Keith R. Molenaar

Keith R. Molenaar
University of Colorado Boulder | CUB · Department of Civil, Environmental and Architectural Engineering (CEAE)

About

146
Publications
122,562
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4,384
Citations
Citations since 2017
15 Research Items
2423 Citations
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20172018201920202021202220230100200300400500

Publications

Publications (146)
Book
Much research and reporting has been completed in the past decade on project delivery using alternative contracting methods such as design–build, construction manager at risk, construction manager as general contractor (CM-GC), and other nontraditional methods. The bulk of this work has been accomplished with a focus on the decision process for pre...
Poster
Full-text available
Progressive design-build (PDB) is an emerging variation of alternative contracting methods (ACM) in the highway construction industry. It is widely used in water/wastewater and airport projects, but it is new to federally-funded highway projects. A few state departments of transportation (DOT) have begun to experiment with the method, using their e...
Research
Full-text available
Bibliography Alternative Contracting Methods in Highway Construction
Article
Organizational structures in public-private partnerships (P3s) have the potential to decrease fragmentation and increase collaboration between key project-team stakeholders across the lifecycle phases of a project. These outcomes, in turn, also enhance the realization of an improved lifecycle design. In this exploratory study, the interorganization...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Requests for information (RFIs) on construction projects are critical to facilitate communication between the contractor and the owner or designer. If responses to RFIs are not made promptly, they may cause delays. With alternative project delivery methods like construction manager/general contractor (CM/GC) and design-build, the contractor is invo...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The U.S. infrastructure system is deteriorating at a rate that is outpacing its available public financing, an obvious debilitating combination. One solution to “tip the scales” and ease agencies’ financial burdens is the use of public-private partnerships (P3) for public infrastructure projects. Performance management is an important tool to help...
Conference Paper
Design-build delivery requires agencies to select contractors based on best value versus lowest bid. A tool to enhance best-value procurements are stipends, yet there is very little literature dedicated to this topic. Cited benefits of stipends include incentivizing the level of effort put forth by proposers in preparing their technical proposal, e...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Highway agencies choose alternative contracting methods (ACMs) to for a wide variety of reasons, primarily their potential for superior cost and schedule performance. Most literature focuses on these two factors by analyzing aggregate datasets covering a wideranging contract values. These analyses create two voids that this paper attempts to explor...
Article
A recent large sample study of project delivery in the United States (U.S.) concluded that more integrated teams led both directly and indirectly to more successful construction projects. Concurrent with this U.S. study, construction projects in Spain were surveyed using the same data collection questionnaire. While the sample size of participating...
Article
Design-bid-build (DBB) is the most common delivery method for public and private construction projects in Spain, and is also widely used in the United States (U.S.). While the execution of DBB projects in Spain and the U.S. is similar in many ways, owners in Spain approach the procurement of the general contractor and subcontractors differently. Th...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Early accuracy in highway cost estimating is vital for proper project planning and program budgeting. The primary audience for this research includes state and federal departments of transportation (" agencies ") using or developing alternative project delivery methods. This study focuses on examining Engineering Estimate (EE) accuracy across four...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
With the rise of alternative delivery methods and best-value selection, agencies are no longer exclusively bound to choose the lowest bidder to execute a construction contract. Thus, previous assumptions about maximizing competition to achieve the lowest possible price need to be re-evaluated. Agencies must also consider the administrative burden o...
Article
Full-text available
Current classifications of highway design and construction projects are policy specific, ad hoc or based upon engineering judgement. This research defines an empirically-based highway project classification system through latent class analysis. Data from 291 projects completed between 2004 and 2015 by agencies across the United States serve as the...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Highway agencies choose alternative project delivery methods to save time and control costs. Large, high-profile, design-build and construction manager/general contractor projects give the impression that alternative project delivery methods are only applicable to larger, more complex projects. This research reports on a sample of 291 US highway pr...
Chapter
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The literature demonstrates a lack of consensus and consistency to identify critical success factors (CSFs) for different construction operations. Therefore, the objectives of the study are to: (1) identify and categorize CSFs from literature; (2) examine the limitations of the current practices; and (3) recommend future studies. CSFs from the exis...
Article
Many building projects do not meet owners' performance expectations. Integrated project delivery (IPD) has emerged as a new delivery system with the potential to provide better performance through more supply chain integration. However, there is a knowledge gap surrounding how project delivery systems, IPD in particular, affect supply chain relatio...
Article
The architecture, engineering, and construction (AEC) industry is often criticized for its fragmented approach to project delivery. Traditional procurement and contracting intentionally serves to isolate designers from contractors to provide checks and balances, but limits opportunities for collaboration. This research presents a structural modelin...
Conference Paper
Numerous studies have examined the impact of project delivery strategies on project objectives such as cost, schedule, quality, and satisfaction. Additional literature has applied the principles of transaction cost economics to investigate organizational structures in the construction industry. However, little research has examined the impact of pr...
Conference Paper
State transportation agencies (STAs) are using a variety of accelerated construction techniques to shorten the duration of highway construction project. While accelerated highway construction projects may impact communities in terms of traffic congestion, safety issues and other public inconveniences, they also can provide opportunities to highligh...
Conference Paper
The design-build (D-B) project delivery has been increasingly used in the highway construction industry because of its documented benefits. Many studies have shown the superior performance of D-B projects when compared to traditional design-bid-build (D-B-B) projects. However, there is a lack of an empirical comparison of project performance betwee...
Article
Traditional project design and construction delivery is segmental. Researchers and practitioners often cite the separation, or “silo effect,” as a reason for poor project outcomes. In response, new forms of integrated contracts have emerged, fostering more collaborative efforts and a focus on successful project outcomes, instead of individual organ...
Article
Indefinite delivery-indefinite quantity (IDIQ) construction contracts use an overarching master contract between an owner and contractor for multiple projects over a specified time period. The practice is widespread in the federal government but its efficacy has been the subject of relatively few studies. Content analysis of 90 federal requests for...
Article
Project delivery team integration generally involves early involvement of general contractors and key specialty contractors in the design process. Team integration has been found to improve an owner's probability of success. However, during difficult economic times, owners can forego early team involvement and move toward low bid procurement to tak...
Article
Full-text available
State departments of transportation (DOTs) have typically used lowbid procurement to deliver design-bid-build (DBB) highway projects. Although low-bid procurement has provided predictable results for state DOTs, it does not always result in the best performance during and after construction. Thus, state DOTs are increasingly using alternative metho...
Article
Cross-impact analysis (CIA) is a technique that is designed to predict future events by capturing the interactions among variables. It is an appropriate tool to deal with the selection of a project delivery method. Project delivery selection involves the assessment of tradeoffs between numerous risks and uncertainties, complex relationships among v...
Article
Over the past few decades, state transportation agencies (STAs) have out-sourced various functional activities traditionally performed by in-house personnel in reaction to increasing workloads and diminishing staff. To cope with the situation, STAs have developed and implemented various tools and practices for management and oversight of constructi...
Article
Project-delivery methods allocate risk for design and construction between contractual parties. State departments of transportation (DOTs) using federal funds employ three primary project-delivery methods: (1) design-bid-build (D-B-B); (2) design-build (D-B); and (3) construction manager/general contractor (CM/GC). Because the choice of a project-d...
Article
Although probabilistic risk analysis methods have been available to engineering and construction practitioners for decades, their use is not pervasive in industry today. To determine why their use is not more prevalent, the research team conducted in-depth interviews and administered survey questionnaires. The analysis of these data identified the...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
While recent studies suggest that there is a relationship between indicators of project integration—such as early involvement of constructors—and the quality of project health and safety outcomes, there is no study that empirically investigates this relationship. To address this limitation in the current body of knowledge, the purpose of this paper...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Best-value is a procurement method that combine price and non-price factors when selecting a contractor or design-builder. While, several researchers have evaluated the impact of best-value selection on project outcomes—such as cost, schedule, and quality—there are a limited number of studies that qualitatively evaluate the experience of different...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Public-Private Partnerships (P3s) offer the opportunity to improve integration among project stakeholders throughout a project's life cycle. Stakeholder integration, in turn, can enhance design decision-making process by focusing on the project's life cycle cost. The objective of this paper is to compare and contrast design decision-making in a P3...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The architecture, engineering and construction (AEC) industry is often criticized for its fragmented approach to project delivery. Traditional procurement and contracting structures serve to isolate designers from contractors, limiting opportunities for collaboration. Viewed as the logical solution to fragmentation, team integration is the process...
Technical Report
Full-text available
“During recent years, most state highway agencies have reduced the total number of permanent employees” (1). That statement is just as true today as when it was first stated 25 years ago as part of the 1989 NCHRP Synthesis study by Newman on Use of Consultants for Construction Engineering and Inspection. Today, adequate construction staffing remain...
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of risk on the project delivery selection process of three primary methods in use in the USA, including design-bid-build (DBB); design-build (DB); and construction manager/general contractor (CMGC). Design/methodology/approach – The review of empirical studies, national survey questi...
Article
Alternative project delivery methods and reductions in state highway agency staffing are changing project quality assurance organizations (QAO) or the assignment of project quality management roles and responsibilities in the industry. Although fundamental quality roles and responsibilities remain the same, the assignment of these roles and respons...
Article
Rural transit projects are often small in scope but numerous and geographically dispersed. Management of these projects can be challenging because of very limited resources, unique risk factors, and a lack of construction management expertise. Without effective construction management strategies, it is unlikely that rural transit projects will be o...
Article
A project quality assurance organization (QAO) assigns project quality responsibilities and relationships, both for design and construction. In the highway sector, all project quality roles and responsibilities have historically been assigned to the state highway agency (SHA), an accepted and well-understood industry practice. However, increasing u...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Design and construction projects incorporate stakeholders from many different organizations, often with conflicting goals, overlapping responsibilities and differing areas of expertise. With an increasing interest in improving the 'integration' and collaboration on construction projects, there is a need for empirical research to understand the cont...
Conference Paper
Construction projects primarily use three conventional delivery methods: design-bid-build (DBB), design-build (DB), and construction manager/general contractor (CMGC). Integrated project delivery (IPD) is an emerging delivery method that emphasizes the relational aspect among multiple organizations. It defines success by the outcomes of the project...
Article
Full-text available
The use of performance measures for evaluating projects or agencies as a whole is not a new idea. Performance measures have been in use for many years in the private and public highway construction sectors for a variety of areas and tasks. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) and federal transportation funding are now requiring...
Article
La globalizacio´n y el ambiente altamente competitivo han generado una urgente necesidad por crear estrategias competitivas para sobrevivir. Por ello, las compañías requieren un mejor entendimiento sobre co´mo interrelacionan los factores que determinan la competitividad y los índices que la miden. Considerando que la planificacio´n estratégica den...
Article
The design-build (DB) project delivery method continues to grow as a viable alternative delivery method for highway projects. The primary reason for selecting DB delivery is to take advantage of the time savings inherent in the process. However, because of low levels of design at the time of contract awards, DB contracts often carry more risks and...
Article
Research spending by the private industry within the construction, engineering, and management domain is notably low. This paper explores the domain of academic-industry alliances, or research centers, which are wholly funded through private sector support. Through semistructured interviews with both industry and academic representatives from three...
Article
Activity delays are a common issue in the construction industry and can increase project schedules and costs. Recent research efforts have focused on the quantitative evaluation of delay impacts. The literature suggests that the construction industry is in need of additional research to systematically relate the causes of delays to their impacts. T...
Article
Determining an appropriate delivery method for highway projects is a complex process. This paper presents a decision support approach to assist highway agencies in evaluating and selecting the most suitable delivery method for their projects. The approach uses a matrix to consider three fundamental delivery methods currently in use by the highway i...
Data
In an effort to proactively identify and mitigate potential project management problems in construction projects, the United States General Service Administration (GSA) developed and implemented a project peer review process in conjunction with the University of Colorado at Boulder and Peter Associates. This paper discusses the peer review process...
Article
Full-text available
Owners of water/wastewater facilities can choose from several project delivery methods, including the traditional design-bid-build method or an alternative design-build method. When choosing a project delivery method, the owner should consider both the project goals as well as the performance of different project delivery methods. Detailed data on...
Article
The design-build (DB) system is a popular and effective delivery method of construction projects worldwide. After owners decide to procure their projects through the DB system, they may wish to determine the optimal proportion of design to be provided in the DB request for proposals (RFP), which serves as a solicitation for design-builders and desc...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Owners make several important project delivery decisions in early planning and design phases of a project that impact project performance. Ideally, these decisions should be based on objective consideration and empirical evidence, but they are frequently made based on an owner’s level of comfort or prior experience. Due to the importance of making...
Article
The leaders of DOTs and other public agencies that build and operate capital facilities manage a multitude of human, technological, political, technical, and natural resources in an environment that is fraught with uncertainty. To ensure success, these agencies must be able to manage risks at multiple levels. Although there is a great deal of liter...
Article
Selecting an appropriate design-builder is critical to the success of design-build (DB) projects. The objective of this study is to identify selection criteria for design-builders and compare their relative importance by means of a robust content analysis of 94 requests for proposal (RFPs) for public DB projects. These DB projects had an aggregate...
Article
Governments have attempted to advance alternative fuels (AFs) in the on-road transportation sector with the goal of addressing multiple environmental, energy security, economic growth, and technology transition objectives. However there is little agreement, at all governmental levels, on how to prioritize goals and how to measure progress towards g...
Article
Risk management is implicit in transportation business practices. Administrators, planners, and engineers coordinate many organizational and technical resources to manage transportation network performance. Transportation agencies manage some of the largest and highest-valued public assets and budgets in federal, state, and local governments. It is...
Article
The request for proposal (RFP) with the design-build (DB) procurement arrangement is a document in which an owner develops his requirements and conveys the project scope to DB contractors. Owners should provide an appropriate level of design in DB RFPs to adequately describe their requirements without compromising the prospects for innovation. This...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Alternative Quality Management systems final research report
Technical Report
Full-text available
Guidebook on Alternative Quality Management systems for highway construction
Conference Paper
A common dissent to alternative project delivery has been that the quality will not be equal to that of the traditional design-bid-build delivery method. One of the reasons for this concern is that the quality roles and responsibilities change when implementing an alternative delivery method due to early involvement of the contractor, a single cont...
Conference Paper
Using a case study analysis of Construction Industry Institute (CII) and Project Management Institute (PMI) member companies, this CII-funded research sought to understand the current use of risk management tools in the industry, including deterministic and probabilistic project-control techniques. The results indicate that formal risk analysis is...
Conference Paper
Selecting an appropriate project delivery method is a complex decision-making process due to risks and uncertainties. At the time of the decision, the owner and stakeholders often have little information and the project plans are not detailed enough to make a judgment about the project with certainty of outcomes. This paper examines 39 risk factors...
Article
Build-operate-transfer (BOT) is a public-private partnership (PPP) project delivery system for the financing, development, and operations of highway projects around the world. Uncertainty about future traffic demands is one of the most important risk factors in the operations phase of a BOT project. There is a considerable amount of evidence indica...
Article
Full-text available
AASHTO has expressed the need for formalized and effective performance-based management in highway projects. Performance measures and key performance indicators (KPIs) are widely used by international highway agencies to manage performance in public private partnership contracts, with great success. Performance measures have been used by a number o...
Article
Concurrent engineering is the process of reducing the total project delivery time by overlapping activities that normally occur sequentially. The benefits are a shortening of delivery time and a possible reduction in overall costs. However, there are potential risks to overlapping dependent activities. The interaction between an upstream activity a...
Article
Full-text available
Globalization and industry competitiveness has led to an urgent need for an effective competitiveness management strategy. This, companies require a better understanding about the definition of competitiveness, factors for determining it, and indexes for measuring it. This paper provides the results of an exhaustive literature review about competit...
Article
Full-text available
La globalización y el ambiente altamente competitivo han generado una urgente necesidad por crear estrategias competitivas para sobrevivir. Por ello, las compañías requieren un mejor entendimiento sobre cómo interrelacionan los factores que determinan la competitividad y los índices que la miden. Considerando que la planificación estratégica dentro...
Article
Globalization and the highly competitive environment have led to an urgent need to create effective competitive strategies in order to survive. Therefore, companies require a better understanding about the interrelationships between the factors that determine competitiveness and indexes to measure it. Considering that strategic planning within the...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Applying lean construction practices to safety management is a promising research area and has been discussed by multiple authors. Some researchers propose that the reduction of occupational hazards is a naturally occurring effect of the implementation of lean practices. To further understand how lean practices affect project safety performance, an...
Article
Initial cost estimates for construction projects can be prepared in the planning phase of project development and are revised through the programming and design phases of project development as more project information becomes available. These estimates are characterized by uncertainty, especially early in project development, because of the develo...
Article
In April 2006, the Panama Canal Authority formally proposed a major expansion of the canal to increase its capacity and make it more productive, safe, and efficient. This proposal included cost and schedule estimates for completing the expansion and was supported overwhelmingly by the citizens of Panama in an October 2006 public referendum. Given t...
Article
Constant exposure to the environment makes highway construction highly dependent on weather. However, highway construction contracts are often unclear about the potential influence of weather-related delays on highway construction project schedules. There is a need to discourage litigation arising from weather-related delays by including in contrac...
Article
Full-text available
Research in sustainable building practices suggests that integrated project delivery methods can more successfully deliver green buildings as measured by cost, schedule, and quality objectives. Design-build is an integrated project delivery method that has increased in use in the public sector. Design-build projects are commonly acquired through be...
Article
In a continued effort to provide water and wastewater facilities, owners have been using a variety of contract pricing methods for the construction of new facilities. Increasing use of cost-plus-fee with a guaranteed maximum price (GMP) contract payment provisions along with the more traditional lump sum contract payment provisions has created a ne...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Sustainable design and construction has experienced significant growth in recent years. The predominant system in the United States for specifying and evaluating sustainable construction practices and materials is the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) rating system as prescribed by the United States Green Building Council (USGBC)...
Conference Paper
Using Public-Private Partnership (PPP) model, the governments can utilize the resources of the private sector for financing and development of the capital-intensive infrastructure projects such as highways. PPP Highway projects are subject to revenue risks due to the uncertainty inherent in future traffic projections. Hence, the private sector is o...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Municipal water and wastewater facilities play an important role in the infrastructure of this nation. In a continued effort to provide such facilities, public owners have been using a variety of project delivery methods and contract pricing provisions for design and construction of facilities. The increased use of design-build project delivery wit...
Article
Full-text available
El método primario de ejecución de proyectos en el sector público en los Estados Unidos (U.S.), tradicionalmente ha sido la ejecución diseño-licitación-construcción. El sector público históricamente ha separado los contratos de diseño y construcción. En la década de los 90, el sector público norteamericano comenzó a experimentar con la ejecución de...
Article
Full-text available
This paper describes the results of research on alternative project delivery methods in transit projects in the United States. The research, sponsored by the Transit Cooperative Research Program, aimed to identify those factors that drive the decision in the choice of project delivery method. A rigorous case study analysis based on on-site structur...
Article
Full-text available
A decision support system was developed to help transit agencies evaluate and choose the most appropriate project delivery method for their capital projects. The system considers the traditional design-bid-build, construction manager-at-risk, design-build, and design-build-operate-maintain delivery methods. A set of 24 pertinent issues that can aff...
Article
Full-text available
Construction projects, private and public alike, have a long history of cost escalation. Transportation projects, which typically have long lead times between planning and construction, are historically underestimated, as shown through a review of the cost growth experienced with the Holland Tunnel. Approximately 50% of the active large transportat...