Keith L. Mcdougall

Keith L. Mcdougall
Office of Environment and Heritage | OEH

About

75
Publications
30,205
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3,375
Citations
Citations since 2016
17 Research Items
2218 Citations
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20162017201820192020202120220100200300400
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400
Introduction
Skills and Expertise

Publications

Publications (75)
Article
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Conservation managers are under increasing pressure to make decisions about the allocation of finite resources to protect biodiversity under a changing climate. However, the impacts of climate and global change drivers on species are outpacing our capacity to collect the empirical data necessary to inform these decisions. This is particularly the c...
Preprint
Full-text available
Climate change and other global change drivers threaten plant diversity in mountains worldwide. A widely documented response to such environmental modifications is for plant species to change their elevational ranges. Range shifts are often idiosyncratic and difficult to generalize, partly due to variation in sampling methods. There is thus a need...
Article
Full-text available
A diverse Phytophthora community was detected in recent surveys conducted in alpine and subalpine areas, previously considered Phytophthora free. The current study was conducted to determine patterns of Phytophthora species richness and distribution along a steep elevation gradient, and to compare these patterns with those of vascular plant species...
Article
The association of an armoured scale insect (a diaspidid) with dieback of a population of a native cycad (Macrozamia communis L.A.S.Johnson) was investigated on the south coast of New South Wales. The diaspidid was found to be undescribed but morphologically similar to oleander scale – here we call it Aspidiotus cf. nerii. It is probably native to...
Article
Full-text available
Extreme abiotic conditions, geographic isolation, and low levels of disturbance have historically provided alpine, Arctic, and Antarctic regions with low input of and relative resistance to the introduction of new species. However, the climate is warming rapidly, concomitant with intense and diversified types of human influence in these cold enviro...
Article
Full-text available
Collar rot associated with the pathogen Phytophthora gregata T. Jung, M.J.C.Stukely & T.Burgess was recently observed on a subalpine wetland shrub, Pimelea bracteata Threllfall, in Kosciusko National Park, New South Wales. The symptomatic collars of infected plants in the field may mean that P. gregata infects via the collar rather than through roo...
Article
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Prevention is regarded as a cost-effective management action to avoid unwanted impacts of non-native species. However, targeted prevention can be difficult if little is known about the traits of successfully invading non-native species or habitat characteristics that make native vegetation more resistant to invasion. Here, we surveyed mountain road...
Article
Kosciuszko National Park is the largest protected area in NSW and the only reserve in the State containing alpine vegetation. Diseases and pests of plants in the park are poorly known and, until recently, were thought to be benign and rare because of the cold climate. Surveys after the 2003 fi re that burnt about 70% of the park detected dieback in...
Article
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Plant deaths had been observed in the sub-alpine and alpine areas of Australia. Although no detailed aetiology was established, patches of dying vegetation and progressive thinning of canopy suggested the involvement of root pathogens. Baiting of roots and associated rhizosphere soil from surveys conducted in mountainous regions New South Wales and...
Article
Phytophthora species are associated with disease in horticulture, agriculture and natural vegetation worldwide but are not well known in cold areas. In Australia, alpine regions have been regarded as unsuitable for the survival and disease expression of Phytophthora cinnamomi, which has caused catastrophic damage to vegetation in other parts of the...
Article
We investigated patterns of species richness and community dissimilarity along elevation gradients using globally replicated, standardized surveys of vascular plants. We asked how these patterns of diversity are influenced by anthropogenic pressures (road construction and non-native species). Global. 2008–2015. Vascular plants. Native and non-nativ...
Article
Full-text available
Rapid climatic changes and increasing human influence at high elevations around the world will have profound impacts on mountain biodiversity. However, forecasts from statistical models (e.g. species distribution models) rarely consider that plant community changes could substantially lag behind climatic changes, hindering our ability to make tempo...
Article
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Globally, Phytophthora cinnamomi is listed as one of the 100 worst invasive alien species and active management is required to reduce impact and prevent spread in both horticulture and natural ecosystems. Conversely, there are regions thought to be suitable for the pathogen where no disease is observed. We developed a CLIMEX model for the global di...
Article
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Recent years have seen a surge of interest in understanding patterns and processes of plant invasions into mountains. Here, we synthesise current knowledge about the spread of non-native plants along elevation gradients, emphasising the current status and impacts that these species have in alpine ecosystems. Globally, invasions along elevation grad...
Article
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Roads are known to act as corridors for dispersal of plant species. With their variable microclimate, role as corridors for species movement and reoccurring disturbance events, they show several characteristics that might influence range dynamics of both native and non-native species. Previous research on plant species ranges in mountains however s...
Article
Mountain ecosystems have been less adversely affected by invasions of non-native plants than most other ecosystems, partially because most invasive plants in the lowlands are limited by climate and cannot grow under harsher high-elevation conditions. However, with ongoing climate change, invasive species may rapidly move upwards and threaten mid-,...
Article
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Cold environments at high elevation and high latitude are often viewed as resistant to biological invasions. However, climate warming, land use change and associated increased connectivity all increase the risk of biological invasions in these environments. Here we present a summary of the key discussions of the workshop ‘Biosecurity in Mountains a...
Article
Mountain ecosystems have been less adversely affected by invasions of non-native plants than most other ecosystems, partially because most invasive plants in the lowlands are limited by climate and cannot grow under harsher high-elevation conditions. However, with ongoing climate change, invasive species may rapidly move upwards and threaten mid, a...
Article
Australian alpine ecosystems are highly valued for their biodiversity; however they are restricted in occurrence and are highly vulnerable to climate change. In the Alps, temperatures are predicted to increase and snow duration to decrease. This is a global trend in alpine systems and these changes provide opportunities for new weed species to esta...
Article
The vegetation of fire-prone landscapes is influenced by the frequency, severity, seasonality, return interval and stochastic patterning of fire as well as the responses of its component species. An expected increase in fire frequency and severity in association with global warming may result in compositional changes within, and spatial reorganisat...
Article
Australian alpine ecosystems are highly valued for their biodiversity; however they are restricted in occurrence and are highly vulnerable to climate change, In the Alps temperatures are predicted to increase and snow duration decrease. This is a global trend in alpine systems and these changes provide opportunities for new weed species to establis...
Article
Full-text available
Although Kosciuszko National Park is one of the largest and oldest in New South Wales, the vascular flora found within it has not been fully documented. An understandable focus on the alpine and subalpine flora has resulted in a lesser focus on the flora of the extensive tracts of forest and woodlands found in the montane, tableland and lower Snowy...
Article
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Many modern environmental problems span vastly different spatial scales, from the management of local ecosystems to understanding globally interconnected processes, and addressing them through international policy. MIREN tackles one such “glocal” (global/local) environmental problem – plant invasions in mountains – through a transdisciplinary, mult...
Article
AimWe evaluated whether the performance of individuals and populations of the invasive plant Verbascum thapsus differs between its native and non-native ranges, across climate gradients, and in response to its position in a global-scaled niche model.LocationIndia (Kashmir) and Switzerland (native range) and Australia and USA (Hawaii, Montana and Or...
Article
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Background and Aims The association of clonality, polyploidy and reduced fecundity has been identified as an extinction risk for clonal plants. Compromised sexual reproduction limits both their ability to adapt to new conditions and their capacity to disperse to more favourable environments. Grevillea renwickiana is a prostrate, putatively sterile...
Article
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Damage to vegetation from tourism and recreation includes the impacts of hiking trails, which may favour trampling-tolerant plants over those that are more sensitive to this type of disturbance. Toassess how continued use of a hiking trail coupled with changes in local climate affect a rare Australian alpine plant community, we compared plant compo...
Chapter
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Mountains are of great significance for people and biodiversity. Although often considered to be at low risk from alien plants, recent studies suggest that mountain ecosystems are not inherently more resistant to invasion than other types of ecosystems. Future invasion risks are likely to increase greatly, in partic-ular due to climate warming and...
Article
Full-text available
Mountains are of great significance for people and biodiversity. Although often considered to be at low risk from alien plants, recent studies suggest that mountain ecosystems are not inherently more resistant to invasion than other types of ecosystems. Future invasion risks are likely to increase greatly, in particular due to climate warming and i...
Article
SummaryA wide road verge on the Bogong High Plains near Falls Creek (north‐eastern Victoria), stabilised with exotic species in the late 1950s, was monitored for species composition and cover between 1989 and 2010. Following the removal of cattle grazing in 1991, the cover and species richness of native shrubs, forbs and grasses increased on the ve...
Article
Developing an understanding of the impact of climate on Australia's alpine flora is critical in anticipating the impacts of climate change. The dendroclimatological analysis of the Australian mainland's only alpine conifer, Podocarpus lawrencei Hook.f., may have particular significance in this regard. Unfortunately, eccentric tree-ring widths and f...
Article
Ungulate grazing in the Australian Alps commenced in the mid-19th Century. Prior to that, there were no large grazing animals in the alpine zone. Ecological research into the effects of domestic grazing commenced in the 1940s following concern about the effect of grazing animals on soil stability and a proposed hydro-electricity scheme. Grazing was...
Article
Aim To investigate how species richness and similarity of non-native plants varies along gradients of elevation and human disturbance. Location Eight mountain regions on four continents and two oceanic islands. Methods We compared the distribution of non-native plant species along roads in eight mountainous regions. Within each region, abundance of...
Article
J.L. (2012). Spatial analysis of risks posed by root rot pathogen, Phytophthora cinnamomi: implications for disease management. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 134, B147-B179. Phytophthora cinnamomi, a soil-borne pathogen that infects the roots of plants, is listed as a Key Threatening Process under Commonwealth and NSW state...
Article
Full-text available
Mountains are one of few ecosystems little affected by plant invasions. However, the threat of invasion is likely to increase because of climate change, greater anthropogenic land use, and continuing novel introductions. Preventive management, therefore, will be crucial but can be difficult to promote when more pressing problems are unresolved and...
Article
Full-text available
Nonnative species richness typically declines along environmental gradients such as elevation. It is usually assumed that this is because few invaders possess the necessary adaptations to succeed under extreme environmental conditions. Here, we show that nonnative plants reaching high elevations around the world are not highly specialized stress to...
Article
Full-text available
Aim We use data from 13 mountain regions and surrounding lowland areas to identify (1) the origins, traits and cultural uses of alien plant species that establish in mountains, (2) the alien species that are most likely to be a threat and (3) how managers might use this information to prevent further invasions. Location Australia, Canada, Chile, In...
Article
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sees sustainable scholarly publishing as an inherently collaborative enterprise connecting authors, nonprofit publishers, academic institutions, research libraries, and research funders in the common goal of maximizing access to critical research. BioOne (www.bioone.org) is a a nonprofit, online aggregation of core research in the biological, ecolo...
Article
Full-text available
Most studies of invasive species have been in highly modified, lowland environments, with comparatively little attention directed to less disturbed, high-elevation environments. However, increasing evidence indicates that plant invasions do occur in these environments, which often have high conservation value and provide important ecosystem service...
Article
Bossiaea bracteosa F.Muell. ex Benth. has long been regarded as a widely distributed shrub, occurring in Victoria, New South Wales and the Australian Capital Territory. Most of its populations, however, are highly localised, poorly represented in herbaria and occur in disparate habitats. Following re-examination of herbarium collections and further...
Article
Summary The Southern Corroboree Frog (Pseudophryne corroboree) is one of Australia's most critically endangered frog species. The species occurs entirely within Kosciuszko National Park, which has a history of cattle grazing (up to the 1970s). A consequence of cattle grazing has been a significant reduction in the extent of montane and sub-alpine p...
Article
A reassessment is presented of previous treatments of the 11 species of Craspedia G. Forst. recorded from high-montane to alpine areas of south-eastern mainland Australia, with brief notes on the distribution and habitats of each species. A revised key to the species of this area is provided. A new species, Craspedia adenophora K.L. McDougall & N.G...
Article
Grasslands in the Riverina region of south-eastern Australia have long been thought to be derived from woodland dominated by Acacia pendula A.Cunn. ex G.Don and Atriplex nummularia Lindl. following over-grazing and clearing in the 19th Century. Despite the broad acceptance of this view, there is little evidence for such a universal change having oc...
Article
The fires of summer 2003 in south-eastern Australia burnt tens of thousands of hectares of treeless alpine landscape. Here, we examine the environmental impact of these fires, using data from the Bogong High Plains area of Victoria, and the Snowy Mountains region of New South Wales. Historical and biophysical evidence suggests that in Australian al...
Article
Full-text available
Phytophthora cinnamomi continues to cause devastating disease in Australian native vegetation and consequently the disease is listed by the Federal Government as a process that is threatening Australia's biodiversity. Although several advances have been made in our understanding of how this soil-borne pathogen interacts with plants and of how we ma...
Article
Phytophthora cinnamomi continues to cause devastating disease in Australian native vegetation and consequently the disease is listed by the Federal Government as a process that is threatening Australia’s biodiversity. Although several advances have been made in our understanding of how this soil-borne pathogen interacts with plants and of how we ma...
Article
Eucalyptus marginata is the dominant tree of a forest community in south-western Australia. It is susceptible to infection by Phytophthora cinnamomi and is usually rare on long-infested sites. Ex situ stem inoculation was used to compare the susceptibility of E. marginata plants in long-infested sites and adjoining uninfested sites. Plants were fou...
Article
The floristic composition and structure of peatland vegetation in adjoining subalpine catchments of the Bogong High Plains ( north-eastern Victoria) were monitored between 1979 and 2006. Grazing by cattle had been excluded from one catchment since 1946, when it was fenced. Peatland vegetation in both catchments was partially burnt in a wild. re in...
Article
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Eucalyptus imlayensis Crisp & Brooker is a rare mallee known from one location in southeastern Australia. Discovered in 1977, the population has declined in number and health of stems since 1998. Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers were used to assess genetic variation and clonality. Only five multilocus genotypes were distinguished from 27...
Article
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Based on 1222 floristic quadrat samples, 56 plant communities were identified in treeless vegetation in the Australian Alps of south-eastern Australia. (c. 35º3038ºS, 146°–149°E). The study encompassed vegetation from above the upper limit of trees on mountain tops (i.e. the truly alpine environment) and below the inverted treeline in subalpine val...
Article
Summary Royal National Park, Australia's oldest national park, is a significant reserve for conservation of the flora and fauna that are characteristic of the Hawkesbury Sandstone in New South Wales. Since at least 1974, Phytophthora Root Rot (caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi) has been known to occur in the Park, but there is no knowledge of the ex...
Article
A total of 128 invasive plant species have been recorded in treeless vegetation in the Australian Alps. Most of these are forbs and most are uncommon. Cover of invasive species is generally minimal unless there has been gross disturbance to natural vegetation and soils. Although there is a significantly positive correlation between invasive and nat...
Article
Pomaderris walshii, a shrub of the Central Tablelands of New South Wales, is described and illustrated. The species is apparently restricted to the upper Kangaroo River, south-east of Robertson. It is threatened because of its small population size and possible future changes in land use, and fire and flood frequencies. As a result of morphometric...
Article
Summary Native grassland establishment works undertaken on former agricultural land at Organ Pipes National Park, Victoria, during the 1980s were monitored from 1989 to 2003 to assess whether re-introduced native plant populations had established and persisted at the site. Trends in vegetation were determined by examining the composition and cover...
Article
Full-text available
The fires of January 2003 burnt much of the treeless high mountain country of Victoria, New South Wales and the Australian Capital Territory, and were the first extensive conflagration of this area since 1939. For this reason there are remarkably few studies of the response of alpine plants and vegetation to fire. A flora survey of treeless subalpi...
Article
The introduced soil-borne pathogen Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands infects and kills a large number of species in the jarrah (Eucalyptus marginata Donn. ex Smith) forest of Western Australia, causing great floristic and structural change. Many of the floristic changes can be explained simply by the known susceptibility of species to infection. Some co...
Article
A popular walking track in Kosciuszko National Park, New South Wales, passes through areas of feldmark vegetation, a windswept community of sparse dwarf shrubs, cushion plants and herbs. The prevailing westerly winds in this area prune the windward edges of the dominant Epacris gunnii shrubs. Layering on the protected side effectively means that th...
Article
Abstract Seed germination is dependent on the interaction between the dormancy state of a seed and the presence of favourable environmental conditions. Thus, the spectacular pulse of seedling recruitment in many Australian vegetation communities following disturbances such as fire can be attributed to changes in microsite conditions and/or the dorm...
Article
Phytophthora cinnamomi is causing the death of a dominant understorey shrub (Oxylobium arborescens) in subalpine woodland at Barrington Tops National Park, northern New South Wales. A threatened species, Tasmannia purpurascens, is also affected. The diseased area is about 5 ha, which is large in New South Wales where P. cinnamomi has not been regar...
Article
The vegetation of two areas on the Bogong High Plains in 1936 was compared with that in 1980 by using a point sampling technique on aerial photographs. Between 1936 and 1980, the cover of closed heathland, wetland and trees (Eucalyptus pauciflora) increased but the cover of grassland decreased. No change was detected overall in the cover of open he...
Article
The vegetation of seven sites in the northern jarrah forest of Western Australia infested with Phytophthora cinnamomi was recorded and compared with adjoining vegetation. The number of species per quadrat was found to be the same in vegetation affected by P. cinnamomi as in healthy vegetation, although there were more species overall in affected ve...
Article
The spatial distribution of Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands at seven dieback sites in the jarrah (Eucalyptus marginata Donn. ex Smith) forest of Western Australia was determined by the following two baiting techniques: in situ baiting with live Banksia grandis Willd. seedlings and ex situ baiting of sampled soil and root material. Four areas within ea...
Article
Calotis cuneata (F.Muell. ex Benth.) G.L.Davis var. pubescens (F.Muell. ex Benth.) G.L.Davis is elevated to species rank as Calotis pubescens (F.Muell. ex Benth.) N.G.Walsh and K.L.McDougall and its ecology and conservation status are discussed.
Article
Summary Although many native species are now used in the revegetation of soil disturbances in Australian alpine areas, exotic species were, until recently, the only components of seed mixes. The use of exotic species and fertilizer was justified by their availability and low cost, and the prediction that native species would replace the exotic swar...
Article
Pathogenicity tests with Phytophthora cinnamomi were conducted on 25 perennial species from the jarrah (Eucalyptus marginata) forest of Western Australia. Most species tested had been found in a separate study to be scarce on sites affected by Phytophthora cinnamomi but frequently found in unaffected vegetation. Some species that were known to be f...
Article
In Australia only 0.5% of the original area of lowland grassland remains, even in semi-natural condition. This ecosystem is examined in five chapters: history of the lowland grasslands of SE Australia; ecology; the grassland flora and significant species; grassland communities; and saving the grasslands - management, reservation and action. Legisla...
Article
Cover and luxuriance of plant species in the alpine grassland community were measured. Four grassland sites were monitored regularly from 1979 to 1984; three are grazed during summer months by free-ranging cattle, the other has not been grazed since 1974. Data are presented for cover of major species at another grazed site monitored since 1947. Thr...

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