Keith M. Reynolds

Keith M. Reynolds
US Forest Service | FS · Pacific Northwest Research Station

PhD

About

138
Publications
33,983
Reads
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2,249
Citations
Additional affiliations
September 1987 - present
United States Department of Agriculture
Position
  • Research forester
June 1987 - present
US Forest Service
Position
  • Research forester
Education
September 1980 - June 1984
North Carolina State University
Field of study
  • Plant Pathology
September 1978 - June 1980
Oregon State University
Field of study
  • Forest Pathology
September 1973 - June 1976
Oregon State University
Field of study
  • Forest Science

Publications

Publications (138)
Article
Forward thinking conservation-planning can benefit from modeling future landscapes that result from multiple alternative management scenarios. However, long-term landscape modeling and downstream analyses of modeling results can lead to massive amounts of data that are difficult to assemble, analyze, and to report findings in a way that is easily a...
Article
Full-text available
Forest management planning can be challenging when allocating multiple ecosystem services (ESs) to management units (MUs), given the potentially conflicting management priorities of actors. We developed a methodology to spatially allocate ESs to MUs, according to the objectives of four interest groups—civil society, forest owners, market agents, an...
Article
Full-text available
Forest management planning is a challenge due to the diverse criteria that need to be considered in the underlying decision-making process. This challenge becomes more complex in joint collaborative management areas (ZIF) because the decision now may involve numerous actors with diverse interests, preferences, and goals. In this research, we presen...
Article
Full-text available
This paper synthesizes vulnerability, risk, resilience, and sustainability (VRRS) in a way that can be used for decision evaluations about sustainable systems, whether such systems are called coupled natural–human systems, social–ecological systems, coupled human–environment systems, and/or hazards influencing global environmental change, all consi...
Article
Full-text available
Nearshore ecosystems (e.g., mangrove forests, sea grass beds, coral reefs) are some of the most biologically diverse and ecologically productive on Earth, while providing essential goods and services to human communities. Because these ecosystems are subject to threats from both land and sea, their conservation and management requires a ridge to re...
Article
Urban parks provide many ecosystem services, and conserving biodiversity is one of the most important among them. Keeping track of biodiversity indices and their evolution over time is a useful procedure for preserving biodiversity within urban habitats. The paper presents an application of the R programming language and the R package “vegan” for c...
Article
Full-text available
The paper compares two multi-criteria methods, the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and the best–worst method (BWM), in assessing criteria related to the quality of urban parks. The criteria assessed were accessibility, location, biodiversity preservation, park equipment, water elements, terrain configuration, cultural and historical value, and the...
Article
This paper presents an example of an integrated application of two commonly used multi-criteria decision-making methods in landscape management, AHP and PRO-METHEE, in order to select one of four management alternatives as the preferred alternative for management of the Fruska Gora National park in Serbia. AHP was used to derive the weights on five...
Article
This paper presents an example of an integrated application of two commonly used multi-criteria decision-making methods in landscape management, AHP and PROMETHEE, in order to select one of four management alternatives as the preferred alternative for management of the Fruska Gora National park in Serbia. AHP was used to derive the weights on five...
Preprint
Rapid environmental changes expected in the 21st century challenge the resilience of wildlands around the world. The western portion of the Lake Tahoe basin (LTW) in California is an important ecological and cultural hotspot that is at risk of degradation from current and future environmental pressures. Historical uses, fire suppression, and a chan...
Preprint
Forward thinking conservation-planning can benefit from modeling future landscapes that result from multiple alternative management scenarios. However, long-term landscape modeling and downstream analyses of modeling results can lead to massive amounts of data that are difficult to assemble, analyze, and to report findings in a way that is easily a...
Article
Full-text available
The Special Issue “Decision Support to Address Multiple Ecosystem Services in Forest Management Planning” includes nine research papers, two review papers, and a white paper presenting highlights of focused research initiatives. The papers provide a comprehensive framework for the analysis and review of advanced Decision Support Systems (DSS), whic...
Article
Full-text available
This research expands the applicability of the Feasible Goals (FGoal) Pareto frontier multiple criteria method to display the Edgeworth-Pareto hull using interactive decision maps (IDMs). Emphasis is placed upon the development of a communication architecture to display the Pareto frontiers, which includes a client device, a web server, and a dedic...
Chapter
In this chapter, we explain how to create and work with the main types of data in R: vectors, matrices, and data frames. In addition, we briefly explain how to create lists and merge them with data frames. At the end of the chapter, we discuss how to deal with missing data and outliers in data sets.
Chapter
In this chapter we deal with basic and more advanced numerical analysis and with graphical representation of the results. As the input data, we create vectors, matrices, and data frames directly in R (using the procedures described in Chap. 1), but we also import data files already created in Excel. R supports creating input data within the program...
Chapter
In this chapter, we show how to create maps. The chapter is divided in three parts; it deals with mapping on different scales, and explains how to perform the mapping process when input data are: (1) inserted manually or (2) drawn from an R package.
Chapter
Two main groups of statistical tests are parametric and nonparametric tests (Good, 2005). Parametric tests assume that the underlying data are normally distributed and nonparametric tests start off with the assumption that the underlying data do not have a normal distribution (Adler, 2012). Assuming that data are normally distributed is usually cor...
Chapter
A common motivation of ecological research is to identify the main environmental drivers of ecological processes using empirical modeling. By developing statistical relationships between patterns and processes, empirical models serve two main functions: (1) making accurate predictions over space and time, and (2) making inferences regarding how eco...
Book
This textbook covers R data analysis related to environmental science, starting with basic examples and proceeding up to advanced applications of the R programming language. The main objective of the textbook is to serve as a guide for undergraduate students, who have no previous experience with R, but part of the textbook is dedicated to advanced...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we present a web-based decision support system (DSS)—wSADfLOR—to facilitate the access of stakeholders to tools that may contribute to enhancing forest management planning. The emphasis is on a web-based architecture and a web graphic user interface (wGUI) that may effectively support the analysis of trade-offs between ecosystem serv...
Article
Full-text available
This paper demonstrates the application of the Analytic Hierarchy Pro­cess (AHP) in assessing landscape plans using the option of abbreviated pair-wise comparisons to simplify the weight elicitation process for decision makers. Whereas the standard AHP elicitation procedure requires a full set of pairwise comparisons among all criteria at each node...
Article
Full-text available
This study examines the potential of combining decision support approaches to identify optimal bundles of ecosystem services in a framework characterized by multiple decision-makers. A forested landscape, Zona de Intervenção Florestal of Paiva and Entre-Douro and Sousa (ZIF_VS) in Portugal, is used to test and demonstrate this potential. The landsc...
Preprint
This study examines the potential of combining decision support approaches to identify optimal bundles of ecosystem services. A forested landscape, Zona de Intervenção Florestal of Paiva and Entre-Douro and Sousa (Portugal), is used to test and demonstrate this potential. The landscape extends over 14,000 ha, representing 1,976 stands. The property...
Article
Full-text available
The terrestrial condition assessment (TCA) evaluates effects of uncharacteristic stressors and disturbance agents on land-type associations (LTAs) to identify restoration opportunities on national forest system (NFS) lands in the United States. A team of agency scientists and managers, representing a broad array of natural resource disciplines, dev...
Article
Full-text available
Non-native species invasions, growing human populations, and climate change are central ecological concerns in tropical island communities. The combination of these threats have led to losses of native biota, altered hydrological and ecosystem processes, and reduced ecosystem services. These threats pose complex problems to often underfunded manage...
Article
Full-text available
Spatial decision support systems for forest management have steadily evolved over the past 20+ years in order to better address the complexities of contemporary forest management issues such as the sustainability and resilience of ecosystems on forested landscapes. In this paper, we describe and illustrate new features of the Ecosystem Management D...
Article
The Ecosystem Management Decision Support (EMDS) system is an application framework for designing and implementing spatially enabled knowledge-based decision support systems for environmental analysis and planning at any geographic scale(s). The system integrates state-of-the-art geographic information system, as well as knowledge-based reasoning a...
Article
National law and policy direct the management of the National Forests, with restoring resilient forest conditions being an overarching theme. Climate is a major driver of disturbances that affect ecosystems, especially those with vegetation that show large departures from historical conditions. Drought, fire, insects, and diseases are common forest...
Article
Full-text available
Accurate estimates of soil mineral weathering are required for regional critical load (CL) modeling to identify ecosystems at risk of the deleterious effects from acidification. Within a correlative modeling framework, we used modeled catchment-level base cation weathering (BCw) as the response variable to identify key environmental correlates and...
Chapter
Full-text available
By way of introduction, this chapter provides a general overview of the Ecosystem Management Decision Support (EMDS) system, including a brief account of its development history, key factors that have motivated its development, and more central topics such as concepts, principles, and functionality. We conclude the chapter with discussions on appli...
Chapter
Core design components of the Ecosystem Management Decision Support system were used to develop and implement the integrated restoration and protection strategy of the Northern Region of the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service. Scenarios that spatially optimized hazardous fuel reduction, protected developed recreation values, and improved...
Chapter
Full-text available
At several spatial scales, fire managers need accurate and comprehensive assessments of wildfire hazard and risk. Assessments are needed to plan, prioritize, and implement management actions, which can range from pro-active prescribed burning to real-time fire suppression. They can be complex, taking many forms and using few to many variables. Past...
Chapter
Full-text available
Contemporary land managers are beginning to understand that landscapes of the early 20th century exhibited complex patterns of compositional and structural conditions at several different scales, and that there was interplay between patterns and processes within and across scales. Further, they understand that restoring integrity of these condition...
Chapter
Full-text available
Spatial decision support systems (SDSS) are (1) customized software applications that (2) apply analytical constructs to (3) spatial data layers, (4) for the purpose of informing specific decisions and decisions makers. What is special about them is how they enable transparent decision-making processes, effectiveness monitoring, adaptive management...
Chapter
The EMDS Consortium plans, designs, and oversees software development and integration for the EMDS suite of tools. This chapter presents an overview of the Consortium’s plans for the next version of EMDS. Our objective is to release an EMDS 5.0 that will support web-services and Microsoft’s workflow foundation. The 5.0 release will include major up...
Book
Full-text available
Since 1997, the Ecosystem Management Decision Support (EMDS) system has been used around the world to support environmental analysis and planning in many different application areas, and it has been applied over a wide range of geographic scales, from forest stands to entire countries. An extensive sampling of this diversity of applications is pres...
Chapter
Full-text available
Computer-based tools for supporting forest management: The experience and the expertise world-wide answers a call from both the research and the professional communities for a synthesis of current knowledge about the use of computerized tools in forest management planning. According to the aims of the Forest Management Decision Support Systems (FOR...
Article
Full-text available
Aim of study: Knowledge Management (KM) tools facilitate the implementation of knowledge processes by identifying, creating, structuring, and sharing knowledge through use of information technology in order to improve decision-making. In this contribution, we review the way in which KM tools and techniques are used in forest management, and categor...
Article
Full-text available
The development and use of decision support systems for forest management (FMDSS) have considerably increased worldwide in the last decades in accordance with the recognition of the multifunctional role of forests. The Vegetation Dynamics Development Tool (VDDT) and Ecosystem Management Decision Support (EMDS) system are used for forest planning pu...
Data
In many industrialized regions of the world, atmospherically deposited sulfur derived from industrial, nonpoint air pollution sources reduces stream water quality and results in acidic conditions that threaten aquatic resources. Accurate maps of predicted stream water acidity are an essential aid to managers who must identify acid-sensitive streams...
Article
Full-text available
Land managers in the western US are beginning to understand that early 20th century forests displayed complex patterns of composition and structure at several different spatial scales, that there was interplay between patterns and processes within and across scales, and that these conditions have been radically altered by management. Further, they...
Article
Full-text available
We present foundational work on the use of niche modeling to predict continuous surfaces of acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) and base cation weathering (BCw) within the southern Appalachian Mountain Region of the United States. Predicted ANC and BCw surfaces are subsequently used to estimate steady-state critical loads (CLs) of atmospheric sulfur d...
Article
Stand data from Lutz spruce (Picea × lutzii Little) forest types occurring on the Kenai Peninsula were analyzed by tree-based classification to develop a decision tree for classifying spruce beetle (Dendroctonusrufipennis Kby.) hazard. Model development and validation data sets contained 100 and 34 stand observations, respectively. The final decisi...
Article
Rehabilitation and timber-salvage activities after wildfire require rapid planning and rational decisions. Identifying areas with high risk for erosion and soil productivity losses is important. Moreover, allocation of corrective and mitigative efforts must be rational and prioritized. Our logic-based analysis of forested soil polygons on the Okano...
Article
The availability of spatially continuous data layers can have a strong impact on selection of land units for conservation purposes. The suitability of ecological conditions for sustaining the targets of conservation is an important consideration in evaluating candidate conservation sites. We constructed two fuzzy logic-based knowledge bases to dete...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents modeling methods for mapping fire hazard and fire risk using a research model called FIREHARM (FIRE Hazard and Risk Model) that computes common measures of fire behavior, fire danger, and fire effects to spatially portray fire hazard over space. FIREHARM can compute a measure of risk associated with the distribution of these mea...
Article
We present a decision support application that evaluates danger of severe wildland fire and prioritizes subwatersheds for vegetation and fuels treatment. We demonstrate the use of the system with an example from the Rocky Mountain region in the State of Utah; a planning area of 4.8 million ha encompassing 575 subwatersheds. In a logic model, we eva...
Article
The Ecosystem Management Decision Support (EMDS) system has been used by the US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service and Bureaus of the Department of the Interior since 2006 to evaluate wildfire potential across all administrative units in the continental US, and to establish priorities for allocating fuel-treatment budgets. This article discu...
Conference Paper
The Northern Region of the USDA Forest Service is using the ecosystem management decision support system (EMDS) to evaluate ecosystem sustainability for National Forest plan revisions following the 2008 Planning Rule. We describe how this knowledge-based system can be successfully used in the development of logic models for integrated evaluations o...
Article
The USDA Forest Service 2008 Planning Rule requires Forest plans to provide a strategic vision for maintaining the sustainability of ecological, economic, and social systems across USFS lands through the identification of desired conditions and objectives. In this paper we show how knowledge-based systems can be efficiently used to evaluate dispara...
Article
We evaluated changes (hereafter, departures) in spatial patterns of various patch types of forested landscapes in two subwatersheds (“east” and “west”) in eastern Washington, USA, from the patterns of two sets of reference conditions; one representing the broad variability of pre-management era (~1900) conditions, and another representing the broad...
Article
The process of selecting candidate areas for inclusion in a regional conservation network should include not only delineating appropriate land units for selection and defining targets for representing features of interest, but also determining the suitability of land units for conservation purposes. We developed an explicit rating of conservation s...
Chapter
Full-text available
Numerous decision support systems have been developed for forest management over the past 20 years or more. In this chapter, the authors briefly review some of the more important and recent developments, including examples from North America, Europe, and Asia. In addition to specific systems, we also review some of the more-significant methodologic...
Chapter
Decision-support systems (DSS)h ave been extensively used in the management of natural resources for nearly two decades. However, practical difficulties with the application of DSS in real-world situations have become increasingly apparent. Complexities of decision making, encountered in the context of ecosystem management, are equally present in s...
Book
In the context of forest sustainability, this book presents the issues related to both global climate change and conservation of biodiversity. It highlights four methodologies and shows how they contribute in overcoming the ecological challenges facing our world. The practical experience presented can be applied to the implementation of successful...
Article
In this paper, we describe a decision-support application for interpreting data and synthesizing information to evaluate existing forest fuel conditions. Danger from wildland fire is evaluated as a function of fire vulnerability, potential wildfire severity, and risk of ignition. We demonstrate use of the application with an example from the Rocky...
Article
The Ecosystem Management Decision Support (EMDS) system is an application framework for knowledge-based decision support of ecological assessments at any geographic scale. The system integrates state-of-the-art geographic information system (GIS) as well as knowledge-based reasoning and decision modeling technologies to provide decision support for...
Conference Paper
This chapter introduces the concept of digital forestry, and explains how it has provided the motivation for this volume. We also provide a brief overview of some major disciplinary areas as a prelude to more in-depth discussions of subsequent chapters, introduce the remaining chapters of this volume, and describe the goals and objectives of this w...
Chapter
Several major classes of software technologies have been used in decision making for forest management applications over the past few decades. These computer-based technologies include optimization, expert systems, network models, multi-criteria decision making, and integrated systems. Each technology possesses unique advantages and disadvantages,...
Article
This paper describes and illustrates the use of the Ecosystem Management Decision Support (EMDS) system for evaluating the U.S. national criteria and indicators for forest ecosystem sustainability at the scale of Resource Planning Act (RPA) regions. The evaluation component of EMDS uses a logic engine to evaluate landscape condition, and the RPA-sc...
Chapter