Katina Michael

Katina Michael
Arizona State University | ASU · School for the Future of Innovation in Society

PhD, MTransCrimePrev, BIT

About

401
Publications
69,189
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4,329
Citations
Citations since 2017
81 Research Items
2280 Citations
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Introduction
Katina Michael is a professor in the School of Computing and Information Technology at the University of Wollongong. She is the IEEE Technology and Society Magazine editor-in-chief and also serves as a senior editor of IEEE Consumer Electronics Magazine. Michael researches on the socio-ethical implications of emerging technologies, such as the microchipping of humans for augmented control, convenience and care-centric applications.
Additional affiliations
January 2016 - present
University of Wollongong
Position
  • Professor
Description
  • Associate Dean - International
January 2010 - August 2015
University of Wollongong
Position
  • Professor (Associate)

Publications

Publications (401)
Article
The COVID-19 global pandemic outbreak meant a complete reevaluation of societal interactions, business processes, and government policies. For decades, the scientific and technical communities had contemplated the possibility of an all-out air-borne virus and had postulated how technology might be used in response, for example, in the reduction of...
Article
A conversation between Nishan Chelvachandran, founder of Iron Lakes and chair of IEEE SA’s Trustworthy Technological Implementations of Children’s Online and Offline Experiences Industry Connections Programme, and Katina Michael, director of the Society Policy Engineering Collective in the College of Global Futures at Arizona State University.
Article
Full-text available
Data breaches have become a formidable challenge for business operations in the twenty-first century. The emergence of big data in the ever-growing digital economy has created the necessity to secure critical organizational information. The lack of cybersecurity awareness exposes organizations to potential cyber threats. Thus, this research aims to...
Article
bold xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink">Dementia is an encompassing term used to define a series of “neurological conditions, of which the major symptom includes a global decline in brain function” [17] . Alzheimer’s Disease International [6] reports that every three seconds, one person wo...
Article
In March 2018, the death of Elaine Herzberg, Tempe, AZ, USA, caused by an autonomous Uber vehicle (with a training driver behind the wheel) made headlines [1] . Uber responded by suspending its self-driving program in Phoenix, San Francisco, Pittsburgh, and Toronto. The complexity around determining liability for that fatal accident demonstrates...
Article
bold xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink">In the book titled Capitalism and the Enchanted Screen: Myths and Allegories in the Digital Age , Aleks Wansbrough takes us on a journey of myths and allegories in the digital age. He not only provides an avenue for us to comprehend how screens are cha...
Article
The dawn of electronic business (e-business) changed the way that individuals interact not only with one another but also with the companies that supply them with goods and services, as well as with the government agencies on which they depend for welfare and security. We can speak of “digital business” as the (re)design or (re)definition of new or...
Article
This article introduces algorithmic bias in machine learning (ML) based marketing models. Although the dramatic growth of algorithmic decision making continues to gain momentum in marketing, research in this stream is still inadequate despite the devastating, asymmetric and oppressive impacts of algorithmic bias on various customer groups. To fill...
Article
The UN COP26 2021 conference on climate change offers the chance for world leaders to take action and make urgent and meaningful commitments to reducing emissions and limit global temperatures to 1.5 • C above pre-industrial levels by 2050. Whilst the political aspects and subsequent ramifications of these fundamental and critical decisions cannot...
Article
While humans share many physical characteristics, they are not replicas of one another in appearance. Despite their uniqueness, common features mean that comparisons can be made. The ability to identify someone by face has been one of the most fundamental ways that humans have connected with each other as distinct persons [1] . Recognizing someon...
Article
Full-text available
This study explores digital business transformation through the lens of four emerging technology fields: artificial intelligence, blockchain, cloud and data analytics (i.e., ABCD). Specifically, the study investigates the operations and value propositions of these distinct but increasingly converging technologies. Due to the dynamic nature of innov...
Article
This special issue (in cooperation with the IEEE Technology and Society Magazine , December 2021) is dedicated to examining the governance of artificial intelligence (AI) through soft law. This kind of law is considered “soft” as opposed to “hard” because it comes in the form of governance programs whose goal is to create substantive expectations...
Article
bold xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink">This special issue published in cooperation with IEEE Transactions on Technology and Society (December 2021) is dedicated to examining the governance of artificial intelligence (AI) through soft law. These programs are characterized by the creation of...
Article
Full-text available
Research on AI has gained momentum in recent years. Many scholars and practitioners increasingly highlight the dark sides of AI, particularly related to algorithm bias. This study elucidates situations in which AI-enabled analytics systems make biased decisions against customers based on gender, race, religion, age, nationality or socioeconomic sta...
Article
This special issue is dedicated to several themes encompassing techno-economics and socio-technical innovation as related to public interest technology (PIT). The techno-economic paradigm underpins the innovation-based theory of economic and societal development [item 1) in the Appendix]. In the June edition of the IEEE Transactions on Technology a...
Article
Full-text available
This special issue is dedicated to the theme of public interest technology (PIT) [1] . PIT acknowledges that technological potential can be harnessed to satisfy the needs of civil society. In other words, technology can be seen as a public good that can benefit all, through an open democratic system of governance, with open data initiatives, open...
Article
There are many domains of human endeavor which invoke the “public interest,” for example, environmental sustainability, law, journalism, and, perhaps most pointedly in 2020–2021, health. All of these domains require some sort of tradeoff between different and potentially competing stakeholder priorities. For example, public interest in environmenta...
Article
Data-driven innovation (DDI) gains its prominence due to its potential to transform innovation in the age of AI. Digital giants Amazon, Alibaba, Google, Apple, and Facebook, enjoy sustainable competitive advantages from DDI. However, little is known about algorithmic biases that may present in the DDI process, and result in unjust, unfair, or preju...
Article
French political and social scientist, Ellul [1, pp. 52–60] explained that in prehistoric times, invention was a necessity, a movement to ensure humans could survive the elements. By the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, he noticed an obvious shift in the reason for invention: from necessity to that of the special interest of the state. By...
Article
Full-text available
The articles in this special section focus on leading research addressing COVID-19 Consumer technology solutions. Consumer technologies need to be developed for health and wellbeing during COVID-19 pandemic, that are closely tied to the ground realities, with interdisciplinary expertise of academicians and industry professionals including scientist...
Article
Smart infrastructure and systems are being rolled out without commensurate technology impact assessments and stakeholder consultations. Consequentially, the benefits of innovation are potentially being concentrated to only a privileged parcel of the population and, whether unintended or not, this may create systems of oppression against minorities....
Article
Young people's digital lives are bigger than they have ever been. This means that realizing young people's rights now requires a concerted focus on the digital world as well. Terms and Conditions (from Cookies Policies to Terms of Service) are an important part of young people's digital worlds because they set the ‘rules of engagement’ between digi...
Article
Presents changes to the editorial staff for this publication.
Article
Spontaneity makes life worth living. If we had all the answers to every question and could accurately predict the result of our actions and choices before embarking on a particular path into the future, human life would be substantially different—some might even say boring. The fact that we must strive through things ourselves, make mistakes, and l...
Article
Full-text available
Assistive Technologies (ATs) are designed to enhance the quality of life of people living with disabilities. The integration of these technologies with the home or work environment are often combined with a variety of processes, services and other devices. Assistive Technologies have also been imperative in addressing some of the physical limitatio...
Article
There seems to be no end to the development of principles and guidelines in the artificial intelligence/autonomous systems (AI/AS) discipline. Institutes, corporations, governments, each with their imperatives, are rushing to make claims about their practices. In fact, what we have today is a plethora of idealistic design principles that draw from...
Article
As the COVID-19 pandemic has gripped nation states around the world, technological fixes based on smartphone solutions have been proposed as a means to mitigate the risk posed to humans, prevent further economic loss, and overcome societal and business challenges. This article provides an account of the learning from Singapore and Australian implem...
Article
The focus of this paper is on examining the role of Google and Apple in proposed smartphone-centric contact tracing capabilities in response to the novel coronavirus COVID-19.
Article
As our first issue of the Transactions went to publication, the COVID19 crisis fully gripped the globe. While this was not the first time that such a disease had threatened to keep the world at gridlock, very few of us could have imagined the full extent of the socio-economic impacts of a dynamic global pandemic zoonoses. In recent history, we can...
Preprint
Full-text available
Authors are invited to submit papers for a Special Section on “Consumer Technology-Based Diagnostic, Treatment and Preventive Solutions for COVID-19” in the IEEE Consumer Electronics Magazine (MCE) that will provide a comprehensive review on fundamentals, the current state-of-the-art, and future solutions. Consumer technologies for sustained health...
Article
Full-text available
Urban dwellers are increasingly dependent on technological systems to supply goods and services essential for their way of life. Such dependence incurs vulnerability in situations when these goods and services are not available. The systems supplying these essentials are known to have many loci of failure. We consider the exposure of a technologica...
Article
Technological progress is widely recognized as having considerable impact on human societies, which have become more and more dependent on human-made tools that entail intricate scientific processes, considered technology [item 1) in the Related Works]. The adoption of such tools is borne out of the necessity of survival at first [item 2) in the...
Chapter
This chapter provides a single person case study of Mr. Dan DeFilippi who was arrested for credit card fraud by the US Secret Service in December 2004. The chapter delves into the psychology of a cybercriminal and the inner workings of credit card fraud. A background context of credit card fraud is presented to frame the primary interview. A sectio...
Article
This book is an ambitious collection of well-organized reflections that attempts to explore the technology and morality of twelve science fiction movies. It is intriguing that author has chosen to take away significant positive learnings from cult classics such as Minority Report that would otherwise be considered as backdrops for a dystopian futur...
Article
Full-text available
Members of the public are making substantial contributions to science as citizen scientists, and advances in technologies have enabled citizens to make even more substantial contributions. Technologies that allow computers and machines to function in an intelligent manner, often referred to as artificial intelligence (AI), are now being applied in...
Article
The articles in this special section were presented at the 2018 IEEE International Symposium on Technology and Society that was held in Washington, D.C.
Article
Presents an interview conducted with Andreas Sjostrom, vice president and chief technology officer at Sogeti and Capgemini Scandinavia.
Article
Full-text available
Facebook is the most pervasive social network in the world. While, we would commonly expect everyone who has access to the Internet to use Facebook, some people have chosen not to join or to opt-out of its services. This qualitative study is an effort to understand the justifications that drive their decision. Based on in-depth semi-structured inte...
Article
Australia and New Zealand have enacted new laws in 2018 that give border agents the right to demand that travelers entering these countries hand over passwords for their digital devices. This most recent development contributes to a global trend toward the unwarranted search and seizure of devices, raising critical questions about individual privac...
Article
Full-text available
The so-called fourth industrial revolution and its economic and societal implications are no longer solely an academic concern, but a matter for political as well as public debate. Characterized as the convergence of robotics, AI, autonomous systems and information technology – or cyberphysical systems – the fourth industrial revolution was the foc...
Article
Full-text available
This paper explores the design process of robotics and autonomous systems using a co-design approach, applied ethics, and values-driven methods. Specifically, the approach seeks to move beyond traditional risk assessment toward a greater consideration of end-user exposure. The goal of the ethics-based co-design approach is to identify end-user and...
Article
The following is a continuation of the interview "Brain Pacemakers in Consumer Medical Electronics Improve Quality of Life," published in the July 2018 issue of IEEE Consumer Electronics Magazine. It spotlights Gary Olhoeft, who, in 2009, had a deep-brain stimulation (DBS) device implanted to help him combat Parkinson's disease. Dr. Olhoeft is a re...
Article
I recently (8 September 2017) had the pleasure of speaking with Gary Olhoeft, who, in 2009, had a deep-brain stimulation (DBS) device implanted to help him combat Parkinson's disease. Dr. Olhoeft is a retired emeritus professor of geophysics at the Colorado School of Mines, Golden. He previously taught a number of subjects related to advanced elect...
Chapter
This chapter presents a set of scenarios involving the GoPro wearable Point of View (PoV) camera. The scenarios are meant to stimulate discussion about acceptable usage contexts with a focus on security and privacy. The chapter provides a wide array of examples of how overt wearable technologies are perceived and how they might/might not be welcome...
Article
The articles in this special section focus on the social implications of robotics and artificial intelligence. From lifelike androids to virtual assistants, industrial machines to drones, today’s robot creations, including those in automation, are used to perform any number of specific tasks. These undertakings are repetitive in nature and suggest...
Article
The articles in this special section is a collaborative effort with IEEE Technology and Society Magazine (T&S) (the March 2018 issue). This means that members of each Society will gain electronic access to one another’s publications for this issue only. Please take the time to explore international author findings from each of the magazines and com...
Data
The ISTAS'13 IEEE International Symposium on Technology and Society ' Smart World: Peoples As Sensors ' event drew hundreds of delegates from around the world to a three day event at the University of Toronto on June 27­29, 2013. Engineers, academics, science fiction writers, educators, students, journalists and seemingly most of the Canadian techn...
Article
Reports on microchip implants for non-medical use from 2013 to the present time.
Article
Back in 1998, I remember receiving my first second-generation (2G) mobile assignment at telecommunications vendor Nortel: a bid for Hutchison in Australia, a small alternate operator. At that time, I had already grown accustomed to modeling network traffic on traditional voice networks and was beginning to look at the impact of the Internet on data...
Article
In 2015, I provided evidence at an Australian inquiry into the use of subsection 313(3) of the Telecommunications Act of 1997 by government agencies to disrupt the operation of illegal online services [1]. I stated to the Standing Committee on Infrastructure and Communications that mandatory metadata retention laws meant blanket coverage surveillan...
Article
Every year, coastal mega-cities situated in developing nations suffer severe losses associated with flood hazards. In response to this problem, these cities often rely on engineering interventions or structural measures, which typically necessitate an informed management of hydrological infrastructure assets such as waterways or drainage channels,...
Article
Presents the introductory editorial for this issue of the publication.
Article
One of the greatest judging experiences I have had the good fortune of being a part of was for the Near-Field Communication (NFC) Forum Innovation Award in its inaugural year [1]. (I was representing the IEEE Council on Radio-Frequency Identification.) The NFC Forum's (www.nfc-forum.org) mission is to advance the use of NFC technology by developing...
Article
Electronic employee identification (ID) has transformed the workplace. Handheld tokens, such as contactless smartcards and wearable clip-on infrared badges, are now fundamental to security practices across the globe. Medium-to-large organizations continually stress the importance of employees carrying their staff cards at all times and displaying t...
Article
The articles in this special issue focus on implications of the military-industrial complex from an technological, societal, military, and economic perspective. Presents the views of Norbert Wiener who became increasingly wary of the militarization of science after World War II. Also presents ethical considerations with the development of new milit...
Article
Presents the introductory editorial for this issue of the publication.
Article
This book offers a grand overview of the extravagant hopes and dire warnings that accompany the arrival of powerful new technologies. Blending the key ideas of classic and contemporary thinkers, the author explores the aspirations of those who strive for the heavens of artifice and those who find the whole enterprise a fool's errand. This is the mo...
Article
Urban dwellers are increasingly vulnerable to failures of technological systems that supply them with goods and services. Extant techniques for the analysis of those technological systems, although valuable, do not adequately quantify particular vulnerabilities. This study explores the significance of weaknesses within technological systems and pro...
Article
Born Timothy Ware in Bath, Somerset, England, Metropolitan Kallistos was educated at Westminster School (to which he had won a scholarship) and Magdalen College, Oxford, where he took a Double First in Classics as well as reading Theology. In 1966 Kallistos became a lecturer at the University of Oxford, teaching Eastern Orthodox Studies, a position...
Article
The articles in this special section focus on the socialogical/ethical implications of deploying implantable tecnologies for military use.
Article
Discusses the work done by Greg Adamson to launch and create a New South Wales Chapter of the SSIT in Australia.
Chapter
Location-Based Services (LBS) provide value-added solutions to users based on location or position information and other contextual data. They enable the collection of GPS data logs or location chronicles, and may be deployed on a range of devices, many of which presently come in the form of commercially available product solutions with correspondi...
Chapter
This chapter presents a set of scenarios involving the GoPro wearable Point of View (PoV) camera. The scenarios are meant to stimulate discussion about acceptable usage contexts with a focus on security and privacy. The chapter provides a wide array of examples of how overt wearable technologies are perceived and how they might/might not be welcome...
Article
In November 2015, as editors, we started sorting through submissions for a special collection of articles examining the paradox of technological potential. Separately, we published a call to the public at large, asking “What comes to mind, when you think about technology, and unintended consequences?” Then using a smart phone, we documented handwri...
Article
Presents the introductory editorial for this issue of the publication.
Article
Hal 9000 kills one astronaut and tries to kill another in 2001: A Space Odyssey; Ava in Ex Machina expertly manipulates the humans she meets to try and escape her cell; the T-800 is known as The Terminator for obvious reasons.
Chapter
This chapter provides a single person case study of Mr. Dan DeFilippi who was arrested for credit card fraud by the US Secret Service in December 2004. The chapter delves into the psychology of a cybercriminal and the inner workings of credit card fraud. A background context of credit card fraud is presented to frame the primary interview. A sectio...
Article
We are rapidly entering the uncharted and precarious terrain of an interconnected world of pervasive technologies. There will be amalgamations of networks. Machines, connected to networks of other machines, will act more autonomously and make decisions for humans. Devices will continue to be far more intelligent and ubiquitous, thereby thinking and...
Article
In this paper, articles are found on the implications of rapidly advancing technology on government, organizations, privacy, and autonomy. It begins with an interview with Douglas Rushkoff, one of the founding fathers of the study of technological paradox. In this conversation with Ramona Pringle, Rushkoff explains how he not-so secretly hopes for...
Article
Presents the introductory editorial for this issue of the publication.
Article
In today's postmodern Western world, there is a greater propensity toward consumerism. Mass-market production coupled with international trade means that you can buy just about anything made anywhere with the simple click of a mouse. Not only are we seeing the commoditization of things (i.e., material objects), but also businesses and industries ar...
Article
Biometrics are the unique characteristics of the individual that differentiate him or her from any other person. Down and Sands [1] explained that the physiological characteristics refer to the inherited traits that are shaped in the early embryonic stages of the human development. Physical biometrics include, among other things, DNA, fingerprints,...
Article
Katina Michael interviews Amal Graafstra [1] about his forthcoming initiative MyUki.com (pronounced /yoo kee/) (Figure 1). UKI is an implantable near-field communication (NFC) platform for identity, security, cryptography, and payment applications. Graafstra is the entrepreneur who started Dangerous Things. com in 2013 (Figure 2), and, in this inte...
Article
Presents the introductory editorial for this issue of the publication.
Article
Wearable devices with independent computing and networking capabilities change the proximity of people and visual information to self-presentation and self-perception. This article examines the disruptive effect that wearable technologies like the Digital Eye Glass present in documenting and representing the self in a surveillant world. We look at...
Article
Presents the introductory editorial for this issue of the publication.
Article
What is it with us today? We are giving over control to the machine and losing touch with the physical world around us [1]. We are witnessing the decay of our meaningful relationships?sucked into electronic vectors of nothingness?right before our very eyes [2]. Sometimes we are at a loss to describe this phenomenon, reflecting on how members of our...
Article
If you were born before 1985, then there is a good chance you watched Looney Tunes on a Saturday morning and followed the exploits of the Elmer Fudd, Bugs Bunny, and Daffy Duck hunting episodes with anticipation but no element of surprise. Poor old Daffy Duck, at times disguised as a rabbit, just couldn't outwit Bugs during rabbit season! And Elmer...
Article
The ?Internet of Things? mantra promotes the potential for the interconnectedness of everyone and everything [1]. The fundamental premise is that embedded sensors (including audio and image) will herald in an age of convenience, security, and quick response [2]. We have become so oblivious to the presence and placement of sensors in civil infrastru...
Article
Presents the introductory editorial for this issue of the publication.

Questions

Questions (2)
Question
Have you ever thought about what it might be like to implant intelligent devices, not just wear them? Do you think there is a difference? If so, what? We have also developed a taxonomy of implantable device applications that do not just consider the medical space for therapeutics (re: governed by the Therapeutic Goods Administration TGA). Interestingly, in Australia at least, implantables for non-therapeutic applications do not really require stringent regulations but do need to address issues raised by the Trade Practices Act (TPA). So what if developers in the future, or even social networking organisations, or large search engine providers, decide to launch implantable ID products for convenience solutions (like implantables for access control, or implantable for prison inmates that restrict movement in a jail to specific areas). For those of you interested in these socio-ethical questions, you might find the following TEDx talk I delivered on possible future scenarios of interest.
Question
First came the ENIAC- a large computer that filled a room in 1946 at the University of Pennsylvania. Then vacuum tubes were replaced by transistors, and transistors by microchips. Then the desktop revolution...
First came the ipod, then the iphone, then the ipad- what will be the next big 'i'? Will it be the iplant? The internet-enabled microchip implant which renders all passwords obsolete?
You might find this TEDx talk stimulating in consider what the future possibilities might be for implantables.

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Projects

Projects (4)
Project
Focus on counter-terrorism legal measures
Project
Completion by mid 2018. Focus on the socio-ethical implications of body worn camera technologies, Connecting with like-minded researchers and projects.
Project
In this project, we look at the impact of emerging technologies and concepts such as: 3D printing, social media, blockchain on firm, inter-firms and society.