Keith Smolkowski

Keith Smolkowski
Oregon Research Institute | ORI · Education

Ph.D., Special Education, University of Oregon

About

162
Publications
95,221
Reads
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5,347
Citations
Citations since 2016
74 Research Items
2721 Citations
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Introduction
Dr. Smolkowski has over two decades of experience in social science, education, and public health research. He has become an expert in the design and analysis of complex research projects, such as cluster-randomized trials. His substantive interests include research on the academic and social behavior of children and adolescents as well as the research methods that allow for tests of interventions, programs, and curricula.
Additional affiliations
March 2011 - February 2015
International Research Institute of Stavanger
Position
  • Student self-management system
Description
  • Develop an intervention, delivered by behavior specialists, that promotes the shift of external (teacher) control of behavior to internal (student) control for upper elementary students who have been identified as needing additional Tier 2 supports.
August 2009 - July 2014
University of Oregon
Position
  • Center on accessible and supported electronic text to improve mathematics achievement for students with disabilities
Description
  • Create the Mathematics eText Research Center (MeTRC) to conduct a systematic program of research over five years to investigate four research questions related to students with print disabilities.
March 2009 - February 2015
Oregon Research Institute
Position
  • Ecological Family Intervention and Treatments (EcoFIT)
Description
  • The purpose of the proposed research is to test the effectiveness of the EcoFIT school-home intervention under scaled-up conditions using a randomized controlled trial.
Education
September 2000 - January 2006
University of Oregon
Field of study
  • Special Education
September 1991 - June 1995
University of Oregon
Field of study
  • Interdisciplinary Program: Decision Sciences, Psychology, and Mathematics
September 1986 - June 1990
University of Oregon
Field of study
  • Mathematics and Psychology with minor in Computer and Information Science

Publications

Publications (162)
Article
Best practice suggests that curricular decisions be made on the evidence base of the content and the contextual fit of the curriculum to the school setting, and with coaching to help teachers effectively use curricula. Messages from the federal government encourage school administrators and researchers to consider the costs of a program. The Middle...
Article
Policy efforts in mathematics have focused on increasing teachers’ mathematics content knowledge (MCK), with the goal of increasing teacher quality and in turn increasing student mathematics learning. An alternative approach to increasing student mathematics achievement is to investigate curricula that can be effectively used by teachers with a ran...
Article
High-quality Tier 1 instruction is frequently conceptualized as the “foundation” for other tiers of intervention within multitiered systems of support (MTSS) models. However, the vast majority of Tier 2 intervention studies do not account for Tier 1 variables when examining intervention effectiveness. The purpose of this study was to examine Tier 1...
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Full-text available
We replicated a study of a kindergarten mathematics intervention, ROOTS, delivered in the context of a research-based core program. We randomly assigned 62 classrooms to treatment (ROOTS) or a business-as-usual control. All classrooms implemented the research-based core program (Early Learning in Mathematics). Participants included 163 treatment st...
Article
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The purpose of this study was to examine the diagnostic accuracy of English and Spanish language screeners when predicting reading comprehension outcomes in both languages at the end of Grade 1 and Grade 2. Participants were 1221 Latino/a bilingual students in Grade 1 and 1004 in Grade 2 who were attending bilingual programs in the Pacific Northwes...
Article
Student behavior problems in general‐education classrooms present a major barrier to effective teaching. Behavior challenges, such as disruptions, noncompliance, and peer conflicts, reduce instructional time, whereas prosocial behaviors, such as paying attention, being ready to work, asking for help, participating in class, and completing homework,...
Article
The purpose of this study was to examine whether seventh-grade positive peer affiliation and conduct problems mediated the relationship between sixth-grade parental monitoring of behavior and eighth-grade school participation and grades among students with elevated behavior ratings (EBR; n = 821) and students with unelevated behavior ratings (UBR;...
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This paper reports the results of a randomized controlled trial evaluating We Have Skills, a brief curriculum designed to teach early elementary students academic and social skills as well as improve teacher efficacy in classroom management. Intervention efficacy was tested with 127 teachers, randomly assigned to condition, and 2,817 of their stude...
Article
This paper reports the outcomes of an experimental evaluation of Direct Instruction Spoken English (DISE), an English language curriculum that focuses on developing English speaking, listening, and comprehension skills in English Learners (ELs). Twenty-nine middle schools in three states were randomly assigned to teach DISE Level 1 or their typical...
Article
We assessed the effects of a whole-school equity intervention implemented within a school-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports (PBIS) framework on racial inequities in school discipline in eight elementary schools with inequitable referrals for Black students. The intervention involved assessing patterns of racial disparities in scho...
Article
Effective early mathematics instruction is critical to support long‐term mathematics achievement. Given that student response to typical instruction varies, a range of mathematics interventions have been developed to support foundational mathematics development. However, not all students respond to these interventions. To better understand factors...
Article
This article describes the development and technical adequacy of the Classroom Observations of Student Teacher Interactions (COSTI) instrument, a tool for measuring the frequency and rate of explicit instructional interactions, such as those used in Direct Instruction curricula, for teaching children basic reading and math skills. COSTI was origina...
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Using a randomized controlled trial, we examined the effect of a fractions intervention for students experiencing mathematical difficulties in Grade 5. Students who were eligible for the study ( n = 205) were randomly assigned to intervention and comparison conditions, blocked by teacher. The intervention used systematic, explicit instruction and r...
Article
The purpose of this study was to examine parent–teacher congruent perceptions of middle school structures to support parent monitoring of children's behavior. We examined family educational involvement and school's communication and support to families as predictors of congruence, as well as congruence as a predictor of children following school ru...
Article
This study examined the cost-effectiveness of a 50-lesson mathematics intervention program focused on whole number concepts for at-risk kindergarten students, ROOTS. The study utilized a randomized block design with 1,251 at-risk students within 138 classrooms randomly assigned to one of two active treatment conditions (small groups of either two o...
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Full-text available
A concerning number of students enter kindergarten facing an intractable variation of mathematics difficulties (MD). This study investigated the impact of an explicit, core kindergarten mathematics program on the mathematical outcomes of kindergartners who demonstrated risk for severe MD at kindergarten entry and examined whether these students imp...
Article
This pilot study examined the promise of a Tier 2 Grade 6 intervention program for students at-risk for difficulties in mathematics. The study utilized a quasi-experimental design. The final sample included 112 students in treatment (Promoting Algebra Readiness) and 86 students in control (standard district practice) conditions. The Promoting Algeb...
Article
The purpose of this study was to examine middle school outreach to families about student behavior and its relationship with student school behavior, conduct problems, emotional symptoms, prosocial behavior, as well as school safety. In addition, the role of school implementation of positive behavioral interventions and supports (PBIS) was examined...
Article
States are increasingly recommending that districts and schools use multi-tiered systems of support (MTSS) to improve reading outcomes for all students. States have also suggested MTSS is a viable service delivery model in response to new state legislation to screen, identify, and treat students with word-level reading disability (i.e., dyslexia)....
Article
One commonly used strategy used in attempts to decrease racial disproportionality in school discipline across the country is sharing data with school administrators that discipline disparities are a problem in their schools with the assumption that it will increase attention to equity and improve outcomes. The purpose of this study was to assess th...
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Full-text available
Implementation of evidence-based practices (EBPs) is paramount to students’ development of mathematics proficiency. This study investigated “practice-based evidence” of interventionists’ actual use of explicit mathematics instruction, a well-established EBP. Specifically, this study analyzed direct observation data collected in a federally funded e...
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Instructional interactions that occur between teachers and students around foundational mathematics topics are critical for supporting mathematical proficiency among students with mathematics learning disabilities (MLD). This study investigated whether the initial mathematics skill of 880 kindergarten students at risk of MLD predicted the quantity...
Article
Universal screening is a critical component of school-based prevention systems. Screening data enable educators to target students for supplemental intervention, align resources to meet needs, and identify students who may be at risk for learning disabilities. One major requirement of the screening process is that all students are included to gain...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: Investigate the underlying cellular basis of muscle atrophy (Placebo) and atrophy reduction (essential amino acid supplementation; EEAs) in TKA patients by examining satellite cells and other key histological markers of inflammation, recovery, and fibrosis. Methods: Forty-one subjects (53-76 years) scheduled for TKA were randomized into...
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Well-designed mathematics instruction focused on concepts and problem-solving skills associated with measurement and data analysis can build a foundational understanding for more advanced mathematics. This study investigated the efficacy of the Precision Mathematics Level 1 (PM-L1) intervention, a Tier 2 print- and technology-based mathematics inte...
Article
Oregon’s Effective Behavioral and Instructional Support Systems (EBISS) initiative was implemented in 25 school districts. The initiative trained and coached district leaders and teachers in the use of the EBISS model through the lens of implementation science. The EBISS model integrates school-wide positive behavior intervention and supports (SWPB...
Article
In this overview of implementation science and implementation fidelity in the field of learning disabilities, authors provide a brief summary of current research related to implementation science followed by an introduction of the articles in this special series. Authors emphasize the relationship between the effectiveness of interventions and the...
Article
This study explores the effects of a Spanish vocabulary intervention on the literacy outcomes of students at risk for vocabulary difficulties in Chile. We screened 2nd-grade students (N = 84) with a standardized Spanish vocabulary measure. We then randomly assigned students who scored below the 40th percentile (n = 30) to an intervention or control...
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Opportunities for practice play a critical role in learning complex behaviors. In the context of explicit mathematics instruction, practice facilitates systematic opportunities for students with mathematics difficulties (MD) to learn new mathematics content and apply such knowledge and skills to novel mathematics problems. This study explored wheth...
Article
There are substantial racial disparities in school discipline but little agreement on how best to measure them. The choice of metric can influence conclusions about the magnitude of racial discipline disproportionality and intervention effectiveness. This article describes 2 common (risk ratio, risk difference) and 3 relatively novel (standardized...
Article
This study examined the impact of a commonly adopted elementary universal social-emotional learning program, Second Step, on student social-emotional and academic outcomes following 2 years of implementation. The cluster-randomized wait-list control trial included 61 schools, 321 teachers, and 8,941 early elementary students across 2 states, with a...
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Full-text available
This study examined the role of initial skill in moderating intervention effects of a 50-lesson mathematics intervention program, ROOTS, for at-risk kindergarten students focused on developing whole-number concepts and skills. The study utilized a randomized block design with at-risk students (n = 592) within classrooms (n = 60) randomly assigned t...
Article
English learners (ELs) represent a rapidly growing subgroup in US schools. Yet, converging evidence suggests that a concerning number of ELs struggle to reach proficient levels in mathematics. The purpose of this multi-site randomized controlled trial was to examine the treatment effects of a Tier 2 mathematics intervention on the mathematical outc...
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Full-text available
Group size and treatment intensity are understudied topics in mathematics intervention research. This study examined whether the treatment intensity and overall intervention effects of an empirically validated Tier 2 mathematics intervention varied between intervention groups with 2:1 and 5:1 student-teacher ratios. Student practice opportunities a...
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Background Substantial muscle atrophy occurs after total knee arthroplasty (TKA), resulting in decreased strength and impaired mobility. We sought to determine whether perioperative supplementation with essential amino acids (EAA) would attenuate muscle atrophy following TKA and whether the supplements were safe for ingestion in an older surgical p...
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The present study examined the extent to which racial disproportionality in office discipline referrals (ODRs) exists between American Indian/Alaska Native (AIAN) and White students in elementary (n = 140), middle (n = 67), and high (n = 48) schools. A multilevel logistic regression model was applied to examine overall levels of ODR disproportional...
Article
The purpose of this study was to investigate the incremental validity of a set of domain general cognitive measures added to a traditional screening battery of early numeracy measures. The sample consisted of 458 kindergarten students of whom 285 were designated as severely at-risk for mathematics difficulty. Hierarchical multiple regression result...
Article
A growing body of research suggests that the effects of core mathematics instruction on student mathematics outcomes may not be uniform across different skill levels in mathematics. This study investigated the extent to which observed components of explicit mathematics instruction explained why students’ initial mathematics achievement was previous...
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Accumulating research has established explicit mathematics instruction as an evidence-based teaching practice. This study utilized observation data from a multi-year efficacy trial to examine the longitudinal effects of a core kindergarten mathematics program on the use of explicit mathematics instruction among two distinct groups of teachers: one...
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Full-text available
This study examines measurement of creative ideational behaviors alongside factors of student engagement that may play a role in the development of students’ creative potential during early adolescence in school. Two studies used exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, cross-validation, and invariance testing of 2 extant measures with multipl...
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We report on a practitioner implementation of Fusion, a first-grade mathematics intervention. Studies such as this evaluation of a loose implementation under realistic conditions are important to curriculum developers’ understanding of how evidence-based programs and tools work under a variety of implementation scenarios. In this quasi-experimental...
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The purpose of this replication study was to examine the impact of the Teacher Study Group (TSG) professional development in vocabulary on first grade teachers' knowledge of vocabulary instruction and observed teaching practice, and on students' vocabulary knowledge. Sixty-two schools from 16 districts in 4 states were randomly assigned to treatmen...
Article
We explore the potential of a computer-adaptive decoding game in Spanish to increase the decoding skills and oral reading fluency in Spanish and English of bilingual students. Participants were 78 first-grade Spanish-speaking students attending bilingual programs in five classrooms in Texas. Classrooms were randomly assigned to the treatment (i.e.,...
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This study investigated the psychometric properties of the Elementary Social Behaviour Assessment (ESBA), a teacher-report measure of students’ social skills and academic engagement adapted for use in Norwegian schools. At two times, 8 weeks apart, 151 teachers rated 793 students in Grades 1–6 on the ESBA and the Social Skills Rating System Teacher...
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This article presents the results of an evaluation of Positive Family Support, an ecological family intervention and treatment approach to parent supports and family management training developed from a history of basic and translational research. This effectiveness trial, with 41 public middle schools randomly assigned to intervention or control,...
Article
Full-text available
This study used a randomized controlled trial design to investigate the ROOTS curriculum, a 50-lesson kindergarten mathematics intervention. Ten ROOTS-eligible students per classroom (n = 60) were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: a ROOTS five-student group, a ROOTS two-student group, and a no-treatment control group. Two primary resear...
Article
Research Findings: This observation study investigated the prevalence and correlates of learning contexts provided to preschool-age children in 133 registered child care homes in below-average-income neighborhoods in the U.S. Pacific Northwest. On average, 30% of the observed proportion of time was spent in structured teacher-led activities, 51% in...
Article
This study reports the results of a cluster RCT evaluating the impact of Enhanced Core Reading Instruction on reading achievement of grade 1 at‐risk readers. Forty‐ four elementary schools, blocked by district, were randomly assigned to condition. In both conditions, at‐risk readers received 90 minutes of whole‐group instruction (Tier 1) plus an ad...
Article
This study evaluated the long-term impact of schoolwide positive behavioural interventions and supports (PBIS) on student academic achievement. In this quasi-experimental study, academic achievement data were collected over 9 years. The 21 elementary, middle, and high schools that achieved moderate to high fidelity to the Save & Civil Schools’ PBIS...
Article
To improve our understanding of where to target interventions, the study examined the extent to which school discipline disproportionality between African American and White students was attributable to racial disparities in teachers' discretionary versus nondiscretionary decisions. The sample consisted of office discipline referral (ODR) records f...
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Full-text available
The purpose of this closely aligned conceptual replication study was to investigate the efficacy of a Tier 2 kindergarten mathematics intervention. The replication study differed from the initial randomized controlled trial on three important elements: geographical region, timing of the intervention, and instructional context of the counterfactual....