Kaye D Sweetser

Kaye D Sweetser
San Diego State University | SDSU · School of Journalism & Media Studies

PhD

About

59
Publications
38,540
Reads
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4,431
Citations
Citations since 2016
12 Research Items
2121 Citations
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2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250300
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250300
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250300
Additional affiliations
August 2017 - present
San Diego State University
Position
  • Professor
July 2014 - August 2017
San Diego State University
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
August 2010 - May 2014
University of Georgia
Position
  • Professor (Associate)

Publications

Publications (59)
Article
An online survey (N = 220) empirically tested the coorientation of public affairs role expectations between U.S. Marine Corps public affairs practitioners and non-public affairs supervisors in the U.S. Marine Corps. The researchers applied organizational role theory and used a job satisfaction scale to observe the possible relationship between role...
Article
A survey (N = 177) of public relations professionals and C-Suite managers within a global organization provided an empirical test of the Theory of Public Relations Competence (Hazleton, 2006). Results demonstrate the impact of differing levels professional experience for a public relations practitioner. The C-Suite (non-communicator management) vie...
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Using a posttest-only experimental design (N = 648), this study examines framing theory in public relations when applied to media coverage of women in military combat roles. This experiment manipulates the frame of an article by including either a positive or negative tone to test whether the frame valence affects perceptions of the Marine Corps. R...
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This study examined the ability of antecedents such as media diet and candidate traits to impact political organization public relationships (POPRs), in turn affecting views on party reputation. As expected, survey respondents reported greater levels of relationship-focused communication and higher reputation assessments of their own parties, addit...
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This national online survey (N = 493) examined the political organization-public relationship (POPR) that voters perceived with their own political party and their opposing political party, as well as voters’ assessment of the credibility of candidates running for president during the primary season of the 2016 election. Results indicated that alth...
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Information subsidies from military and civilian public relations practitioners receive varying degrees of acceptance by media gatekeepers. Using an experimental design, this study examined organizational affiliation within media gatekeeping. Television news decision-makers were randomly assigned one of five mock live news reports with only the rep...
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Examining McLuhan's (1964) classic adage that the "medium is the message," this experimental design presented participants with the three versions of the same message content. Manipulating medium as an online press release, blog post, or online video, the research here found that medium does play a role in shaping the receiver's perceived relations...
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Using a national sample of first-time voters (N = 1,465), this online survey investigated relationship theory in political public relations. Looking at one’s relationship with both major U.S. political parties during the 2016 U.S. presidential election, this study seeks to determine the level of relationship and variables that might predict it. Res...
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Guided by relationship theory, this study develops and tests abbreviated operational definitions of communicated commitment and conversational voice as communicative strategies in maintaining organization-public relationships (OPRs). Researchers first identified 25 relational maintenance items from 12 prior published studies. Then surveying three i...
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Using a pretest and posttest online experiment (N = 105), this study empirically explored the impact of native advertising sponsorship disclosure on organization–public relationships (OPR), credibility, brand attitude, and attitude toward the advertisement. Credibility and brand attitude predicted the two OPR factors; however, OPR was not affected...
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This study explicates online political activism (OPA); provides a short, reliable, and valid index for measuring OPA; and examines correlates that predict such active publics. A national probability sample of adult American Internet users was surveyed using random digit dialing. The study found OPA is more frequent among older, wealthier, and more...
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Building on political organization-public relationship research, this survey (N = 610) of first-time voters investigates the role of relationship as an independent variable. Relationship contributes to predicting strength of political party affiliation, alongside personality. Weak relationships appear to be a significant indicator among those who a...
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Contributing to the development of digital political public relations scholarship, this study examines the political organization–public relationship cultivated via social media. Using Twitter as a vehicle, this posttest-only experimental design looked at whether interaction with a political organization facilitated a relationship. Furthermore, the...
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This study examines how PR practitioner role enactment and the type of employer where they work affect practitioner motivation to pursue Accreditation in Public Relations (APR). Analysis reveals that there is variance in the motivation to seek APR based on age, gender, years of practice in public relations, enacting a manager vs. technician role, a...
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This study integrates network and content analyses to examine valence-based homophily on Twitter or the tendency for individuals to interact with those expressing similar valence. During the 2012 federal election cycle, we collected Twitter conversations about 10 controversial political topics and mapped their network ties. Using network analysis,...
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As an online experiment with a 2 × 3 factorial design, this study manipulates participants’ (N = 441) exposure to a candidate’s (Barack Obama or Mitt Romney) post-election speech along with additional messages about bipartisanship (supporting bipartisanship, challenging bipartisanship, no message). Results showed main and interaction effects on all...
Article
Focusing on the psychological underpinnings of partisanship, this study asks whether there is a difference in the personality profile for self-described Democrats and Republicans. Using a survey of young voters (N = 610), psychological measures such as the Big Five personality dimensions and locus of control were measured in conjunction with standa...
Article
Using experimental design, this study compares first-time voters' gratifications and uses of a traditional News1 format with the increasingly popular fake news format. The data here found that while indeed young people may have initially assessed a greater level of gratification associated with the fake news genre, the group was significantly "let...
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Long interviews were conducted with university communicators at 2 distant universities with distinct social systems. Participants were drawn to adopt social media mainly by relative advantage, compatibility, and trialability attributes of the innovation. Inductive themes that emerged from the interviews included an emphasis on publics, information...
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This study examines relationships among interpersonal informational trust and openness with Internet-based political activities and attitudes. Conceptually, it proposes the categorization of online spaces and activities as consumption or interaction types, and classifies interpersonal informational trust within inner and outer circles. Interpersona...
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This study investigates the relationship between motivation, leadership and social media use among a sample of public relations practitioners who recently had begun using Twitter to follow Universal Accreditation Board (UAB)-affiliated organizations. A majority of the survey respondents were classified as “everyday users.” A series of Twitter leade...
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Using a telephone survey of randomly selected voters from the general population, the authors sought to understand the interrelatedness of the use of the Internet as a political information source with perception of political participation, political information efficacy, and cynicism. Guided by the uses and gratifications theory and employing the...
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In 2008, U.S. Internet users watched 14 billion videos on YouTube. During the 2008 presidential campaign, voters rated watching YouTube political videos as one of the top three most popular online political activities. But to what degree are YouTube political videos influential of viewers’ perceptions, and to what degree does the source of the vide...
Article
State-controlled media use similar message techniques to target specific publics that counterparts in democratic societies use. We explore talking points (attributes) and themes (frames) through content analysis in state-produced propaganda directed at two different audiences. Domestic and internationally targeted propaganda (N=1491) from Iran rega...
Article
Using a posttest-only experimental design with control (N = 409), this study investigated the role of nondisclosure and its impact on perceived relational maintenance strategies in the context of social media campaigns through the relational theory of public relations. As one of the first studies investigating what an organization can do to damage—...
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Using a traditional coorientation model (Grunig & Hunt, 198417. Grunig , J. E. and Hunt , T. 1984 . Managing public relations , New York : Holt, Rinehart & Winston . View all references; Broom, 19775. Broom , G. M. 1977 . Coorientational measurement of public relations . Public Relations Review , 3 : 110 – 119 . [CrossRef]View all references) compa...
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This survey of nonprofit public relations practitioners (N=409) applied the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT). Findings indicate that women consider social media to be beneficial, whereas men exhibit more confidence in actively utilizing social media. Organizations with specified public relations departments were more likel...
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Using telephone surveys of business/financial journalists in the United States (n = 200), this research investigates the agenda-building role of social media content in journalists’ work. Understanding that more non-public relations content from user-generated and social network sites, like YouTube and Twitter, are fast becoming resources for journ...
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As publics and journalists increasingly turn to social media as sources of information and consumer commentary, the importance of practitioners’ monitoring their organizations’ presence on social media will continue to increase. As a domain where publics have unrestrained voice, social media present interesting challenges to practitioners monitorin...
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Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the perception and adoption of blogs among public relations practitioners and how blog use relates to roles and status. Design/methodology/approach A national e‐mail survey of 216 US public relations professionals was used. Findings While blog use was similar to national audiences, practitioners wer...
Article
This online survey (n=290) analyzed job satisfaction of internship experiences of communication students using the Job Descriptive Index (JDI) and Job in General (JIG) scale. Participants self-reported higher rates of satisfaction among paid internships than either unpaid experiences. Also, results show that when rating job satisfaction, the studen...
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As social media moves from “buzz word” status to strategic tool, more practitioners are developing skills related to this online communication technology. This study surveyed working public relations practitioners about their adoption of 18 social media tools and their perception on the growth of social media trends in public relations practice. Re...
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This study examined the impact of information subsidies on media coverage during a crisis. Using the July 2006 Israel–Lebanon conflict as a backdrop, this research reviewed access that U.S. military public affairs officers provided the media and analyzed subsequent coverage for the presence of the military's message. Coverage was more neutral to po...
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Through content analysis of Facebook wall comments in U.S. House and Senate races during the 2006 midterm election, this study describes young potential voters' comments (quantity, valence, etc.) through the lens of the dialogic communication theory of public relations. Findings indicate that individuals who wrote on candidate walls perceive themse...
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This study examined whether the candidate-controlled public relations tools of political ads and candidate blogs were successful in influencing the issue and news agenda of the major television news networks during the 2004 presidential election. Data showed strong correlations between blogs and the media agenda. Advertisements did not correlate wi...
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This study examines use, credibility, and impact on the communication industry of blogs as seen by professional journalists and public relations practitioners. Informed by the uses and gratifications perspective and using an online survey, the study used factor analysis to reveal simplistic blog use categorizations as being either interactive or no...
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This study tests the effects of personalized and `stealth' political discourse on weblogs (or blogs) and the repercussions on levels of political trust, information efficacy and political uses/gratifications. By surveying readers of three different blogs (N=1838), this study identified significant effects as a result of exposure to political statem...
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This study examines relationships between media use and perceptions of the European Union among samples of young citizens in the United States and Canada. The study found that, while young people in the U.S. and Canada pay limited attention to news coverage of the European Union, respondents who were more familiar with the multi-national body expre...
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Using an experimental design, this study investigated third-person effect and media credibility as a result of media attribution. Specifically, we compared third-person effect across four media sources: personal blogs, media blogs, online news, and print newspaper. Overall, participants exhibited third-person effects equally across the mediums. Thi...
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Public relations practitioners awarded bloggers media credentials in 2004 to the summer presidential nomination conventions. Using the Hayakawa–Lowry bias categories, this quantitative content analysis reviewed sentences posted by credentialed bloggers during the convention to examine blogger reports (attributed, unattributed), inferences (labeled,...
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Using a post-test only experimental design with control group, this study investigated the impact of blogs on relationship management during a crisis. Participants (N = 109) were exposed to a personal blog (n = 45), organizational blog (n = 46), or control (n = 18). Results indicate blogs impact the perception of the level of crisis an organization...
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As journalism educators prepare their students to succeed professionally, whether professional journalists and educators see eye-to-eye on emerging trends that influence current journalism practice is worth examining. A national online survey of journalism professionals and educators found that professionals use blogs significantly more than educat...
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Blogs, Web pages that are frequently updated with posts arranged so the most recent post is at the top of the page, were widely adopted by candidates in the 2004 campaign. These online tools that are popular with young voters, though widely adopted as a “hip” technology, fell short of successfully targeting young voters. This content analysis found...
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While blogs are not yet a standard public relations tool, practitioners use blogs to enhance their power within their organizations. Using an online survey of public relations practitioners, this pilot test examined the relationship between power and blog use. Three factored categorizations of blog use among practitioners emerged: routine informati...
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An advancement in online campaigning during the 2004 election cycle was the integration of blogs in candidate Web sites. This content analysis investigated the political public relations message strategy on campaign blogs during the 2004 election, focusing on attacks as a part of Functional Theory of Political Campaign Discourse. Results indicated...
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While researchers are increasingly interested in understanding the social context of weblogs, or blogs, most existing studies rely on analysis of English-language content. This study is a quantitative content analysis of Polish blogs (N=358) aimed at understanding the content elements and user-initiated features, such as hyperlinks, of blogs under...
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Political candidates have responded to the public's desire to use the Internet as an in-teractive information source by creating their own online presence. This study is a content analysis of the Web sites and blogs of the 10 Americans vying to be the Demo-cratic candidate for the 2004 presidential election. Focusing on interactivity, data in-dicat...
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In light of increasing media coverage and national debate of a discipline called Intelligent Design (ID), this study content analyzed 575 articles from major newspapers on this topic. Researchers drew articles from the LexisNexis® database and coded them for the presence of certain portrayal, and scientifically certain versus uncertain portrayal, a...
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This study investigated impression management tactics and self-presentation on popular A-list blogs. Building on Goffman's constructs of self-presentation and operationalizing impression management strategies, this study content analyzed the most-linked-to blogs. A-list bloggers reveal more information about themselves than other bloggers and activ...
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Candidate e-mail messages play an increasing role in online, candidate-controlled media. E-mail messages allow candidates to directly contact voters, serving as political marketing tools. This study content analyzed the universe of campaign e-mail messages (N = 78) from the Bush and Kerry campaigns during the general cycle of the 2004 presidential...
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This study examined the immediate coverage of the 2003 Iraq War on the home pages of 246 international news Web sites. The results show that most of these online publications provided coverage and made Gulf War II their top story only hours after the war began. However, foreign news sites framed the war differently than U.S. sites. Domestic news si...
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This study focuses on the online campaigning of presidential candidates during the 2004 US presidential campaign. A random sample of the front pages of the websites and weblogs (“blogs”) of George W. Bush and John Kerry was collected between Labor Day and Election Day 2004. These pages were analyzed in order to examine both candidate blogs and webs...
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Political candidates face the endless challenge of finding ways to communicate directly, substantively, and persuasively to the voting public. Growing numbers of candidates are offering electronic newsletters (candidate campaign e-mail messages) as political marketing instruments. This study content analyzed the candidate campaign email messages (N...

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