Ke-Qin Gao

Ke-Qin Gao
Peking University | PKU

PhD

About

116
Publications
44,983
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4,332
Citations
Citations since 2017
38 Research Items
1607 Citations
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200250300
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200250300
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200250300
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200250300
Additional affiliations
January 2002 - December 2015
Peking University
Position
  • Professor (Full)

Publications

Publications (116)
Article
Full-text available
Early limb skeletogenesis in salamanders is characterized by preaxial elements, digits I and II forming earlier than their postaxial counterparts (digits III to V), a phenomenon known as preaxial dominance, whereas in amniotes and anurans, these developmental sequences are reversed. This pattern characterizes the late skeletogenesis of digits and z...
Article
Full-text available
Ecological preferences and life history strategies have enormous impacts on the evolution and phenotypic diversity of salamanders, but the yet established reliable ecological indicators from bony skeletons hinder investigations into the paleobiology of early salamanders. Here we statistically demonstrate, by using time-calibrated cladograms and geo...
Article
Full-text available
Choristoderes are extinct semi-aquatic to aquatic diapsid reptiles, occupying a similar niche as modern crocodilians from the Jurassic to the Miocene. Distinct from other diapsids, choristoderes have a neomorphic ossification between the braincase, squamosal, and quadrate. This neomorphic bone is described as thin and plate-like in long-snouted cho...
Preprint
Full-text available
Ecological preferences and life history strategies have enormous impacts on the evolution and phenotypic diversity of salamanders, but the yet established reliable ecological indicators hinder investigations on the paleobiology of early salamanders. Here we statistically demonstrate using geometric morphometric analysis that both the shape of the p...
Preprint
Full-text available
Ecological preferences and life history strategies have enormous impacts on the evolution and phenotypic diversity of salamanders, but the yet established reliable ecological indicators hinder investigations on the paleobiology of early salamanders. Here we statistically demonstrate using geometric morphometric analysis that both the shape of the p...
Article
Full-text available
The Hynobiidae are an early-diverging clade of crown-group salamanders (urodeles) with an important bearing on the evolution of urodeles. Paleobiology and early branching patterns of the Hynobiidae remain unclear due to a poorly documented fossil record. We reported a newly referred specimen to the stem hynobiid, originally named as “Liaoxitriton d...
Article
Hynobiidae are a clade of salamanders that diverged early within the crown radiation and that retain a considerable number of features plesiomorphic for the group. Their evolutionary history is informed by a fossil record that extends to the Middle Jurassic Bathonian time. Our understanding of the evolution within the total group of Hynobiidae has...
Article
Hynobiids are a group of small- to moderate-sized salamanders living primarily in Asia. They are a primitive crown-group clade, with a poor fossil record. Several hynobiid-like taxa have been discovered from the Lower Cretaceous strata of northern China during the last 20 years, with Liaoxitriton zhongjiani and Nuominerpeton aquilonaris identified...
Article
Full-text available
Batrachuperus yenyuanensis, commonly known as Yenyuan Stream Salamander, is a hynobiid species inhabiting high-altitude (2440-4025 m above sea level) mountain stream and pond environments along the eastern fringe of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau in western Sichuan Province, China. Although the species has been known for almost 70 years since its init...
Data
Parameters of micro-CT scanning of specimens used in this study. (DOCX)
Data
Marginal teeth of Batrachuperus yenyuanensis. A, premaxillary teeth in palatal view; B, C, maxillary teeth in labial and lingual views; D, dentary teeth in labial view. All from CIB 201707YY04 (not to scale), a subadult from the type locality Shuangertang. Dark arrows point to the dividing zone, white arrows pointing to resorption pits in (A) and p...
Data
Information on specimens used in this study. (DOCX)
Data
Micro-CT rendered reconstruction of the skull of Batrachuperus yenyuanensis in right lateral view. A, B, CIB 72599 from Tuowu locality; C, D, FMNH 49371 from Shuangertang locality; E, F, CIB 17308 from Shuangertang locality. Note the squamosal is removed in the left column to show details of the quadrate, and both squamosal and quadrate are removed...
Data
Micro-CT rendered reconstructions of vertebrae of Batrachuperus yenyuanensis. A, atlas; B, 8th trunk vertebra; C, sacral vertebra; D, last caudosacral vertebra; E, 9th caudal vertebra. All vertebrae from the paratype specimen (FMNH 49371) and are arranged from left to right in the following order: anterior, posterior, dorsal, ventral and left later...
Data
Micro-CT rendered reconstructions of the skull of Batrachuperus yenyuanensis in left lateral view, showing variable extent of ossification of a pillar (color coded in blue). A, CIB 17002; B, CIB 17003; C, CIB 72594; D, CIB 72595. CIB 17002, and 17003 from Shenguozhuang, Yuexi County; CIB 72594, and 72595 from Tuowu, Mianning County. (TIF)
Data
Micro-CT rendered reconstruction of the skull and palate of Batrachuperus yenyuanensis with skull roof partly removed to show dorsal view of the braincase. A, CIB 72599 from Tuowu locality; B, FMNH 49371 from Shuangertang, Yanyuan County. (TIF)
Article
Full-text available
Integumentary patterns and colors can differentiate species, sexes, and life changes and can inform on habitat and ecology. However, they are rarely preserved in the fossil record. Here, we report on an extremely well-preserved specimen of the Cretaceous bird Confuciusornis with unprecedented complexity, including small spots on the wings, crest, a...
Article
Full-text available
As a primitive clade of tailed amphibians, hynobiids are significant in understanding the early evolutionary history of salamanders. However, no consensus has been reached in regard to the time and location of origin, evolutionary history of certain characters, and phylogenetic relationships of Hynobiidae, due to several factors including: poor fos...
Article
Full-text available
As a primitive clade of tailed amphibians, hynobiids are significant in understanding the early evolutionary history of salamanders. However, no consensus has been reached in regard to the time and location of origin, the evolutionary history of certain characters, and the phylogenetic relationships of Hynobiidae, due to several factors including:...
Article
Full-text available
It comes the digital era for paleontological research. High-resolution X-ray tomography (or μCT) has several advantages (high resolution, high efficiency and non-destructive detection) over traditional mechanical preparation and serial sectioning techniques when used to investigate fossil specimens. Thus, this new technique has been widely used by...
Article
Full-text available
It comes the digital era for paleontological research. High resolution X-ray tomography (or μCT) has several advantages (high resolution, high efficiency and non-destructive detection) over traditional mechanical preparation and serial sectioning techniques when used to investigate fossil specimens. Thus, this new technique has been widely used by...
Article
Full-text available
The Longdong Stream Salamander Batrachuperus londongensis , living in a mountain stream environment at Mt. Emei in Sichuan Province, China, represents a rare species that is facultatively neotenic in the family Hynobiidae. Although the species has been known to science for some 40 years since its initial discovery in the late 1970s, anatomical deta...
Data
Lateral view of the skull of Batrachuperus londongensis with squamosal and quadrate attached. (A) CIB 65I0013/14380; (B) CIB 14381; (C) CIB 14482. Abbreviations used in this and other supplementary figures see Materials & Methods in main text.
Data
Occipital of the skull of Batrachuperus londongensis with squamosal and quadrate attached. (A) CIB 65I0013/14380; (B) CIB 14381; (C) CIB 14482.
Data
Skull and mandibles of Batrachuperus londongensis in ventral view, with hyobranchium attached. (A) CIB 65I0013/14380; (B) CIB 14504; (C) CIB 14484; (D) CIB 14507; (E) CIB 14487; (F) CIB 14482. Arrow in (A) and (E) pointing to the prominent process projecting from the midlength of the ceratobranchial II for attachment of the subarcualis rectus II mu...
Data
Vomers of Batrachuperus londongensis in palatal view:. (A) CIB 65I0013/14380; (B) CIB 14381. Foramina labeled in images are for passage of the ramus ventralis of the trigeminal nerve (CN V) and the ramus palatinus of the facial nerve (CN VII) as described in main text.
Data
Holotype whole skeleton of Batrachuperus londongensis (CIB 65I0013/14380).
Data
Specimens used for comparison in this study.
Data
CT rendered holotype skull of Batrachuperus londongensis (CIB 65I0013/14380).
Data
Cleared and stained specimen (CIB 14499) showing the pelvic girdle of Batrachuperus londongensis in dorsal (A) and ventral (B) views.
Article
Full-text available
Liaodactylus primus is the earliest filter-feeding pterosaur, discovered from the Late Jurassic Tiaojishan Formation in Jianchang County, Liaoning Province of China. It dates back to about 160 million years ago (161.8±0.4 – 159.5±0.6 Ma). The discovery of Liaodactylus primus documents a specialized feeding strategy among pterosaurs in the Mesozoic...
Article
The fossils of the Cretaceous Jehol Biota exhibit excellent preservation and extraordinary diversity. Terrestrial fossils, including plants, insects, dinosaurs, birds, mammals and freshwater invertebrates have been discovered from the Dabeigou, Yixian and Jiufotang Formations (and correlative strata) in Central and East Asia. Significant specimens...
Article
Full-text available
Four new specimens of Anchiornis huxleyi (PKUP V1068, BMNHC PH804, BMNHC PH822, and BMNHC PH823) were recently recovered from the Late Jurassic fossil beds of the Tiaojishan Formation in northeastern China. These new specimens are almost completely preserved with cranial and postcranial skeletons. Morphological features of Anchiornis huxleyi have i...
Article
Full-text available
Based on 12 well-preserved skeletons of postmetamorphic individuals, a new crown-group frog taxon is named and described from the Lower Cretaceous Guanghua (upper part of Longjiang) Formation (stratigraphic equivalent of the world-famed Yixian Formation) exposed in Dayangshu Basin, Hulunbuir, in the far northeast of Inner Mongolia, China. The new t...
Article
Full-text available
Pterosaurs were a unique clade of flying reptiles that were contemporaries of dinosaurs in Mesozoic ecosystems. The Pterodactyloidea as the most species-diverse group of pterosaurs dominated the sky during Cretaceous time, but earlier phases of their evolution remain poorly known. Here, we describe a 160 Ma filter-feeding pterosaur from western Lia...
Article
Pterosaurs were a unique clade of flying reptiles that were contemporaries of dinosaurs in Mesozoic ecosystems. The Pterodactyloidea as the most species-diverse group of pterosaurs dominated the sky during Cretaceous time, but earlier phases of their evolution remain poorly known. Here, we describe a 160Ma filter-feeding pterosaur from western Liao...
Article
Full-text available
Brilliant colour displays and diverse feather morphologies that are often sexual ornaments are common throughout much of extant Avialae. Here we describe a new basal enantiornithine bird specimen recovered from the Early Cretaceous Jiufotang Formation of Liaoning Province in northeastern China. We present new information on the plumage of Bohaiorni...
Article
Full-text available
A new fossil salamander, Nuominerpeton aquilonaris (gen. et sp. nov.), is named and described based on specimens from the Lower Cretaceous Guanghua Formation of Inner Mongolia, China. The new discovery documents a far northern occurrence of Early Cretaceous salamanders in China, extending the geographic distribution for the Mesozoic fossil record o...
Article
Full-text available
A new salamandroid salamander, Qinglongtriton gangouensis (gen. et sp. nov.), is named and described based on 46 fossil specimens of juveniles and adults collected from the Upper Jurassic (Oxfordian) Tiaojishan Formation cropping out in Hebei Province, China. The new salamander displays several ontogenetically and taxonomically significant features...
Article
Full-text available
The ray-finned fish Plesiofuro mingshuica from the Triassic non-marine deposits of northern Gansu Province, China, was previously misidentified as a caturid halecomorph. This erroneous taxonomic assignment contributed to the mis-interpretation of the age of the Plesiofuro-bearing fossil beds as Early Jurassic. Here, we provide a taxonomic revision...
Article
Full-text available
Dinosauria;growth curves;life tables
Article
Microraptor zhaoianus is known from several specimens collected in western Liaoning Province, China. However, several aspects of the morphology of Microraptor remain unknown or ambiguous due to poor preservation of the described specimens. A well-preserved new specimen of Microraptor zhaoianus is described in this study. This specimen preserves sig...
Article
Full-text available
The scanilepiform ray-finned fish Fukangichthys longidorsalis, from the Middle Triassic non-marine Kelamayi Formation of Xinjiang, China, was previously described incompletely, with many of its morphological characteristics unnoticed or misidentified. This study provides a revision of this problematic taxon based on an extensive reexamination of th...
Article
Full-text available
Inference of colour patterning in extinct dinosaurs has been based on the relationship between the morphology of melanin-containing organelles (melanosomes) and colour in extant bird feathers. When this relationship evolved relative to the origin of feathers and other novel integumentary structures, such as hair and filamentous body covering in ext...
Article
Choristoderes are a group of extinct diapsid reptiles that once occupied the freshwater systems in the Northern Hemisphere from the Middle Jurassic through the Miocene. The Early Cretaceous monjurosuchid Philydrosaurus from western Liaoning, China, represents a transitional morphotype between a broad-snouted (crocodile-like) and a narrow-snouted (g...
Article
Full-text available
Since the late 1990s, eight localities in volcanic shale-rich lacustrine deposits of Middle Jurassic through Early Cretaceous age in northern China (western Liaoning Province, northern Hebei Province, and southern Inner Mongolia) have yielded thousands of exceptionally well-preserved salamander specimens. With 10 species published and several new t...
Article
Full-text available
Flying fishes are extraordinary aquatic vertebrates capable of gliding great distances over water by exploiting their enlarged pectoral fins and asymmetrical caudal fin. Some 50 species of extant flying fishes are classified in the Exocoetidae (Neopterygii: Teleostei), which have a fossil record no older than the Eocene. The Thoracopteridae is the...
Article
Full-text available
A Jurassic salamander, Beiyanerpeton jianpingensis (gen. et sp. nov.), from a recently found site in western Liaoning Province, China is the earliest known record of Salamandroidea. As a Late Jurassic record of the group, it extends the range of the clade by ~40 Ma. The Late Jurassic taxon is neotenic and represented by exceptionally preserved spec...
Article
Full-text available
Iridescent feather colors involved in displays of many extant birds are produced by nanoscale arrays of melanin-containing organelles (melanosomes). Data relevant to the evolution of these colors and the properties of melanosomes involved in their generation have been limited. A data set sampling variables of extant avian melanosomes reveals that t...
Article
A new scanilepiform, Beishanichthys brevicaudalis gen. et sp. nov., is named and described based on fossils from the Lower Triassic lake deposits exposed in Beishan area, Gansu Province, China. The discovery documents a new record of this group, which is significantly older than other known scanilepiforms from China, and is slightly younger than Ev...
Article
Squamate fossils collected for the Sino-Canadian dinosaur expeditions (1986–1990) include some 70 specimens from the Upper Cretaceous (Campanian) Djadochta Formation, exposed at the vicinity of Bayan Mandahu, Inner Mongolia, China. Well-preserved skulls, jaws, postcranial skeletons, and even osteodermal armor document a fossil assemblage composed o...
Article
Full-text available
A new trirachodontid eucynodont, Beishanodon youngi, is named and described based on a well-preserved skull from Triassic lacustrine deposits exposed in the Beishan Hills, northern Gansu Province, China. The new discovery documents the second record of trirachodontid eucynodonts known from China, along with Sinognathus gracilis from the Middle Tria...
Article
Full-text available
Epaxial tendons play an important role in the study of the musculoskeletal system and locomotory style of dinosaurs. Although the ossified epaxial tendon lattice is fairly well known in Iguanodontoidea, only recently has knowledge of this complex been extended to ceratopsians. This study concerns the gross morphology and microstructure of the tendo...
Article
Full-text available
Basal Ornithuromorpha, until recently, was one of the most poorly documented segments of early avian evo-lution. The known species diversity of the ornithuromorph clade has increased rapidly with the addition of new discoveries from the Early Cretaceous deposits of northeastern China. Reported in this paper is the discovery of a new bird from the L...
Article
Full-text available
Dinosaur Plumage Coloration and appearance provide important behavioral and evolutionary information in animals. However, for the most part, we do not know the coloration of fossil terrestrial animals. Li et al. (p. 1369 , published online 4 February) have reconstructed the appearance of a theropod dinosaur by mapping features of its well-preserved...
Article
Full-text available
A new, large compsognathid theropod, Huaxiagnathus orientalis gen. et sp. nov., from the Early Cretaceous Yixian Formation deposits of Liaoning Province, People's Republic of China is described. The holotype specimen is nearly complete, lacking only the distal portion of the tail. It is the second largest theropod taxon discovered from Jehol Group...
Article
Full-text available
Flexible, or soft-shelled, eggs are almost unknown in the fossil record, leaving large gaps in our knowledge of the reproductive biology of many tetrapod clades. Here, we report two flexible-shelled eggs of the hyphalosaurid choristodere Hyphalosaurus baitaigouensis from the Early Cretaceous of China, one containing an embryo and the second associa...
Article
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The remains of a choristodere recently discovered at Two Volcanoes, a new locality in the Gobi Desert of Mongolia, are described in this paper. Consisting of a fairly complete skull and partial postcranial skeleton, this specimen represents a new species of the genus Tchoiria. The new species differs from Tchoiria namsarai in having a much smaller...
Article
Upper Cretaceous deposits at Ukhaa Tolgod and adjacent localities in the Mongolian Gobi Desert have yielded a large number of superbly preserved lizard specimens, including representatives of several new taxa (described in this paper) and important supplementary material of several previously poorly known taxa. Study of these specimens gives import...
Article
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A new ornithomimosaur from the Yixian Formation of Liaoning Province People's Republic of China is described. These beds are near the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary. This specimen is interesting because it has several primitive characters for ornithomimosaurs such as teeth and a short first metacarpal. This taxon is placed in a phylogenetic analysis...
Article
Full-text available
New specimens of the diminutive theropod dinosaur Microraptor zhaoianusare described. These specimens preserve significant morphological details that are not present or are poorly preserved in the holotype specimen, including aspects of the manus, pectoral girdle, dorsal vertebrae, ilium, and sacrum. These specimens were coded into a current matrix...
Article
Very little is known about nonavian dinosaur population biology. Multi-individual sampling and longevity estimation using growth line counts can be used to construct life tables-the foundation for population analyses in ecology. Here we have determined the size and age distribution for a sample consisting of 80 individuals of the small ornithischia...
Article
Full-text available
The fossil record of tyrannosauroid theropods is marked by a substantial temporal and morphological gap between small-bodied, Barremian taxa, and extremely large-bodied taxa from the latest Cretaceous. Here we describe a new tyrannosauroid, Xiongguanlong baimoensis n. gen. et sp., from the Aptian-Albian Xinminpu Group of western China that represen...
Article
Full-text available
Ornithomimosaurs (ostrich-mimic dinosaurs) are a common element of some Cretaceous dinosaur assemblages of Asia and North America. Here, we describe a new species of ornithomimosaur, Beishanlong grandis, from an associated, partial postcranial skeleton from the Aptian-Albian Xinminpu Group of northern Gansu, China. Beishanlong is similar to another...
Article
Two Jurassic–Cretaceous anurans are described based on well-preserved specimens from the lower part of the Yixian Formation, western Liaoning Province, northeastern China. One specimen, from the Heitizigou site, documents a new genus and species, and the second, from the Sihetun site, is the holotype and only known specimen for the recently named C...