preprint
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Currently, two main approaches exist to distinguish differential susceptibility from diathesis-stress and vantage sensitivity in genotype × environment interaction (G×E) research: Regions of significance (RoS) and competitive-confirmatory approaches. Each is limited by their single-gene/single-environment foci given that most phenotypes are the pro...
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Currently, two main approaches exist to distinguish differential susceptibility from diathesis-stress and vantage sensitivity in genotype x environment interaction (GxE) research: Regions of significance (RoS) and competitive-confirmatory approaches. Each is limited by their single-gene/single-environment foci given that most phenotypes are the pro...
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We examine some key errors that influence the validity of scientific inquiry in the social and behavioral sciences, emphasizing the need for researchers to be attuned to the varied sources of error. We discuss error beyond simple inferential processes inherent in null hypotheses testing, for example. and broaden the scope of influences in the model...
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School belonging (i.e., social connectedness to school) has positive implications for academic achievement and well-being. However, few studies have examined the developmental antecedents of school belonging, particularly for students of Mexican origin. To address this gap in the research literature, the present study examined reciprocal relations...
Article
This study tested predictions from Bowlby's attachment theory about children's memory and suggestibility. Young children (3-5years old, N=88; 76% Caucasians) and their parents took part in the Strange Situation Procedure, a moderately distressing event and "gold standard" for assessing children's attachment quality. The children were then interview...
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How Latino youth cope with stressors may have implications for their adjustment. We examined how a temperamental characteristic (effortful control) and a contextual factor (economic hardship) were associated with Latino youth's coping. Individual differences in effortful control, a core facet of self-regulation, may contribute to coping as effortfu...
Article
The current report examined the longitudinal relations between cognitive self-regulation, physiological self-regulation, and externalizing problems. At age 4 (n = 98; 49 girls) and 6 (n = 87; 42 girls), children completed the Day-Night task, which taps the inhibitory control dimension of executive function. During the task, cardiac activity was mea...
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We examined whether adolescents' genetic sensitivity, measured by a polygenic index score, moderated the longitudinal associations between parenting and adolescents' psychological adjustment. The sample included 323 mothers, fathers, and adolescents (177 female, 146 male; Time 1 [T1] average age = 12.61 years, SD = 0.54 years; Time 2 [T2] average a...
Article
Although the structure of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) has been exhaustively evaluated, questions regarding dimensionality and direction of wording effects continue to be debated. To shed new light on these issues, we ask (a) for what percentage of individuals is a unidimensional model adequate, (b) what additional percentage of individua...
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Background Recent advances in understanding molecular and synaptic mechanisms of intellectual disabilities (ID) in fragile X syndrome (FXS) and Down syndrome (DS) through animal models have led to targeted controlled trials with pharmacological agents designed to normalize these underlying mechanisms and improve clinical outcomes. However, several...
Chapter
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In the present study we examined changes in substance use and intentions to use substances for over 300 Mexican origin youth during the period from fifth to seventh grade. Consistent with the Family Stress Model, the findings showed that external stressors like economic pressure and ethnic discrimination increased maternal emotional distress which,...
Article
We introduce an approach for ensuring empirical identification of the correlated trait–correlated method (CT–CM) model under a variety of conditions. A set of models are referred to as augmented correlated trait–correlated method (ACT–CM) models because they are based on systematically augmenting the multitrait–multimethod matrix put forth by Campb...
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Why is disorganized attachment associated with punitive-controlling behavior in some, but caregiving-controlling in others? Hygen and associates (2014) proposed that variation in the Catechol-O-methyl transferase(COMT) Val158Met genotype explains this variation, providing preliminary data to this effect. We offer a conceptual replication, analyzing...
Article
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This study examined factors that relate to academic competence and expectations from elementary to middle school for 674 fifth-grade students (50% boys; Mage = 10.86 years) of Mexican origin. Models predicting academic competence and expectations were estimated using a structural equation modeling (SEM) framework, with longitudinal data from fifth...
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The Diagnostic Adaptive Behavior Scale (DABS) was developed using item response theory (IRT) methods and was constructed to provide the most precise and valid adaptive behavior information at or near the cutoff point of making a decision regarding a diagnosis of intellectual disability. The DABS initial item pool consisted of 260 items. Using IRT m...
Article
Mandated child abuse reporters may judge specific disciplinary practices as unacceptable for young children, whereas child law professionals arbitrating allegations may be less inclusive. Do the views of these groups diverge, by child age, regarding discipline? Judgments of community norms across a wide range of children's ages were obtained from 3...
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Social bonds and supportive relationships are widely recognized as being indispensable to healthy psychological functioning and well-being. Social support is a psychological resource that is expected to also contribute positively to parenting practices. The present study longitudinally examined the relations between mothers' (N = 674) and fathers'...
Article
At approximately 30, 42, and 54 months of age ( N = 231), the relations among children's externalizing symptoms, intrusive maternal parenting, and children's effortful control (EC) were examined. Both intrusive parenting and low EC have been related to psychopathology, but children's externalizing problems and low EC might affect the quality of par...
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The present study examined the development of a cohort of 279 early adolescents (52% female) from 1990 to 2005. Guided by the interactionist model of socioeconomic status and human development, we proposed that parent aggressive personality, economic circumstances, interparental conflict, and parenting characteristics would affect the development o...
Chapter
Multitrait–multimethod (MTMM) analysis is based on the assumption that every measurement in psychology is a trait–method unit, and so contains both trait-related and method-related variance. If each of a set of traits is measured using each of a set of methods, an MTMM matrix of correlations among measures can be calculated. Convergent validation i...
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Evaluation is a key component to learning about the effectiveness of a program. This article provides descriptive statistics of the newly developed National 4-H Common Measures (science, healthy living, citizenship, and youth development) based on data from 721 California 4-H youth. The measures were evaluated for their reliability and validity of...
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Prior research suggests that acculturation may influence relationship outcomes among Mexican-origin married couples, including marital adjustment and distress. Despite much theory and research on parent-child cultural differences and disruptions in the parent-child relationship, no previous research has investigated possible associations between hu...
Article
Geiser, Koch, and Eid (2014) expressed their views on an article we published describing findings from a simulation study and an empirical study of multitrait–multimethod (MTMM) data. Geiser and colleagues raised concerns with (a) our use of the term bias, (b) our statement that the correlated trait–correlated method minus one [CT–C(M–1)] model is...
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Here we tested whether there was genetic moderation of effects of early maternal sensitivity on social-emotional and cognitive-linguistic development from early childhood onward and whether any detected Gene × Environment interaction effects proved consistent with differential-susceptibility or diathesis-stress models of Person × Environment intera...
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Manuck, Craig, Flory, Halder, and Ferrell (2011) reported that a theoretically anticipated effect of family rearing on girls' menarcheal age was genetically moderated by two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the estrogen receptor-α gene. We sought to replicate and extend these findings, studying 210 White females followed from birth. The re...
Article
In the present study, we investigated the attitudes of maltreated children involved in court hearings. Specifically, this pilot research examined whether type of abuse (sexual vs. physical vs. neglect), type of court (dependency vs. criminal), and child and abuse characteristics predicted child victims’ feelings about seeing defendants in court and...
Conference Paper
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The Diagnostic Adaptive Behavior Scale (DABS) was constructed with items across three domains — Conceptual, Social, and Practical adaptive skills — and normed on a representative sample of American individuals from 4 to 21 years of age. The DABS was developed to focus its assessment around the decision point for determining the presence or absence...
Article
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We tested the differential susceptibility hypothesis with respect to connections between interactions in the family of origin and subsequent behaviors with romantic partners. Focal or target participants (G2) in an ongoing longitudinal study (N = 352) were observed interacting with their parents (G1) during adolescence and again with their romantic...
Article
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The relation between cultural socialization and ethnic pride during the transition to middle school was examined for 674 fifth-grade students (50% boys; Mage = 10.4 years) of Mexican origin. The theoretical model guiding the study proposes that parent-child relationship quality is a resource in the transmission of cultural values from parent to chi...
Chapter
Factor analysis is a mathematical/statistical method for identifying and investigating dimensions of individual difference in a particular domain. Initially, factor analysis was conducted using an exploratory approach, with no strong a priori theory regarding the number and nature of factors that might be present. More recently, researchers have ex...
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The present study examined the development of self-esteem in a sample of emerging adults (N = 295) followed longitudinally over 4 years of college. Six waves of self-esteem data were available. Participants also rated, at the end of their 4th year, the degree to which they thought their self-esteem had changed during college. Rank-order stability w...
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The relations of Gf (Standard Progressive Matrices Raven), Gc (verbal scale of Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Version), personality dimensions (Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Junior Version), and disruptive behavior (TDAH scale) with school achievement (measured by TDE test and PISA test) were investigated. Two samples of student...
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Longitudinal relations among ego-resiliency (ER), effortful control (EC), and observed intrusive parenting were examined at 18, 30, and 42 months of age (Ns = 256, 230, and 210) using structural equation modeling. Intrusive parenting at 18 and 30 months negatively predicted EC a year later, over and above earlier levels. EC at 30 months mediated th...
Article
Confirmatory factor analysis was used the evaluate the dimensional structure underlying the NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery (CB) and the measures chosen to serve as concurrent validity criteria for the NIH Toolbox CB. These results were used to evaluate the convergent and discriminant validity of the CB in children ranging from 3 to 15 years of age....
Article
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We examined the relation between low self-esteem and depression using longitudinal data from a sample of 674 Mexican-origin early adolescents who were assessed at age 10 and 12 years. Results supported the vulnerability model, which states that low self-esteem is a prospective risk factor for depression. Moreover, results suggested that the vulnera...
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Difficulties arise in multiple-group evaluations of factorial invariance if particular manifest variables are missing completely in certain groups. Ad hoc analytic alternatives can be used in such situations (e.g., deleting manifest variables), but some common approaches, such as multiple imputation, are not viable. At least 3 solutions to this pro...