Kazunari Ushida

Kazunari Ushida
Chubu University · Department of Environmental Biology

PhD
We started a project for the conservation of African grey parrots in Uganda in collaboration with UWEC.

About

262
Publications
22,360
Reads
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5,391
Citations
Additional affiliations
April 2021 - present
Chubu University
Position
  • Professor (Full)
Description
  • Dean of the College of Bioscience and Biotechnology
October 2017 - present
Chubu University
Position
  • Professor (Full)
April 1986 - September 2017
Kyoto Prefectural University
Position
  • Professor (Full)

Publications

Publications (262)
Article
Full-text available
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) reside in a wide range of mammals, such as autochthonous intestinal bacteria. In this paper, we present the phenotypic and phylogenetic characteristics of gorilla-specific LAB. Lactobacillus gorillae—previously isolated from the wild and captive western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla)—were successfully isolated...
Article
Full-text available
Three strains (YZ01 T , YZ02 and YZ03) of Gram-stain-positive, facultatively anaerobic rods were isolated from the forestomach contents collected from a captive male proboscis monkey ( Nasalis larvatus ) at Yokohama Zoo in Japan. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that these strains belonged to the genus Lactobacillus . B...
Article
Full-text available
Evidence linking the gut-brain axis to Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is accumulating, but the characteristics of causally important microbes are poorly understood. We perform a fecal microbiome analysis in healthy subjects and those with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and AD. We find that Faecalibacterium prausnitzii (F. prausnitzii) correlates with co...
Article
Egg yolk from captive and wild Japanese rock ptarmigan were analyzed for fatty acid composition. Compared to commercially reared poultry species, the ptarmigan yolk samples displayed higher level of polyunsaturated fatty acids as opposed to monounsaturated fatty acids. The difference between the commercial controls and ptarmigan were larger than th...
Article
Secondary metabolites in plants influence the health of herbivores such as Japanese rock ptarmigans that feed on the leaves and fruits of alpine plants. Thus, it is important to understand the secondary metabolites of alpine plants and their biological activities for conserving Japanese rock ptarmigans. We isolated C-methylflavone from the leaves o...
Article
Full-text available
The antibiotic resistance genes (ARG) of bacteria can be found in diverse environments such as the gut of mammals, soil, air, and water. In this research, we examined soils (for ARG) from 27 animal farms in Uganda (Mbarara, Wakiso and Mpigi districts) rearing poultry, pigs, dairy, or beef animals. Among these 27 places, there were antibiotic-free f...
Article
Full-text available
Research on the effect of symbiotic microbes on the health of the host through their impact on digestion, the immune system, development, and behavior is accumulating [...]
Article
We detected Eimeria oocysts from Japanese green pheasants (Phasianus versicolor) at a zoo in Osaka, Japan. The oocyst isolates were subspherical or ovoidal shaped and measured 17.2 (range 14.7–20.0) μm in length and 14.8 (13.3–16.7) μm in width with a length/width (L/W) ratio of 1.2 (1.0–1.4) and each had one polar granule. The oocysts lacked a res...
Article
Full-text available
There are increasing reports of antimicrobial treatment failures for bacterial diseases of poultry in Uganda. The paucity of data on antimicrobial resistance (AMR) of pathogenic bacteria in Uganda is a major setback to AMR control. This study investigated the occurrence of fowl typhoid, colibacillosis, and AMR in associated pathogens from 2012 to 2...
Article
We performed a comprehensive fecal metabolite analysis using LC-MS/MS and LC-QTOF-MS approaches as a preliminary study. Feces of Japanese macaques on Yakushima Island were collected from five monkeys at two separate locations. Using the former methodology, 59 substances such as free amino acids, nucleotides, nucleosides and nucleic acid bases, and...
Article
Full-text available
Japanese rock ptarmigans, Lagopus muta japonica, are classified as an endangered species in Japan and are found only in the Japanese Alps. The number of birds has decreased in the last half century and cage protection projects have been undertaken as in situ conservation strategies (one of the projects for the recovery plan of Japanese rock ptarmig...
Article
Gastritis and gastric ulcers are well-recognized symptoms in cetaceans, and the genus Helicobacter is considered as the main cause. In this study, we examined the gastric fluid of captive common bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus with gastric diseases in order to isolate the organisms responsible for diagnosis and treatment. Four Gram-negative,...
Article
Full-text available
Wild Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata Blyth) living in the highland and lowland areas of Yakushima are known to have different diets, with highland individuals consuming more leaves. We aim to clarify whether and how these differences in diet are also reflected by gut microbial composition and fermentation ability. Therefore, we conduct an in vitr...
Article
Full-text available
Ex situ conservation of Japanese rock ptarmigans began in 2015 with the aim of reintroducing artificially raised birds into their original habitat. However, the current raising method in captivity seems insufficient in terms of the survivability of artificially raised birds in natural conditions. Feeding management is one potential reason for such...
Article
Full-text available
Retail meats are one of the main routes for spreading antimicrobial-resistant bacteria (ARB) from livestock to humans through the food chain. In African countries, retail meats are often sold at roadside butcheries without chilling or refrigeration. Retail meats in those butcheries are suspected to be contaminated by ARB, but it was not clear. In t...
Article
Full-text available
The population of Japanese rock ptarmigan (Lagopus muta japonica), an endangered species with a habitat above the timberline of the southern Japanese Alps, has declined. As one of the recent conservation strategies for this species, cage protection for broods (hens and chicks) has been introduced in their habitats. Two species of Eimeria have frequ...
Article
1 はじめに ライチョウ類は,鳥としては珍しい極めて草食 性の強い種であり,とくに高山性のニホンライ チョウは,高山植物の葉,茎,枝,花を主食とし ている。そのため,植物性の難消化性成分を効率 よく消化する能力を持つ必要がある。一般に,草 食動物は,消化管に常在する繊維分解細菌の力で 難消化性成分の分解をおこなっている。さらに, これらの高山植物の多くには,草食動物による摂 食を忌避するための化学物質(タンニン等フェ ノール系化合物のほか,ベンジル系化合物,アル カロイド類や青酸配糖体など)が含まれており 1) , これらの有毒物に関しても腸内細菌による解毒が おこなわれていると思われる。 筆者らは 2014-15 年度に学術振興会科学研究 費を受けて,立山の野生ニホンライチョウと飼育 スバ...
Article
4-(2-Hydroxyphenethyl)-2,6-dimethoxyphenol, a bibenzyl, was isolated from the leaves of Empetrum nigrum var. japonicum, collected from Mount Tateyama. Japanese rock ptarmigans frequently eat the leaves and fruits of this plant. The structure of the bibenzyl was confirmed by NMR spectroscopic analysis and fully characterized. A synthesis of this com...
Article
Full-text available
The transgenerational maintenance of symbiotic microbes that benefit host nutrition and health is evolutionarily advantageous. In some vertebrate lineages, coprophagy is used as a strategy for effectively transmitting microbes across generations. However, this strategy has still not been studied in birds. Accordingly, the aim of the present study w...
Article
Full-text available
Despite the essential role of Bifidobacterium in health-promoting gut bacteria in humans,little is known about their functions in wild animals, especially non-human primates. It is difficultto determine in vivo the function of Bifidobacterium in wild animals due to the limited accessibilityof studying target animals in natural conditions. However,...
Article
Antimicrobial resistant bacteria (ARB) in livestock are a global public health concern, not only because they prolong infectious diseases but also they can be transferred from animals to humans via the food chain. Here, we studied ARB in livestock at commercial and subsistence farms (n = 13) in Wakiso and Mpigi districts, Uganda. We inquired from t...
Article
Full-text available
Preservation of indigenous gastrointestinal microbiota is critical for successful captive breeding of endangered wild animals, yet its biology is poorly understood. Here, we compared the cecal microbial composition of wild living Japanese rock ptarmigans (Lagopus muta japonica) in different locations of Japanese mountains, and the dominant cecal mi...
Article
Thus far, two types of Eimeria parasites (E. uekii and type B) have been morphologically identified in wild Japanese rock ptarmigans, Lagopus muta japonica. Although high prevalences were reported for these parasites, genetic analyses have not been conducted. We first clarified the phylogenetic positions of two eimerian isolates using genetic analy...
Article
Full-text available
The Japanese rock ptarmigan, Lagopus muta japonica, inhabits the alpine zone of mountainous areas at 3000 m above sea level. Since L. m. japonica is endangered due to a decline in the overall population, controlling infectious diseases such as those caused by protozoan parasites is a critical factor in the conservation of this species. Although Eim...
Chapter
Ciliated protozoa are the principal component of the rumen microbiota. They contribute significantly the digestion of ruminants. As anaerobic fermentative microorganisms, rumen ciliated protozoa produce a significant amount of hydrogen and formate. Methanogenic archaea therefore associate closely with rumen ciliated protozoa. The presence of episym...
Article
Full-text available
Japanese rock ptarmigans (Lagopus muta japonica) graze alpine plants as a major food resource. These alpine plants harbor defensive chemicals, often toxic, to avoid animal herbivory. Wild Japanese rock ptarmigans decompose these chemicals to avoid any ill effect from such plants, and detoxification presumably depends on gut-associated bacteria. In...
Article
Full-text available
Genomic analysis was performed on seven strains of Bifidobacterium thermacidophilum, a Sus-associated Bifidobacterium. Three strains from the feces of domestic pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus) and four strains from the rectal feces of free-range Japanese wild boars (S. s. scrofa) were compared. The phylogenetic position of these isolates suggested by g...
Data
Sequence comparison between Bifidobacterium thermacidophilum pig isolates and wild boar isolates. Genomic regions around tetW (tet) and its mobile element (tr) were compared to reveal the insertion in a parallel view. Figures were drawn by GenomeMatcher (Ohtsubo et al., 2008).
Data
Average Nucleotide Identities of Bifidobacterim isolates from pigs and wild boars with type strains. Caliculation was made at http://enve-omics.ce.gatech.edu/ani/ (Goris et al., 2007).
Data
SEED category features for genomes of seven Bifidobacterium thermacidophilum strains (number of genes in draft genomes).
Data
Genes with host animal-biased appearance frequencies in genomes of seven strains of Bifidobacterium thermacidophilum (number of gene copy in draft genomes) and laboratory strains.
Chapter
Microorganisms that are trapped in ice cores are regarded as markers for prior environmental conditions. Bacteriological analyses of ice cores have the potential to reconstruct past environmental conditions. The detection of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in areas that are remote from human industrial activities, such as glaciers, is indicative of a...
Article
OBJECTIVE To compare gene expression patterns of T cells in porcine colostrum and peripheral blood. ANIMALS 10 multiparous sows. PROCEDURES Cytotoxic and CD4-CD8 double-positive T cells were separated from porcine colostrum and peripheral blood. Total RNA was extracted. The cDNA prepared from RNA was amplified, labeled, fragmented, and competiti...
Article
It has been suggested that colostrum is important not only for direct protection from pathogens but also for proper development of immune systems in piglets. In this study, we focused on the effect of colostrum ingestion during the first 24 h of life on early postnatal development of piglet immune systems. Thirty-six piglets from five litters were...
Article
Full-text available
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB), namely bifidobacteria and lactobacilli, are dominant members of the gastrointestinal microbiota in a wide range of animals. The LAB have been studied much wider and deeper than other intestinal bacteria mainly due to their host-beneficial health-promoting functions. According to numbers of published results, the LAB seem...
Article
Full-text available
We report the draft genome sequences of Sarcina ventriculi strains 14 and 17, both isolated from feces of wild Yakushima macaques ( Macaca fuscata yakui ). These genomic sequences will be helpful for the phylogenetic consideration of the family Clostridiaceae and understanding of the contribution of intestinal microbiota to the survival of Yakushim...
Article
Full-text available
African rainforest harbors herbivores at high density. However, because plants and soils typically lack in some essential minerals, rainforest is not always a suitable habitat for herbivores. How they fulfill the mineral requirements is therefore an important question to animal ecology and conservation. Although large marshes, called 'bais', are of...
Data
Figure S1. The design of animal experiments. (A) The design of animal experiment 1. (B) The design of animal experiment 2. (C) The design of animal experiment 3.
Article
Full-text available
Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis GCL2505 has been shown to proliferate in the human intestine. The intestinal dynamics and physiological effects of GCL2505 as well as the mechanism underlying proliferation in the gut were investigated. GCL2505 showed markedly higher resistance to free bile acids (cholic and deoxycholic acids) than other bifidob...
Article
Full-text available
Transcriptome analyses were conducted on the ileal mucosa of 14- to 35-day-old piglets to investigate postnatal gut development during suckling and postweaning. The transcriptome profiles of 14-day-old suckling piglets showed a considerably higher number of differentially expressed genes than did those of 21-, 28-, and 35-day olds, indicating an in...
Article
Full-text available
Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Lactobacillus gorillae strain KZ01 T isolated from a western lowland gorilla ( Gorilla gorilla gorilla ). This genome sequence will be helpful for the comparative genomics between human and nonhuman primate-associated Lactobacillus .
Article
Full-text available
Preservation of indigenous gastrointestinal microbiota is deemed to be critical for successful captive breeding of endangered wild animals, yet its biology is poorly understood. Here, we investigated cecal bacterial communities in wild Japanese rock ptarmigans (Lagopus muta japonica) and compared them with those in Svalbard rock ptarmigans (L. m. h...
Article
Intestinal microbiota are characterized by host-specific microorganisms, which have been selected through host-microbe interactions under phylogenetic evolution and transition of feeding behavior by the host. Although many studies have focused on disease-related intestinal microbiota, the origin and evolution of host-specific intestinal microbiota...
Article
Intestinal microbiota are characterized by host-specific microorganisms, which have been selected through host-microbe interactions under phylogenetic evolution and transition of feeding behavior by the host. Although many studies have focused on disease-related intestinal microbiota, the origin and evolution of host-specific intestinal microbiota...
Article
Body weight gain after weaning is correlated with villous height and disaccharidase activity. This evidence suggests that the maintenance of the small intestinal structure and function after weaning is important for the growth of piglets. We demonstrated that the influence of weaning age was obtained by disaccharidase activities and villous height...
Article
Full-text available
Interleukin-12 (IL-12) is an important cytokine for the immunomodulatory effects of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Using murine immune cells, we previously reported that the RNA of Enterococcus faecalis EC-12, a LAB strain exerting probiotic-like beneficial effects, is the major IL-12-inducing immunogenic component. However, it was recently revealed t...
Article
Full-text available
African rainforest harbors herbivores at high density. However, because plants and soils typically lack in some essential minerals, rainforest is not always a suitable habitat for herbivores. How they fulfill the mineral requirements is therefore an important question to animal ecology and conservation. Although large marshes, called 'bais', are of...
Article
Full-text available
Culturing the intestinal bacteria of wild animals is a difficult task under field conditions, although isolation and characterization of bacteria are absolutely necessary to evaluate the transmission of bacteria from human to animal or vice versa. We have developed a protocol for intestinal bacteria culturing from feces of wild animals such as gori...
Article
Full-text available
Intestinal microbiota play an important role in digestion and host’s health. Furthermore, their composition is complex, with large differences between animal species. Intestinal microbiota have been intensively studied in humans, whereas those in animals, especially in the wild, have not been thoroughly studied. In this study, we focused on the int...