Kc Collins

Kc Collins
Carleton University · School of Information Technology

Doctor of Philosophy
All audio/music. Working on areas of audio as related to UX, product design, branding. Open to collaboration!

About

97
Publications
101,663
Reads
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1,306
Citations
Citations since 2016
26 Research Items
880 Citations
2016201720182019202020212022050100150
2016201720182019202020212022050100150
2016201720182019202020212022050100150
2016201720182019202020212022050100150
Introduction
From 2007-2017 KC Collins was Canada Research Chair in Interactive Audio at the University of Waterloo and is now in the School of Information Technology at Carleton University in Ottawa. Research interests include sound/music as related to design practices in products, film/tv, games, VR, etc.
Additional affiliations
June 2007 - present
University of Waterloo
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
Education
May 1999 - November 2002

Publications

Publications (97)
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this paper, I draw on an embodied cognition approach to describe how sound mediates our identification with and empathy for video game characters. This identification is discussed in terms of mirror neurons and body schema, drawing on theoretical and empirical research to explore ways in which identity is created from our embodied interaction wi...
Article
Full-text available
This article outlines some of the procedural music techniques that have been used, are being used, and may be used in the future in video games. The author examines different approaches to procedural composition and the control logics that have been used in the past, using a distinction between transformational and generative algorithms, and discus...
Article
In a centralized model of simulation-based education (Ce-SBE), the trainees practice clinical skills in simulated laboratories based on physical models, while in a decentralized model (De-SBE), the trainees practice these skills outside of these laboratories. Attention to De-SBE has drastically shifted to virtual learning environments (VLEs), serio...
Chapter
Full-text available
Affective computing aims to design and develop natural human-user interfaces that respond to the emotional needs of the user, bridging the gap between humans and technology. With the continuing technological advancements affective computing technologies are now available at the consumer level and are revolutionizing the ways in which we interact wi...
Chapter
Auditory and haptic cues play an important role in medical simulation for developing cognitive and motor skills. For example, medical training whereby trainees practice drilling-related surgeries requires the use of force feedback haptic devices in conjunction with computer-based simulations that provide audiovisual cues. Traditionally, this practi...
Book
Full-text available
Not just a textbook, a philosophy about how to go about thinking about sound as a design process! Available September 2020 from MIT Press. Please do NOT ask me for copies.
Conference Paper
Despite advancements in AI for games in recent years, non-player characters (NPCs) still do not perceive the world in a realistic manner. NPC's sense of hearing has been limited or ignored. Building on our previous work that saw the development of GrAF, a graph-based spatial sound framework capable of modelling the propagation of sound through comp...
Article
Spatial sound is an important component of realistic simulations in virtual environments. There have been shortcomings in existing spatial audio rendering systems, however, due to the computational cost of rendering realistic sound propagation. In this paper, we present a novel spatial sound rendering method using 3D graphs to simulate sound propag...
Article
Full-text available
With the rise of consumer-level virtual and augmented reality, there has been renewed interest in spatial sound. While this interest has been exciting for sound researchers, for newcomers to spatial sound the field can be fraught with technical terminology and a wide range of tools. This paper presents an introduction to spatial sound rendering in...
Article
This paper is an introduction to pseudo-haptics; that is, the use of touch-based illusions created by cross-modal perceptual interactions. Many studies have shown that it is possible to use visual or auditory stimuli to simulate the experience of touch, movement, and force. Pseudo-haptics isis useful in many applications, particularly where the use...
Article
The paper presents an overview of the current state of research in intelligent avatars, with a particular focus on the detection and expression of emotions in virtual environments. Our interest lies particularly in the potential use of such tools for the development of medical (mental and physical health) training virtual environments, and virtual...
Article
The BBC’s Planet Earth II represented a landmark in natural history documentary television, using the latest technologies to capture nature in ways never before seen or heard. But the series was mired in accusations of ‘fakery’ and ‘trickery’ when it came to the sound, due to its entirely postproduction soundtrack. This article explores these accus...
Article
Full-text available
Touch plays a fundamental role in our daily interactions, allowing us to interact with and perceive objects and their spatial properties. Despite its importance in the real-world, touch is often ignored in virtual environments. However, accurately simulating the sense of touch is difficult, requiring the use of high-fidelity haptic devices that are...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this paper, we present an overview of the current state of research in anthropomorphism as it relates specifically to product design, and then present a short pilot study of nonverbal sound's influence on anthropomorphism, through two short experiments, one qualitative and one quantitative. These experiments use an online variation of a virtual...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this paper, we describe the interaction design considerations for a series of experimental games using Unity3D and Microsoft Kinect that were created for a Cave Automatic Virtual Environment (CAVE), a 3-dimensional virtual semi-public space. Three games are described, but the focus is on the difficulties and solutions for designing in this space...
Article
This article presents an overview of the use of binaural recording and experimental headphone mixing for a short film. Drawing loosely on theories of proxemics, the article illustrates how sound mixing can be used to create a unique subjective perspective. In particular, the authors sought to experiment with and to use the peculiarities of stereo h...
Chapter
Full-text available
https://www.routledge.com/The-Routledge-Companion-to-Screen-Music-and-Sound/Mera-Sadoff-Winters/p/book/9781138855342 One of the first racing games to reach the arcades, Atari’s Gran Trak 10 of 1974, opens its advertising flyer with the following paragraph: You can see it here […] but you’ve gotta HEAR it! Gran Trak 10 is the breakthrough for 1974...
Article
Designers and developers of immersive 3D virtual environments typically aim to faithfully recreate real-world scenarios yet, traditional emphasis is placed on recreating the visual, and to a much lesser extent, auditory scenes, while ignoring the other senses despite their importance in the real world. However, simulation all of the senses in real-...
Article
Full-text available
Background. Understanding how sound functions on informational and emotional levels within video games is critical to understanding player experience of games. User interface sounds, such as player-character health, are a pivotal component of gameplay across many video game genres, yet have not been studied in detail. Method. To address this resear...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Despite the importance of sound in the real-world, particularly when visual cues are not available, the non-player character's (NPC's) sense of hearing is typically ignored completely, and if present, it is simply distance based without taking the environment and effects such as diffraction into account. Here we present a method that employs acoust...
Chapter
Often, designers and developers of serious games (and virtual simulations in general) strive for high fidelity (realism). However, real-time high fidelity rendering of complex environments across sensory modalities such as vision, audition, and haptic (sense of touch), is still beyond our computational reach. Previous work has demonstrated that mul...
Conference Paper
Prior work focusing on 2D visuals primarily suggests that sound has a significant impact on visual perception. However, little work has considered what, if any, effects sound, including its spatial positioning and the addition of various auditory effects, have on our perception of stereoscopic 3D (S3D) imagery. Here we present the results of two ex...
Book
Full-text available
You can purchase this 2-book volume of interviews with game audio professionals on Amazon.
Article
Full-text available
This paper provides an audio archaeology of the penny arcades, exploring the uses of sound in the electro-mechanical era of games. An investigation into where, how and why different types of sound (voice, sound effects and music) were used from the inception of mechanical coin-operated machines up until about 1940 is presented. It is argued that ot...
Article
Full-text available
This paper introduces a framework for the creation and analysis of sonic spatialization and proxemics in audiovisual media. The authors apply the framework to three public service announcements to show how sonic proxemics can be used as a rhetorical device that may be used to strengthen political aims.
Article
Full-text available
As the technology improves and their cost decreases, tabletop computers and their inherent ability to promote collaboration amongst users, are gaining in popularity. Their use in virtual reality-based applications including virtual training environments and gaming where multi-user interactions are common is poised to grow. However, before tabletop...
Article
Full-text available
abletop computers (also known as surface computers and smart tables) have been growing in popularity for the past decade and are poised to make inroads into the consumer market, opening up a new market for the games industry. But before tabletop computers become widely accepted, there are many questions with respect to sound production and receptio...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Musical user-generated content (UGC) in games is usually disconnected from gameplay, running in the background rather than being integrated into the game. As a result, players may lose their emotional connection to the game's narrative or action, disrupting immersion and reducing enjoyment. Here we describe a system for integrating user playlists,...
Chapter
Full-text available
Stereo is everywhere. The whole culture and industry of music and sound became organized around the principle of stereophony during the twentieth century. But nothing about this-not the invention or acceptance or ubiquity of stereo-was inevitable. Nor did the aesthetic conventions, technological objects, and listening practices required to make sen...
Article
Full-text available
Previous work has shown that sound can affect the perception of visual fidelity. Here we build upon this previous work by examining the effect of contextual sound cues (i.e., sounds that are related to the visuals) on visual fidelity perception. Results suggest that contextual sound cues do influence visual fidelity perception and, more specificall...
Book
Full-text available
THIS IS A BOOK. DO NOT ASK FOR A COPY PLEASE.
Article
Full-text available
Losses disguised as wins (LDWs) are slot machine outcomes where participants bet on multiple lines and win back less than their wager. Despite losing money, the machine celebrates these outcomes with reinforcing sights and sounds. Here, we sought to show that psychophysically and psychologically, participants treat LDWs as wins, but that we could e...
Article
Full-text available
Slot machine wins and losses have distinctive, measurable, physiological effects on players. The contributing factors to these effects remain under-explored. We believe that sound is one of these key contributing factors. Sound plays an important role in reinforcement, and thus on arousal level and stress response of players. It is the use of sound...
Article
Full-text available
Immersive 3D virtual environments such as simulations and serious games for education and training are typically multimodal, incorporating at the very least both visual and auditory cues, each of which may require considerable computational resources, particularly if high fidelity environments are sought. It is widely accepted that sound can influe...
Conference Paper
Stereoscopic 3D (S3D) content in games, film and other audio-visual media has been steadily increasing over the past number of years. However, there are still open, fundamental questions regarding its implementation, particularly as it relates to a multi-modal experience that involves sound and haptics. Research has shown that sound has considerabl...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Game developers have yet to embrace and explore the interactive stereoscopic 3D medium. They typically view stereoscopy as a separate mode that can be disabled throughout the design process and rarely develop game mechanics that take advantage of the stereoscopic 3D medium. What if we designed games to be S3D-specific and viewed traditional 2D view...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The floating window technique is commonly employed by stereoscopic 3D filmmakers to reduce the effects of window violations by masking out portions of the screen that contain visual information that doesn’t exist in one of the views. Although widely adopted in the film industry, and despite its potential benefits, the technique has not been adopted...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Given the popularity of 3D film, content developers have been creating customizable stereoscopic 3D experiences for the user to enjoy at home. Stereoscopic 3D game developers often offer a ‘white box’ approach whereby far too many controls and settings are exposed to the average consumer who may have little knowledge or interest to correctly adjust...
Chapter
Full-text available
much neglected area of research into game sound (and computer games in general) is the use of sound in the games on electronic gambling machines (EGMs). EGMs have many similarities with commercial computer games, particularly arcade games. Drawing on research in film, television, computer games, advertising, and gambling, this chapter introduces EG...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Although studies have examined sound localization or stereoscopic perception, few have investigated how these phenomena work together. Studies that examine 2D imagery and sound interaction have highlighted numerous phenomena in the temporal, spatial, and the formal domains of each medium. With the resurgence of interest in stereoscopic 3D (S3D), re...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Table-top computing has been growing in popularity slowly for the last decade and is poised to make in-roads into the consumer market soon, opening up another new market for the games industry. However, before surface computers become widely accepted, there are many questions with respect to sound production and reception for these devices that nee...
Book
Full-text available
Available on Amazon. **THIS IS A BOOK DO NOT REQUEST A COPY*****
Article
Full-text available
Sound effects are often used to communicate important information in multimedia such as video games. For instance, they may tell the player that a character has just snuck up on them, is firing at them, or is about to paddle over a waterfall. Nevertheless, there are times when playing sound may be inappropriate, may be inaudible, may become fatigui...
Article
Full-text available
Despite the benefits associated with virtual learning environments and serious games, there are open, fundamental issues regarding simulation fidelity and multi-modal cue interaction and their effect on immersion, transfer of knowledge, and retention. Here we describe the results of a study that examined the effect of ambient (background) sound on...
Chapter
Full-text available
The sound of the early video game arcades is probably embedded in the consciousness of everyone who was a child during the late 1970s and early 1980s. To walk into an arcade was to experience an overwhelming onslaught of crashes, laser guns, synthesized speech, and electronic beeping music, all competing for our attention. There have been several a...
Article
Full-text available
Past research has shown that gamblers frequently use the mini-max strategy in multi-line slot machines, whereby the player places the minimum bet on the maximum number of lines. Through a detailed analysis and explanation of the design of multi-line slot machine games, we show that when using the mini-max strategy, the payback percentage remains un...
Article
Full-text available
This paper explores ways of using mood-based audio extraction methods on player-selected music to drive content in mobile video games. Specifically, we describe the methods employed in the development of a game adapting the CLAM C++ Library for the Apple iPod.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The explosive growth of smartphone sales in recent years has almost no comparison in the sector of consumer electronics. Sales in 2010 almost doubled those of 2009 year, with Android-based units showing a startling 1,580% growth in the last quarter of 2010, as compared to the same period the previous year [3]. Given such a proliferation of mobile c...
Article
Full-text available
This project investigates the use of networked smartphones for distributed audio. The core application is to convert smartphones to loudspeakers, to which audio events can be transmitted over a wireless network in an array. The system has applications in business, education, gaming, and social environments. We report on initial experiments with the...
Article
Full-text available
Many games and consoles today allow for a player to substitute a personal music playlist into the video game. We examined the influence that a player's choice of music has on the player's experience in one particular game, Fallout 3: Operation Anchorage. Players specifically chose music for the purpose of relieving anxiety, improving tactics and to...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Although initially designed strictly for entertainment purposes, video games have long been recognized as a potential resource for teaching and learning purposes. The area of "serious games" has crossed over with simulation software to become a popular area of enquiry for researchers. More recently, distributed classification games have been used a...
Article
Full-text available
Given the growing popularity of multi-touch mobility devices (e.g., iPods, smartphones), the move to multi-user touch screens and horizontal surfaces is a likely trajectory of the technology. Before smart tables become widely accepted, there are many questions particularly with respect to sound production and reception and multi model interaction f...
Article
Full-text available
Players can wager on multiple lines of modern slot machines. When they spin and fail to gain any credits, the machine goes into a state of relative quiet. By contrast, when they spin and win, these spins are accompanied by reinforcing sights and sounds. Such reinforcement also occurs when the amount won is less than the spin wager. We sought to sho...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we present work in progress on distributed mobile audio games. We outline some of our areas of exploration along with how these types of games may be particularly useful in educational environments that require training in, for example, mixing, spatial sound and orchestration.
Article
Full-text available
Slot machines are by far the most popular form of casino gambling today. Slot machine research, however, is a neglected area of exploration for video game designers and academics. This paper discusses structural characteristics that slot machine games and casual games have in common and then presents ideas that designers of casual games might learn...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we present an overview of client-based projects in a game design class, including the incorporation of persona marketing and usability testing, and discuss how these affected learning outcomes.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Much research has been undertaken to discover what parameters in a musical composition carry emotional meaning. We now take for granted that harmonic content, instrumentation, tempo, timbre, pitch range, and dynamics (etc.) all play some role in music's affective abilities. However, there has been little research into similar aspects of affect when...
Book
Full-text available
**THIS IS A BOOK DO NOT REQUEST A COPY*****
Book
Full-text available
Digital interactive audio is the future of audio in media - most notably video games, but also web pages, theme parks, museums, art installations and theatrical events. Despite its importance to contemporary multi-media, this is the first book that provides a framework for understanding the history, issues and theories surrounding interactive audio...