Kazeem A Oshikoya

Kazeem A Oshikoya
Lagos State University | LASU · Department of Pharmacology, Therapeutics and Toxicology

MB;BS (Lagos), MSc (Lagos), PhD (Nottingham)

About

115
Publications
87,437
Reads
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2,387
Citations
Citations since 2017
32 Research Items
1436 Citations
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200250
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200250
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200250
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200250
Additional affiliations
July 2008 - November 2013
University of Nottingham
Position
  • PostDoc Position
November 2005 - July 2008
Lagos State University
Position
  • Medical Doctor
December 2001 - present
Lagos University Teaching Hospital
Position
  • Lecturer

Publications

Publications (115)
Chapter
The global trend toward increased acceptability and use of complementary and alternative medicines (CAMs), across all age groups, is well documented in the literature. Consequently, further systematic evaluation and meta-analysis are necessary to evaluate the quality, efficacy, safety, and regulation of these range of therapies by combining all the...
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Advances in technological development are ever increasing at all times; consequently, a rapid increase and changes in digital technology have revolutionized healthcare delivery globally. Digital technologies, which are electronic tools, systems, devices, and resources that generate, store or process data, are known to have impacted health care. The...
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Background and Objective Childhood tuberculosis remains a global public health threat despite being preventable and curable. Childhood tuberculosis prevention using strategies including isoniazid preventive therapy is evidence based and cost effective. This study aimed to determine the isoniazid preventive therapy completion rate and predictors of...
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Glucose‐6‐phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is associated with development of acute hemolytic anemia in the setting of oxidative stress, which can be caused by medication exposure. Regulatory agencies worldwide warn against the use of certain medications in G6PD deficient persons, but in many cases, this information is conflicting, and the...
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Background: Epilepsy is a common paediatric neurologic disorder associated with stigmatisation due to a lack of understanding of the disease and wrong beliefs. Objective: To assess parents’ knowledge about epilepsy, attitude towards the disease and care for the affected child in Lagos, Nigeria. Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study...
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Malnutrition results in a high prevalence of stunting, underweight, and micronutrient deficiencies. This study investigated the effect of a multi-nutrient fortified dairy-based drink on micronutrient status, growth, and cognitive development in malnourished [height-for-age z-score (HAZ) and/or weight-for-age z-score (WAZ) < -1 SD and >−3 SD] Nigeri...
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Purpose: Community pharmacists (CPs) frequently attend to pediatric patients with pain but limited data exist regarding their knowledge of and attitude to effective management of pediatric pain in Nigeria. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the knowledge of and attitude to pediatric pain management among CPs in Nigeria. Patients and methods: A v...
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Introduction: The burden of HIV and tuberculosis co-infection is a global public health challenge. Despite the benefit of isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) in reducing the rate of co-infection, the uptake is generally limited in developing countries. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of IPT use and the factors affecting the uptake among...
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Prevalence of anaemia among Nigerian toddlers is reported to be high, and may cause significant morbidity, affects brain development and function and results in weakness and fatigue. Although, iron fortification can reduce anaemia, yet the effect on gut microbiota is unclear. This open-label randomised study in anemic malnourished Nigerian toddlers...
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Background: There are problems associated with antiretroviral therapy despite its achievement. Poor medication adherence and inability to tolerate large pill burden are major problems facing patients with chronic illnesses. These drug therapy problems are under-studied among people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodefic...
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Objective: To determine the association between genetic variants reported to affect risperidone and adverse events (AEs) in children and adolescents. Methods: Individuals aged 18 years or younger with ≥4 weeks of risperidone exposure in a deidentified DNA biobank were included. The primary outcome was AE frequency as a function of genotype. Indi...
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Background Adequate management of childhood acute asthma exacerbation requires optimal non-pharmacotherapy and pharmacotherapy. Global asthma guidelines provide critical information and serves as a quick reference decision-support material for clinicians.Objectives We aimed at evaluating hospital management of childhood acute asthma exacerbation to...
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Background Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) are severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCARs). There is scant literature on the characteristics and causes of these conditions among the Nigerian population. Here, we describe the epidemiology, associated morbidity and mortality, and culpable drugs in SJS and TEN cases...
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Background: Potential drug-drug interactions (DDIs) are increasingly common in clinical practice, especially among individuals with chronic conditions, such as chronic kidney dysfunction. However, data relating to DDIs among chronically ill patients are limited in Nigeria. We, therefore, investigated the prevalence and pattern of DDIs among patien...
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Background: Self-medication with anti-infective agents is a global public health concern particularly in the developing countries. In this study, the rate and pattern of self-medication with anti-infective agents and effectiveness of an educational intervention programme in reducing the practice were investigated. Method: This was designed as a com...
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Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is rare in sub-Saharan Africa. Five cases in Nigerian children are presented to highlight the occurrence, pattern of clinical presentation and management challenges. The patients were identified following a retrospective review of all diagnosed cases of IBD between 1 January 2011 and 31 December 2018 seen at the Pae...
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Surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis (SAP) prevents incision site infection. We assessed SAP compliance with existing international guidelines, evaluated the appropriateness of the antimicrobial doses, and determined the risk factors for antimicrobial under-dosing. A retrospective chart review was performed for patients who under-went surgery and adm...
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Background Although risperidone is increasingly used for behavioral indications in children, the associated adverse events (AEs) are not well defined in this population. Objective We determined the incidence of and risk factors for AEs among children treated with risperidone at our institution, an academic medical center with inpatient, outpatient...
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Background Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are a source of concern in healthcare as they negatively affect patients. Serious adverse drug reactions (SADRs) have an even greater impact on patients and the system in terms of morbidity and financial burden. The establishment of National Pharmacovigilance Centers (NPCs) has enhanced ADR reporting in Afri...
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Background and aims: Pentazocine remains a widely used opioid pre-anesthetic medication and post-operative analgesic in low- and middle-income countries despite concerns. We assessed the adverse events (AEs) associated with off-label use of pentazocine in pediatric surgical patients and determined the possible risk factors associated with slow resp...
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Birth defects are important causes of neonatal morbidity and mortality. A good understanding of the etiology is a vital step toward developing improved treatment and preventive strategies. We conducted an audit of medical records of newborns with birth abnormalities in a tertiary hospital over a 10‐year period, using a Pro forma designed to collect...
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Background: An important cause of treatment failure to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is the potential interaction between the antiretroviral (ARV) drugs and co-prescribed drugs used concomitantly for the treatment of opportunistic infections and co-morbid ailments in HIV-infected patients. Objectives: The study evaluated potential clinically signifi...
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Background: There are few and conflicting data on the role of cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) polymorphisms in relation to risperidone adverse events (AEs) in children. This study assessed the association between CYP2D6 metabolizer status and risk for risperidone AEs in children. Methods: Children ≤18 years with at least 4 weeks of risperidone expo...
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Background The inappropriate and suboptimal use of analgesic drugs is a global problem, and is an area of concern with regard to the management of postoperative pain, particularly in children. Information relating to the management of postoperative pain in children is generally limited, particularly in low- and middle-income countries, and is unava...
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Objectives Half of prescription drugs commonly given to children lack product labeling on pediatric safety, efficacy, and dosing. Two drugs most widely used off-label in pediatrics are azithromycin and fentanyl. We sought to determine the risk of serious adverse events (SAEs) when oral azithromycin or intravenous/intramuscular fentanyl are used off...
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Aim: We studied sleep patterns, sleep problems and associated socio-demographic factors among children aged 1-12 years in Lagos, Nigeria. Methods: This prospective hospital-based study involved 432 children (55% males) who came for routine paediatric care at the Lagos State University Teaching Hospital. Information on socio-demographics, sleepin...
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Objective: Pharmaceutical companies spend significant amount of resources on promotion influencing the prescribing behavior of physicians. Drug promotion can negatively impact on rational prescribing, which may adversely affect the quality of patient care. However, little is known about these activities in Nigeria as the most populous country in Af...
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Cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes are commonly involved in drug metabolism, and genetic variation in the genes encoding CYPs are associated with variable drug response. While genotype-guided therapy has been clinically implemented in adults, these associations are less well established for pediatric patients. In order to understand the frequency of ped...
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Objectives: There are concerns with inappropriate prescribing of medicines among dentists especially antimicrobials. It is more concerning if this increases resistance rates. This study aimed to address this by assessing patterns of drugs prescribed for outpatients attending a hospital dental clinic in Nigeria. The findings will be used to plan fut...
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Background and aims: Prescribing medicines in an off-label manner for children with chronic conditions is sparsely documented, even more so among developing countries. This needs addressing. The objective was to investigate the extent of this prescribing among children with epilepsy, asthma, and sickle cell anaemia in Nigeria. Methods: Prescript...
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Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) recorded in national pharmacovigilance databases in developed countries have been analyzed. However, adverse reactions to fluoroquinolones were observed globally despite their wide use and safety concerns. We provided information on the pattern of adverse reactions to fluoroquinolones reported spontaneously to the Nati...
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Introduction Growth retardation and under-nutrition are common in children with sickle cell disease (SCD). The aim of this study was to compare the head circumference (HC) of SCD children and non-SCD children and to determine the effect of malnutrition on head circumference of children with SCD. Methods This was a prospective case-control study co...
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Background: Information regarding incidence of drug-drug interactions (DDIs) and adverse drug events (ADEs) among paediatric patients in Nigeria is limited. Methods: Prospective clinical audit among paediatric outpatients in four general hospitals in Nigeria over a 3-month period. ADEs documented in case files extracted. Results: Among 1233 el...
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Background: Medical literature has demonstrated that referral hospitals often receive inadequate information about the care and medications their patients received from referring hospitals. Objectives: This study aimed to assess the completeness of referral letters, especially the medication history, for patient presenting at the children emergency...
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Objectives: Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART); the-current standard of antiretroviral therapy for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infected persons, has been documented to drastically, reduce the number of cases of Acquired Immune Deficiency Sypdrome (AIDS). However, adverse. events are a challenge to the use of HAART. This study inte...
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Background. Optimal pain management in children with sickle cell anaemia (SCA) begins with accurate and thorough pain assessment. However, little or no evidence of this practice exists among SCA patients in developing countries. Objectives. To evaluate pain management in children with SCA during emergency admission. Methods. Children with SCA who w...
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Limited data from pharmacokinetic studies in underweight and severely malnourished children have indicated an impaired activity of their hepatic enzymes. We used the caffeine breath test to assess the metabolising activity of cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) enzyme in underweight children. Underweight children from the paediatric outpatient clinic, Lag...
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Hepatic metabolism of drugs has been rarely studied in children with malnutrition. Caffeine breath test (CBT) has been used to determine the activity of cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) enzymes in children. We used the CBT to assess how marasmus and kwashiorkor differentially affect A total of 45 children composed of 15 children per group of malnutriti...
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The licensing process of medicines aims at ensuring their safety, efficacy and quality. Although many medicines are not licenced for paediatric use, they are nevertheless prescribed for children outside the terms of their product license (off-label). Our main objective was to assess off-label prescribing and to document the level of this practice i...
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Prescribing, adherence, and adverse drug events to HAART in a large antiretroviral programme in Lagos was evaluated. A retrospective 5 year open cohort study. The AIDS Prevention Initiative in Nigeria (APIN) clinic at LUTH is one of the United States Presidential Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEP-FAR) funded centers for HIV relief program in Nige...
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Malnutrition is a global health problem that affects infants and young children. It is frequently associated with infections and commonly affects children in developing countries. Malnutrition is the cellular imbalance between the supply of energy from macronutrients and micronutrients and the demand of the body for them in order to achieve normal...
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Background Hospitals have a role to play in supporting, protecting and promoting breastfeeding. The aim of this study was to describe hospital breastfeeding policy and practices and breastfeeding rates among mothers attending General Paediatric Outpatient Clinic at a tertiary hospital in Lagos, Nigeria. Methods This was a cross-sectional study inv...
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Complementary medicine (CM) use is common among children with chronic illnesses such as epilepsy and asthma. Lack of data on the profile of CM use among children with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection necessitated this study. Parents or caregivers of HIV-infected children attending the paediatric HIV-clinic in a teaching hospital in Lago...
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There is limited knowledge about the associations of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infections in developing countries. This study aimed to determine the current prevalence and associations of H. pylori infection with breastfeeding practices, nutritional status, and recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) in a group of apparently healthy children and adole...
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Multi-therapy is common in HIV-infected children, and the risk for clinically significant drug interactions (CSDIs) is high. We investigated the prevalence of CSDIs between antiretroviral (ARV) and co-prescribed drugs for children attending a large HIV clinic in Lagos, Nigeria. The case files of pediatric patients receiving treatment at the HIV cli...
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Upper arm composition is a reflection of body protein and calorie reserves. However, there is a paucity of data on upper arm composition of children from African countries, including Nigeria. This study aimed to determine the composition of upper arm and nutritional status of school children in Abeokuta, Nigeria and to compare with international re...
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Background: The use of herbal medicines is on the increase globally and they are usually supplied in pharmacies as non-prescription medicines. Pharmacists are, therefore, responsible for educating and informing the consumers about rational use of herbal medicines. Objectives: To evaluate the knowledge of pharmacists in Lagos, Nigeria with regards t...
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The purpose of the study was to compare the safety of artemether-lumefantrine (AL) with other artemisinin-based combinations in children. A search of EMBASE (from 1974 to April 2013), MEDLINE (from 1946 to April 2013) and the Cochrane library of registered controlled trials for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) which compared AL with other artemi...
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The use of herbal medicines is on the increase globally and they are usually supplied in pharmacies as non-prescription medicines. Pharmacists are, therefore, responsible for educating and informing the consumers about rational use of herbal medicines. To evaluate the knowledge of pharmacists in Lagos, Nigeria with regards to the herbal medicines t...
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There is paucity of data on paediatric medicine administration error (MAE) in developing countries. This study aimed to investigate the experience of MAEs among paediatric nurses working in public hospitals in Lagos, Nigeria. A confidential, self-reporting questionnaire was the instrument for the study. Public hospitals in Lagos, Nigeria with estab...
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Drug-drug interactions are an important therapeutic challenge among human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. Early recognition of drug-drug interactions is important, but conflicts do exist among drug compendia on drug interaction information. We aimed to evaluate the consistencies of two drug information resources with regards to the severi...
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Excessive central fat in children and adolescents is a risk factor for cardiovascular and metabolic disorders. This study aimed to compare the body fat distribution patterns of children and adolescents in Abeokuta, Nigeria with international reference standards. Five hundred seventy children aged 5 to 19 years were selected from seven schools using...
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To determine the effect of Casilan(®) on (13)C-caffeine metabolism in healthy Nigerian children. TWELVE HEALTHY NIGERIAN CHILDREN (MALE: six, female: six) aged 3-8 years were studied on three occasions. After an overnight fast, the children were studied after ingesting Casilan(®) only (Week 1). They were restudied after ingesting 3 mg/kg of labeled...
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Background Complementary medicine (CM) use is common among children with chronic illnesses such as epilepsy and asthma. Lack of data on the profile of CM use among children with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection necessitated this study. Methods Parents or caregivers of HIV-infected children attending the paediatric HIV- clinic in a teac...
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Objective Multiple therapies are common in HIV‐infected children on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). These children are at risk for clinically significant drug interactions (CSDIs). While CSDIs are under‐recognized in developed countries, data are lacking for developing African countries. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of CSDIs...
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Objective: Pharmacotherapy during pregnancy, childbirth and lactation is very challenging because only a few medicines have been specifically tested for safety and efficacy during pregnancy. This study aimed to evaluate the pattern of medicines prescribed and their risk categories during pregnancy, childbirth and lactation. Methods: We performed a...
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Background Ulcerative colitis (UC) is uncommon in the tropics and sub-tropics. We report a case of UC in a 7 year old girl whose parents were both Nigerians. This report is to alert healthcare professionals in sub-Saharan Africa that UC is not a rare health problem, especially in children. Case presentation The patient presented with frequent pass...
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Background: The prevalence of overweight and obesity among children is increasing worldwide with significant health and social consequences. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the current nutritional status and its changes between 1983 and 2006 among school children and adolescents in a south western Nigeria town. Methods: five...
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Background: Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) program requires adequate monitoring of the potential adverse events to the antiretroviral (ARV) drugs. We investigated the ARV drug combinations prescribed for HIV- infected children and their suspected adverse events. Methods: This is a retrospective and descriptive study involving HIV- in...
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Over three-quarter of the world's population is using herbal medicines with an increasing trend globally. Herbal medicines may be beneficial but are not completely harmless.This study aimed to assess the extent of use and the general knowledge of the benefits and safety of herbal medicines among urban residents in Lagos, Nigeria. The study involved...
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We determined the prevalence of general and central obesity and their relationship with blood pressure levels among adolescents in Abeokuta, Nigeria. We selected 423 adolescents from seven schools in Abeokuta, Nigeria, using a multistage random-sampling technique. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and blood pressures were measured. Tw...
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Pharmaceutical drug promotion is a means of informing health professionals about new drugs. The approach is often times unethical and inappropriate and may promote irrational prescribing. Dearth of information on impact of pharmaceutical drug promotion on prescribing behaviour of doctors in developing African countries has necessitated this study....
Article
Background: Medicinal plants are used in folk medicine to treat different inflammatory conditions, especially in Nigeria Objective: The aqueous leaf extract of Tridax procumbens was investigated for antipyretic and anti-inflammatory activities. Methods: Four agents were used to induce pyrexia, namely, Klebsiella aeruginosa and turpentine in rabbits...
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Stunting adversely affects the physical and mental outcome of children. The objectives of the study were to determine the prevalence of and risk factors associated with stunting among urban school children and adolescents in Abeokuta, Nigeria. Five hundred and seventy children aged 5-19 years were selected using the multi-stage random-sampling tech...
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Artemesinin combination therapies (ACTs) are first line antimalarial drugs in malaria endemic regions of the world as recommended by the World Health Organization. ACTs are relatively new in Nigeria and there is little experience with their use. The pharmacovigilance of ACT drugs has been advocated in African countries so as to establish their safe...
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There is significant variability of the age at which children achieve dryness. We determine the age at achievement of micturational dryness and attitude of parents about enuresis among urban Nigerian children. A total of 346 questionnaires were administered to parents of children between the ages of 12 - 180 months who came for routine paediatric c...
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Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) may cause prolonged hospital admissions with high treatment costs. The burden of ADRs in children has never been evaluated in Nigeria. The incidence of pediatric ADRs and the estimated cost of treatment over an 18-month period were determined in this study. Prospective observational study on children admitted to the pe...
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Case reports describing suspected adverse events of drugs and medical products are important for post-marketing safety monitoring. Such reports could help identify potential product-associated risks and serve as signals of possible events that may require further studies. They also serve as legal documents and have been used as evidence in "toxic t...
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Promoting safety of medicines for children is a global concern which has prompted the World Health Organization (WHO) to launch a campaign of "Making Medicines Child Size". Children in Nigeria were once victims of unethical clinical medicine trials and repeated victims of use of fake and adulterated medicines. Considering the magnitude of harms chi...
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Recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) is a common presenting symptom in children with sickle cell disease (SCD). This may be as a result of complications of the disease, surgical problems, or Helicobacter pylori gastritis. The prevalence of H pylori infection in SCD children is not known. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and association of H p...