Keith R Laws

Keith R Laws
University of Hertfordshire | UH · School of Life and Medical Sciences

Bsc PhD (CANTAB) PGCert, FHEA, FRSA

About

184
Publications
50,702
Reads
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5,050
Citations
Additional affiliations
January 2010 - present
Cardiff University
January 2007 - December 2011
Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia
January 2007 - present

Publications

Publications (184)
Article
Background Robot-mediated interventions show promise in supporting the development of children on the autism spectrum. Objectives In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we summarize key features of available evidence on robot-interventions for children and young people on the autism spectrum aged up to 18 years old, as well as consider their...
Article
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Article Authors Metrics Comments Media Coverage Peer Review Abstract Introduction Method Results General discussion Conclusions Supporting information References Reader Comments Figures Accessible Data IconAccessible Data See the data Link Icon This article includes the Accessible Data icon, an experimental feature to encourage data sharing and reu...
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There has been recent debate regarding the efficacy of electroconvulsive therapy in the treatment of depression. This has been based on narrative reviews that contradict existing systematic reviews and meta-analyses. In this special article, we highlight the mistakes that occur when interpreting evidence using narrative reviews, as opposed to conve...
Article
Background As COVID-19 restrictions ease, the public are expected to relinquish previously enforced safety behaviors and resume a more normal lifestyle. Despite these aims, our recent survey of 438 adults from the general population, during a temporary release of lockdown in the United Kingdom (July–November 2020), showed that 25% of the public fin...
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Background Patients receiving dialysis for end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) commonly co-exhibit risk factors for hepatic impairment. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to quantify the co-existence of chronic liver disease (CLD) and characterise risk factors and outcomes. Methods We searched the following databases from inception to May...
Article
Objective Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) are being increasingly used as interventions for eating disorders including binge eating. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to assess two decades of research on the efficacy of MBIs in reducing binge eating severity. Methods We searched PubMed, Scopus and Cochrane Library for trials ass...
Article
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Background Anxiety is common in youth on the autism spectrum and cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) has been adapted to address associated symptoms. The aim of the current systematic review and meta-analysis was to examine the efficacy of CBT for reducing anxiety in autistic youth. Method Searches of PubMed and Scopus databases were undertaken fr...
Preprint
Strange face illusions (SFIs) describe a range of visual apparitions that occur when an observer looks at their image reflected in a mirror (Mirror Gaze Task: MGT) or gazes at another’s face (Inter-personal Gazing Dyad Task: IGDT) in a dimly lit room. The illusory effects range from mild alterations in colour, or contrast, to the perception of dist...
Article
p>Background: Re-establishing societal norms in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic will be important for restoring public mental health and psychosocial wellbeing as well as economic recovery. We investigated the impact on post-pandemic adjustment of a history of mental disorder, with particular reference to obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms or tra...
Article
Background Re-establishing societal norms in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic will be important for restoring public mental health and psychosocial wellbeing as well as economic recovery. We investigated the impact on post-pandemic adjustment of a history of mental disorder, with particular reference to obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms or traits...
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Background This study describes the construction and validation of a new scale for measuring belief in paranormal phenomena. The work aims to address psychometric and conceptual shortcomings associated with existing measures of paranormal belief. The study also compares the use of classic test theory and modern test theory as methods for scale deve...
Article
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Aims Since the 1970s treatment for obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) has consisted of the the application of drugs acting on the serotonin system of the brain or psychological treatments using graded exposure. Although there is a large number of studies on psychological treatments, they often are underpowered. Other major methodological issues in...
Preprint
Background: Four decades of research has assessed how gender and/or sexual orientation contribute to levels of body dissatisfaction (BD). The findings have proven somewhat equivocal and little attention has been paid to potential moderators. Method: The current meta-analysis compared BD in gay and heterosexual men (38 overall effects), and lesbian...
Article
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Background Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), incorporating exposure and response prevention (ERP) is widely recognised as the psychological treatment of choice for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Uncertainty remains however about the magnitude of the effect of CBT with ERP and the impact of moderating factors in patients with OCD. Method T...
Article
Background: Art therapies are advocated by national bodies, such as the United Kingdom's National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, to alleviate the negative symptoms associated with schizophrenia. The last decade has however, seen several new larger well-controlled trials published suggesting an update is timely. Aim: To asses randomise...
Article
Endophenotypes are mediator traits between genetic influences and clinical phenotypes. Meta-analyses have consistently shown modest impairments of executive functioning in obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) patients compared to healthy controls. Similar deficits have also been reported in unaffected relatives of OCD patients, but have not been qua...
Article
Background The lay public often conceptualise mental disorders in a different way to mental health professionals, and this can negatively impact on outcomes when in treatment. Aims This study explored which disorders the lay public are familiar with, which theoretical models they understand, which they endorse and how they compared to a sample of...
Article
CBT for schizophrenia: a critical viewpoint - S. Jauhar, K. R. Laws, P. J. McKenna
Article
Keith Laws discusses new research examining the effectiveness of cognitive behavioural therapy on improving the quality of life of people with schizophrenia
Article
Patients with psychosis report higher levels of adverse events in childhood. This relationship has not been extensively examined in healthy individuals who score highly on schizotypal personality traits. This study examined the association between different childhood traumas and psychosis-like traits in a general population sample, as well as diffe...
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Background: The effect of cognitive behavioural therapy for psychosis (CBTp) on the core symptoms of schizophrenia has proven contentious, with current meta-analyses finding at most only small effects. However, it has been suggested that the effects of CBTp in areas other than psychotic symptoms are at least as important and potentially benefit fr...
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Background While it has been repeatedly documented that people with schizophrenia report higher levels of adverse events in childhood (emotional, physical and sexual abuse), this has not been extensively examined in healthy individuals who score highly on schizotypal personality traits. The continuum hypothesis of psychosis and schizophrenia sugges...
Article
Objective An impairment of the ability to sense the physiological condition of the body – interoception – has long been proposed as central to the onset and maintenance of eating disorders. More recent attention to this topic has generally indicated the presence of interoceptive deficits in individuals with an eating disorder diagnosis; however, po...
Article
Purpose of review: Women are more impacted by Alzheimer's disease than men - they are at significantly greater risk of developing Alzheimer's disease, and recent research shows that they also appear to suffer a greater cognitive deterioration than men at the same disease stage. The purpose of this article is to review recent studies on examining s...
Article
Reducing the psychological distress associated with chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis is seen as a key aim of cognitive behavioural therapy. Although cognitive behavioural therapy is promoted precisely in this manner by the National Institute of Clinical Excellence, the evidence base on distress reduction from randomised controlled...
Article
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Modern psychology is apparently in crisis and the prevailing view is that this partly reflects an inability to replicate past findings. If a crisis does exists, then it is some kind of ‘chronic’ crisis, as psychologists have been censuring themselves over replicability for decades. While the debate in psychology is not new, the lack of progress acr...
Article
Introduction Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a debilitating disorder, characterized by obsessions and compulsions relating specifically to perceived appearance, and which has been newly classified within the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , Fifth Edition (DSM-5) Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders grouping. Until now...
Conference Paper
By investigating neuropsychological profiles in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and OCD with alcohol use disorder (OCD+AUD), focusing on tasks of behavioural inhibition, attentional set-shifting and decision-making, we aimed to elucidate factors contributing to compulsive behaviour. Consenting patients (n=24) were recruited from o...
Article
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Sex differences in neurocognitive abilities have been extensively explored both in the healthy population and in many disorders. Until recently, however, little work has examined such differences in people with Alzheimer's disease (AD). This is despite clear evidence that AD is more prevalent in women, and converging lines of evidence from brain im...
Article
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In their meta-analysis, Mehl et al. (2015) examine whether CBT for psychosis is an effective intervention for reducing delusions. The authors reported a small but significant effect size for CBT in comparison to TAU at end-of-therapy (k = 13; d = 0.27) and at follow-up (k = 12; d = 0.25). By contrast, no significant benefit emerged for CBT when com...
Article
The recent National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidelines for bipolar disorder offer a number of recommendations for the psychological treatment of bipolar disorder. Scrutiny of the evidence on which these guidelines are based reveals significant flaws in the methodology and conduct of the relevant meta-analyses, and calls into questi...
Article
{\bf Background.}$ Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a debilitating disorder, characterised by obsessions and compulsions relating specifically to perceived appearance, newly classified within the DSM-5 Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders grouping. Until now, little research has been conducted into the cognitive profile of this disorder. ${\...
Article
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Taylor and Perera[1][1] argue persuasively that the 2014 National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) schizophrenia guideline[2][2] promotes cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT) and other psychosocial interventions beyond the evidence. Its conclusions with respect to CBT also seem open
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Introduction: Hallucinations constitute a prominent symptom of schizophrenia and may take a variety of forms (verbal, visual, musical, or environmental noises). Interesting similarities exist between hallucinations and so-called mind-pops which refer to isolated fragments of one's semantic knowledge (e.g., a word/sentence, visual image, or a song/...
Article
The current meta-analysis examines the effects of ketamine infusion on depressive symptoms over time in major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD). Following a systematic review of the literature, data were extracted from 21 studies (n = 437 receiving ketamine) and analysed at four post-infusion time points (4 h, 24 h, 7 days and 12-...
Article
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Obsessive compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) is characterized by perfectionism, need for control, and cognitive rigidity. Currently, little neuropsychological data exist on this condition, though emerging evidence does suggest that disorders marked by compulsivity, including obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), are associated with impairment in...
Chapter
In this chapter, we review the results of neurocognitive and behavioural studies in patients with OCD and schizophrenia and use these data to attempt to identify the key neuropsychological mechanisms. We explore the extent to which associated neuro-behavioural changes may characterise schizo–OCD either as a distinct and clinically relevant schizoph...
Article
Background: The way that information is presented is well known to induce a range of biases in human decision tasks. Little research exists on framing effects in psychiatric decision making, but it is reasonable to assume that psychiatrists are not immune and, if so, there may be implications for the welfare of patients, staff and the general publ...
Article
This study present data from 300 unselected individuals who had completed the Formal Thought Disorder-Self Scale (FTD-S) (Study 1) and from a separate sample of over 150 unselected individuals who had completed the FTD-S and also had a relative or friend complete the Formal Thought Disorder-Other Scale (FTD-O) (Study 2). The questionnaire, original...
Article
This was a citation analysis to investigate the extent to which positive claims for the use of CBT to treat psychosis matched the statistics involved. It was an e-letter to the Editor that can be found here: http://bjp.rcpsych.org/content/204/1/20.e-letters#citation-analysis-reveals-disproportionate-emphasis-on-positive-claims-in-study-abstracts
Article
W e read with interest the article entitled ''High-Yield Cognitive Behavioral Techniques for Psychosis Delivered by Case Managers to Their Clients With Persistent Psychotic Symptoms'' (Turkington et al., 2014). It addresses an important topic, fitting within a broad view on health care as an approach that extends to all professionals involved. Unfo...
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Cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) is considered to be effective for the symptoms of schizophrenia. However, this view is based mainly on meta-analysis, whose findings can be influenced by failure to consider sources of bias. To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the effectiveness of CBT for schizophrenic symptoms that includes an ex...
Article
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There seems to be a common belief that women are better in multi-tasking than men, but there is practically no scientific research on this topic. Here, we tested whether women have better multi-tasking skills than men. In Experiment 1, we compared performance of 120 women and 120 men in a computer-based task-switching paradigm. In Experiment 2, we...
Article
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Psychology has been historically plagued by the under-reporting of both replications and null findings. The avoidance of these core ingredients of scientific practice means that the psychology literature is unquestionably distorted. The bias in psychology is pervasive and systemic, afflicting researchers, reviewers, editors and journals, all of who...
Article
Executive function encapsulates those complex cognitive processes such as planningand executing strategies, inhibiting undesired responses, and managing emotionalresponses. Studies of neurological patients indicate that these distinctly human cognitivecharacteristics reside in the frontal cortex. Despite the centrality of executive function toour n...
Article
Objective We conducted a meta-analysis to examine whether Ginkgo biloba (G. biloba) enhances cognitive function in healthy individuals. Methods Scopus, Medline, Google Scholar databases and recent qualitative reviews were searched for studies examining the effects of G. biloba on cognitive function in healthy individuals. We identified randomised c...
Article
In the chapter, we present a new study examining semantic memory impairment in community-based patients with schizophrenia and its symptoms correlates. We tested 73 community-based patients with schizophrenia and 71 healthy controls for a semantic memory assessment (tests of: category fluency; picture naming; naming-to-description; sorting; and wor...
Article
This chapter reviews the past twenty years of research on semantic memory function in schizophrenia. This now substantial body of work has consistently documented abnormal semantic memory in most schizophrenia patients across a range of tasks (including priming, semantic fluency, picture naming) and which, varies from being quite mild through to so...
Article
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Studies reporting on the cognitive abilities of men and women with Alzheimer's disease (AD) are surprisingly rare. We carried out a meta-analysis of neurocognitive data from 15 studies (n = 828 men; 1,238 women), which revealed a consistent male advantage on verbal and visuospatial tasks and tests of episodic and semantic memory. Moderator regressi...
Article
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Involuntary semantic memories or mind-pops consist of isolated fragments of one's semantic knowledge (e.g., a word or a sentence, proper name, image or a melody) that come to mind unexpectedly, without any deliberate attempt to recall them. They can be experienced as alien and uncontrollable, and may share some phenomenological similarities with ha...
Article
IntroductionIndividuals with Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD) may have a propensity for viewing faces differently from healthy controls. In an attempt to explore these processing changes in more detail, we investigate face processing in BDD using two facial recognition tasks; one testing the recognition of facial characteristics, the other testing th...
Book
From a neuropsychological perspective, our understanding about how knowledge is organised in the human brain has emerged largely from the study of so-called 'category-specific' deficits in neurological patients. Category-specificity is, in very broad terms, the relative loss of cognitive performance in one domain of knowledge over another. The most...
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This paper presents a new corpus of 140 high quality colour images belonging to 14 subcategories and covering a range of naming difficulty. One hundred and six Spanish speakers named the items and provided data for several psycholinguistic variables: age of acquisition, familiarity, manipulability, name agreement, typicality and visual complexity....
Article
Category-specific deficits represent the archetypal illustration of domain-specific cognitive processes. These deficits describe individuals who, following certain types of neurological damage show dissociations in their ability to recognise and name exemplars from within specific domains e.g. living or nonliving things. Cases described over the pa...
Article
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A growing body of literature indicates that physical activity can have beneficial effects on mental health. However, previous research has mainly focussed on clinical populations, and little is known about the psychological effects of physical activity in those without clinically defined disorders. The present study investigates the association bet...
Article
Although false memories and confabulation have been linked to both executive dysfunction and greater suggestibility, similar associations with the emergence of delusional thinking remain unexamined. We therefore compared healthy individuals who scored high and low on the Peters Delusional Inventory (PDI: Peters et al., 1999) on measures of set-shif...